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Full text of "Annual Report Of The Archaeological Survey Of India 1924 1925"

UN EVEN ORDER NUMBERS 



THE BOOK WAS 
DRENCHED 



u< OU_158171>m 

^ CD 



ANNUAL REPORT 



OF THE 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY 
OF INDIA 

I9Z4-25 



J F BLAKISTON 

Offtaalai- />irn/o, CvnrJ of Inlueotjgu m India 




CALCUTTA: GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 

CENTRAL PUBLICATION BRANCH 

1927 

P/Vf /}< JC-i'J ,>, //s tf.l. 




Government o* India Publications are obtainable from the Government 
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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



FAOE. 
SECTION I. CONSERVATION 

INTRODUCTORY ............. 1 

NORTHERN CIRCLE (Muhammadan and British Monuments} - 
United Provinces 

Agra . . 2 

Sikandra ...... ... 3 

Fathpur Sikn . . . .... 4 

Jagner ... ... 5 

Lucknow ...... ... .5 

Jaunpur ....... .... .6 

Benares ...... .... 6 

Etawah . . .6 

Sardhana .... .... 6 

Gardens .... . 6 

Miscellaneous ... . ..... 7 

Delhi Province 

Delhi . ... 7 

Gardens 10 

NORTHERN CIRCLE (Hindu and Buddhist Monuments) 

Punjab 

Baijnath .... 11 

Suraj Kund .... U 

United Provinces 

Dwarahat 12 

Garhwa .... 13 

Bilsar 13 

Kasia 13 

Sarnath - - - ] * 

FRONTIER CIRCLE (Muhammadan and British Monuments) 
Punjab 

Lahore Foft .... .15 

Sh&lamar Gardens ... 16 

Gulabi Bagh Gateway .16 

Buddhu's Tomb . 16 

Asaf Khan'a Tomb .... 16 

North- West Frontier Province 

Takht-i-Balii ' ... 16 



SECTION L- CONSERVATION contd. PAGE. 

m WESTEKX CIRCLE 

Bombay Presidency and Sind - 

Elephanta .... , . ... 17 

Karla . .... 17 

ShanwarWada 18 

Nanaghat ... . 18 

Sivneri .... ... 18 

Sarnal 19 

Ahmednagar 19 

Jaigarh 19 

Mohenjo-daro 20 

Bijapur 20 

Badami 21 

Pattadkal and Aihole 21 

Bhatkal 21 

Sholapur 21 

Ankai 21 

Pratabgarh . 22 

Ahmedabad 22 

Mahmudabad 22 

Hyderabad (Sind) 22 

Naokot 22 

CENTRAL CIRCLE 

Bihar and Orissa 

Nalanda 23 

Bajgir 28 

Colgong 2t> 

Palamau ........ 29 

Bhuvanesvar 29 

Khandagiri and Udaigiri 30 

Konarak 8 

Cuttack 8 1 

Central ProviDoes 

Sirpur 3 1 

Chanda 31 

Balepur 32 

Markandi 32 

Akola 33 

Kharod 33 

Janjgir 33 

Billiari 3 * 

Buihanpur < 34: 

Asirgarh 35 



SECTION ICONSERVATION mf<7. PAGE. 

EASTERN CIRCLE 

Bengal 

Raghurampur ............. 36 

Sabhar .............. 37 

Vishnupur ............. 37 

Bahulara .............. 37 

Kenduh .............. 37 

Deopaia .............. 37 

Kusumba ............. 37 

Gaur .............. 37 

Gaurangapur ............. 38 

Kheraul .............. 38 

Dacca .............. 38 

Kampal .............. 38 

Masjidpur ............. 38 

Assam 

Garligaon ............. 38 

Sibsagar ............. 39 

Kasomari Pathar ............ 39 

SOUTHERN CIRCLE 
Madras Presidency 

Motupalle ............ 39 

Masulipatam ............. 39 

Bezwada .............. 39 

Udayagin ........ ..... 39 

Gooty .............. 40 

Hampi .............. 40 

Mahabalipurara .... ...... 40 

Sadras . . ........... 40 

Salem .............. 40 

Gmgee ............. 41 

Vellore .............. 41 

West Coast ............ 41 

Anjengo ......... ... 41 

Coorg .............. 41 

BURMA CIRCLE 

Pagan . * ............. 41 

Mandalay ............. 44 

Amarapura ............. 44 

Sagaing and Pegu ............ 44 

Myohaung ... ..... . . . 44 



RAJPUTANA AMD CIKVR&L INUJA-- t 

Ajraer ..... ........ 46. 



IV 

SECTION I. CONSERVATION *>nft2. 1>AGB - 

, INDIAN STATES 
Jaipur 

Amber .... 45 

Chhatarpur and Dhar 

Khajuraho 46 

Mandu 46 

SECTION II EXPLORATION AND RESEARCH 

NORTHERN CIRCLE (Hindu and Buddhist Monuments) 
Punjab 

Taxila 46 

Chaitru M 

FRONTIER CIRCLE 
North- West Frontier Province 

QasimKale 5I 

Baluchistan 5l 

Lum Mound near Sibi 62 

Three mounds near Kuchlak 52 

Mound at Saranan ^ 

But Kalan, Mastung 64 

Safaid Bulandi Mound near Mastung 54 

Sampur Mound, Mastung ^ 

The prehistoric civilization of the Indus 60 

WESTERN CIRCLE 
Sind 

Mohenjo-daro .63 

NORTHERN CIRCLE (Hindu and Buddhist Monuments) 
Punjab 

Harappa 73 

^WESTERN CIRCLE 
Bombay 

Vaghli 80 

Deolana 81 

CENTRAL CIRCLE 
Bihar and Orissa 

Nalanda - S2 

Kharaghpur Hills near Paharpur 86 

EASTERN CIRCLE 

Bengal 

Bangpur District ... 86 

Defensive works in N. R. Bengal .87 

Dariyaon 88 

Kanta Duar .... 89 

Debipur 80 

Fort at Bafa Beel 90 

Bara-dargah 90 



SECTION II. EXPLORATION AND KESEABOH-oe>n^. PAGE. 

EASTERN CIRCLE contd. 

Bengal contd. * 

Rangpur District contd. 

Baghduar 90 

Maheshpur 90 

The Great Wall 90 

Cooch Bihar State 

Gosanirnan 91 

Dacca District 

Mosque of Kartalab Khan 92 

Murshidabad District 

The Katra Masjid of Murshidabad . 92 

Mughal Water forts 

Fort at Idrakpur .... .93 

Fort at Sonakanda 93 

Fort at Khizrpur 94 

Assam 

Pre-Ahom Art and Architecture 94 

Darrang District 

Tezpur 94 

A Saiva temple of the tenth century 95 

A temple of the Sun 96 

DahParbatiya 98 

Bamuni Hill 100 

Bishnath 100 

Sibsagar District 

Nignting 100 

Kamrup District 

Kamakhya 100 

Umananda 101 

N. E. Frontier Tract 

Sadiya 101 

Neolithic implements from the Abor country 102 

SOUTHERN CIRCLE 
Madras Presidency 
Mahabahpurarn ,......- 102 

BURMA CIRCLE 

Hmawza 106 

Sagaing 109 

Tada-U 109 

Pagan - UO 

INDIAN MUSEUM (Superintendent, Arcbwological Section) 
Mayurbhanj State 

Khiching 131 

Bengal 
Sultanganj . 113 



SECTION III. EPIGRAPHY 
SANSKRIT EPIGRAPHY 

Decipherment of inscriptions 114 

Publications 116 

Progress in the publication of South Indian Inscriptions (Texts) . . . .118 
Tour in connection with the publication of the Epigraphia Indioa and the South 

Indian Inscriptions (Texts) 118 

FRONTIER CIRCLE 119 

NORTHERN CIRCLE . H9 

CENTRAL CIRCLE . no 

WESTERN CIRCLK 119 

SOUTHERN CIRCLE 120 

BURMA CIRCLE 121 

MOSLEM EPIGRAPHY 122 

SECTION IV MUSEUMS- - 

Indian Museum, Calcutta .... 125 

Delhi Mustiun' 132 

Peshawar Museum ............. 134 

Sarnath Museum 135 

Nalanda .Museum ............. 135 

Museums in Burma 136 

SECTION V OFFICERS ON SPECIAL DTJT* 

Sir Aurel Stem's work .......... . 137 

Mr F H. Andrews's work .138 

SECTION VI ---ARCHAEOLOGICAL CHEMIST 

Recipes for the cleaning of copper, bronze and silver objects .... 141 

Paraffin paste treatment for the preservation of decaying stone 141 

SECTION VII.- TREASURE TROVE- 
NORTHERN CIRCLE 

United Provinces ....... .... 142 

FRONTIER CIRCLE- 

North-West Frontier Province . . 143 

Punjab . ... .... .143 

WESTERN CIRCLE-- 

Bombay Presidency . ... 143 

CENTRAL CIRCLE- 

Bihar and Orissa .... 144 

EASTERN CIRCLE- * 

Assam . 145 

SECTION VUL- -MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 

Third Central Asian Expedition by Sir Aurel Stem, K.C.I.E., Ph.l>., Litt D., D So. . 145 
A Mathura image of the Naga Dadhikarnna of the Kuuh.an period by Rai Bahadur Daya 

Ram Sahni, M.A 149 

Three unidentified Graeco- Buddhist reliefs by Mr. II. Hargreaves .... 150 



Vll 

^SECTION VIE MISCELLANEOUS NOTBS contd. PAOJB. 



An ancient slate quarry in the Monghyr District, Bihar, by Mr. J. A. Page, A.R.LB.A. 152 

Mediaeval images in the Eastern Circle by Mr. R. I). Banorji, M.A. .... 154 

Note on an Ahom stone pillar inscription by Mr. K. N. Dikshit, M.A 157 

Some Andhra coins from the Guntur District by Mr. C. R. Krishnamacharlu . . 158 

-SECTION IX. INDIAN STATES WITH ARCHJEOLOGICAL DEPARTMENTS OF THEIR OWN 

Hyderabad (Deccan) 

Conservation 161 

Kashmir 

Exploration 162 

Publications 162 

Gwalior 

Conservation ......... ... 163 

Exploration 165 

Epigraphy . . . . . . . - . . . .367 

Numismatics ............. 168 

Archaeological Museum . . . . . . - . . .169 

Bhopal 169 

.^SECTION X. DEPARTMENTAL ROUTINE NOTES- 
ANCIENT MONUMENTS PRESERVATION ACT AND LISTING OF MONUMENTS 

United Provinces ...... 169 

Delhi 169 

Punjab 169 

North- West Frontier Province 169 

Bombay Presidency and Bind . . . . . . . . 170 

Bihar and Orissa . . 171 

Central Provinces and Berar . . . . . . . . .171 

Bengal .... 172 

Assam 172 

Burma 172 

Publications 173 

Photographs 

Director General 174 

Northern Circle, Agra 174 

Northern Circle, Lahore 174 

Frontier Circle 174 

Western Circle 174 

Central Circle 175 

Eastern Circle . 175 

Southern Circle 176 

Burma Circle , . 175 

Archaeological Section of the Indian Museum 175 

Assistant Superintendent for Epigraphy, Southern Circle > . .176 
Drawings 

Director General . ... 176 

Northern Circle, Agra 176 

B 



SECTION X DEPARTMENTAL ROUTINE NOTES contd. PAGE. 

Drawings oontd. 

Northern Circle, Lahore ........... 176 

Frontier Circle 176 

Western Circle 176 

Central Circle 176 

Eastern Circle 177 

Southern Circlo 17T 

Burma Circle ............. 17T 

Personnel 177 

APPENDICES- 
APPENDIX A.- Expenditure on Office Establishment including Museums, Excavation, 

etc 179 

Conservation ........... 193 

APPENDIX B List of exhibits acquired for the Indian Museum, Archseological Section 255 

List of coins acquired for the Indian Museum, Archaeological Section . 258 

List ol exhibits acquired for the Delhi Museum 263 

List of coins acquired for the Delhi Museum ..... 264 

List of exhibits acquired for the Taj Museum, Agra .... 267 

List of antiquities found at Taxila and added to the Museum . 267 

List of coins purchased for the Taxila Museum ..... 269 

List of coins unearthed at Taxila ....... 269 

APPENDIX C. Additions to Departmental Libraries 270- 



LIST OF PLATES, 



PULTE I. (a) European Rest House at Ram Bagh, Agra, before conservation. 

(6) European Rest House at Ram Bagh, Agra, after conservation. 

(c) Indian Rest House at Ram Bagh, Agra, before conservation. 

(d) Indian Rest House at Ram Bagh. Agra, after conservation. 

M II. (a) Jagner Fort, the interior courtyard behind the 2nd entrance on the North, 

before clearance 

(b) Jagner Fort, the interior courtyard behind the 2nd entrance on the North, 

after clearance. 

(c) Sher Shah's gate at Delhi, from inside ^ during conservation. 

(d) Sher Shah's gate at Delhi, from inside, after conservation. 
^ III. (a) Dwarahat : Mntyunjaya temple, before conservation. 

(6) Dwarahat * Mrityunjaya temple, after conservation. 

(c) Dwarahat : Maniyan group showing the retaining wall as newly constructed. 

(d) Dwarahat : Ban Deo temple, showing new plinth and back wall of the stkhara 

after conservation. 
ff IV. (a) Kasia : Monastery D, after conservation and removal of jungle. 

(b) Kasia : Monastery D, showing the courtyard and well after removal of jungle 

and debris. 

(c) Sarnath . Raised causeway in fioiit of the Mam Shrine after repairs. View 

from west. 

(d) Samath : View of several stupas in the foiecourt of the Mam Shrine, after 

conservation. 
V. (a) Nalanda : Monastery No I-A, East side cells before repair ; from south. 

(b) Nalanda : Monastery No. I-A, East side cells after conservation ; from south. 

(c) Nalanda : Monastery No. I-A, East external wall before repair ; from north- 

east 

(d) Nalanda : Monastery No. I-A, East external wall after repair , from north- 

east. 

VI. (a) Nalanda Monastery No. I-B, Internal court as excavated, showing stair in 

north-east corner and east wall under repair , from south. 

(b) Nalanda : Monastery No. I-B, Internal coint, after conservation. 

(c) Nalanda . Monastery No 4, East exteinal wall around sanctum, showing 

later brick facing and earlier structure below, as excavated ; from south- 
east corner. 

(d) Nalanda : Monastery No. 4, East external wall around santum, showing 

later facing supported on a series of concrete lintels ; from south-east. 
VII. (a) Pagan : Dhammayazika Pagoda. 

(b) Pagan . Plan of Dhammayazika Pagoda. 

VIII. (a) Taxila : View of excavations on the Bhir Mound, looking East. 
(6) Taxila : A soak- well m the Bhir Mound. 

(c) Taxila : Terracotta medallion. Diam. 2f ". 

(d) Taxila : Decorated vase showing Hellenistic influence. Ht. 6^*. 

IX. Taxila: Specimen* from the hoard of 1167 punch-marked Indian, Greek and^ 
" Persian coins found in the Bhir Mound. 

X. Taxila : General view of Blocks B and C, Sirkap, from the East. 



PLATE XI. Taxila : Figs. 1 to 10. Gold jewellery and miscellaneous objects, etc., from^ 

Sirkap. 

Taxila : Figs. 11 and 12. Seals from the Bhir Mound. 
XII. Taxila : Miscellaneous objects from Sixkap. 

XIII. Taxila: Fig. 1, Grindstone from Sirkap, Ht. 2]". 

Taxila : Fig. 2, " Offering tanks " beside stupa m Sirkap. 

Taxila : Fig. 3. The same " offering tanks " cleared of earth. Dianas, ranging 
from 11 \" to 15". 

XIV. (a) Chaitru. Kangra District : View of the Bhimtilla showing basement of three - 

small stupes, after excavation. 

(6) Andhra coins from Penumuli. 
,, XV. (o) Sampur Mound, Mastung. 

(&) Sampur Excavations : Vessels in situ. Trenches B and G. 

(c) Sampur Excavations Vessels in situ. Trench A. 

(d} Sampur Excavations . Nine large excvated vessels. 

(c) Sampur Excavations : Earthen vessels from Trenches A and H, 

(/) Sampur Excavati ons : Silver vase from Trench A. 

(g) Sampur Excavations : Drinking cups frc ai Trench A. 

(h) Sampur Excavations : Miniature wheel-turned wares. 

() Sampur Excavations : Hand -made vessels. 
XVI. Mohenjo-daro : Contour plan of ancient sites. 

XVII.' (a) Mohenjo-daro : Site A, before excavation, from north-west. 

(b) Mohenjo-daro : Room at north-east end of Site B with herring-bone masonry, 

from north-west. 

(c) Mohenjo-daro : Site A, general view, after excavation from north-east. 

XVIII. (a) Mohenjo-daro : General view of well and pavements in Site C, from north- 
west. 

(b) Mohenjo-daro : Site C, passage to south of well showing drains and three 
periods of construction, from south-west. 

(<?) Mohenjo-daro : Site D (West), building at north end, general view from north- 
east 

(d) Mohenjo-daro : Site D, general view of drains in courtyard. 

XIX. (c) Mohenjo-daro : Substantially built structure m centre of Site E, eastern 

building after excavation ; from north-east. 

(b) Mohenjo-daro : Site E, western building room in which the jewellery deposit 
was found, from north-east. 

,, XX. (a) Mohenjo-daro : Copper jar containing jewellery and another vase as found in 

Site E. 

(b) Mohenjo-daro : Site E, a necklace from jewellery find. 

(c) Mohenjo-daro : Site E, gold, silver and stone ear-rings from jewellery find. 

(d) Mohenjo-daro : Site E, pointed gold and other head ornaments from jewellery 

find. 

() Mohenjo-daro : Gold, silver and stone beads from jewellery find. 
(/) Mohenjo-daro : Copper lids and vases found along with the jewellery in Site 
E. 

XXI, (a) Mohenjo-daro : Copper chisel, bar, double axe and other implements. 

(b) Mohenjo-daro : Umnscribed ivory objects found in excavations. 
(<0 l Mohenjo-daro : Paste ornaments found in excavation*. 
(<0 Mohenjo-daro : Stone beads and pendent* found in excavations. 



PLATE XXII. (a) Mohenjo-daro : 16 prominent seals found in excavations. 

(b) Mohenjo-daro : 13 terracotta impressions and an inscribed terracotta bangle 

found in excavations. 

(c) Mohenjo-daro : Magnified view of face of a terracotta prism showing a lion 

a rhinoceros, an elephant and a gavial found in Site A. 

(d) Mohenjo-daro : Terracotta figurines and animals found in excavations. 
XXIII. - Mohenjo-daro : Well-preserved painted vase found in excavations. 

XXIV.- (a) Harappa : Mound F, a burial structure resembling a modern samadhi un- 
earthed in Trench A (e). 

(b) Harappa : Mound F, a burial structure resembling a modern tamadhi un- 

earthed in Trench A (e). 

(c) Harappa : Mound F, a large brick building consisting of two series of parallel I 

walls with an open corridor between them. 

(d) Harappa : Mound F, contents of a cinerary jar (A (/) 317). 

(e) Harappa: Mound F, stone obelisk (ht. 11") found in Trench A (). 
XXV. (a) Harappa Mound B, general view from east. 

(b) Harappa : Mound B, a large brick building. 

(c) Harappa : Mound B, brick platform with a large cinerary jar placed upon it 

mouth downwards. 

(d) Harappa : Mound B, a double burial structure. 

V", XXVI.- (a) Harappa : Mound B, a large collection of animals' bones. 

(b) Harappa : Mound B, pit I, a large dram with gabled roof. 

(c) Harappa : Mound B, pit IV, a rectangular cell crossed by a drain. 

(d) Harappa : A large sized ring of polished stone. 
V, XXVII. (a-i) Harappa . Terracotta and other objects. 

XXVIII. (1-28) Harappa : Seals and other objects. 
., XXIX. Nalanda : Plan of Excavations, 1924-25. 
' XXX. (a) Nalanda : Squaie chaitya m courtyard of Monastery No. 1. 

(&) Nalanda : Square chaitya in courtyard of Monastery No. 1, after removal of 
north-east corner. 

(c) Nalanda : Monastery No. 1, North-east corner of courtyard in course of ex- 

cavation and underpinning of wall in pi ogress ; from south-west. 

(d) Nalanda Site No. 5, Stair as excavated in 1924-25 ; from south-east. 
XXXI . (a) Rampart and moat between Bengal and Kantaduar , District Bangpnr. 

(fo) Mughal Fort at Kedderpur or Narayanganj. 

(c) Mughal Fort at Idrakpur or Munshiganj, gun bastion. 

(d) Mam shrme of Kamakhya, plinth moulding and dado. 

XXXII. (a) Yamuna from the foot of the left door- jamb, Bah Parbatiya, District Darning. 

(b) Ganga from the foot of the right dooi-jamb, Dah Parbatiya, District Darrang. 

(c) Stone door-frame of Siva temple at Dah Parbatiya near Tezpnr, District 

Darrang 

(d) Pillar of the early Gupta type in Planters' Club at Tezpu*. 
XXXIII. (a) Mahabahpuram : Arjuna's penance, before repair. 

(b) Mahabalipuram : Arjuna's penance, after repair. 

(c) Mahabahpuram : Arjuna's penance, detail of figure holding a cornucopia. 

(d) Mahabalipuram : Arjuna's penance, detail of the penitent cat. 

XXXIV. (a) Seated Buddha found in a relic chamber of the Dhammayazika Pagoda, 
Pagan. 

(b) A subsidiary temple on the platform of the DhamiicayazikA Pagoda, Pagan. 

(c) Terracotta votive tablet found in the excavation at a mound near Kinmun- 

gyon Village, Hmawza, Old Prome. 



11 

PLATE XXXTVomfcZ. 

(d) Terracotta plaque found in the excavation at a mound neat Kinmungyon 

Vilkge, Hmawza, Old Prome. 

(e) Seated Buddha flanked by a disciple (frament only) found at Hmawza, Old 

Prome. 

(/) Seated Buddha (headless) found at Hmawza, Old Prome. 
(g) Seated Buddha flanked by a disciple (fragment only) fooud at Hmawza, Old 

Prome. 

(h) Seated Buddha found in a ruined temple near Ananda Pagoda, Pagan. 
XXXV. (a) Fragments of door-jambs recovered from the Khandiya Deul at Khiohing, 

Mayurbhanj. 
(6) Female figure with child recovered from Khandiya Deul, Khiching. 

(c) A naga recovered from the Khandiya Deul at Khiching. 

(d) Three female figures, recovered from the Khandiya Deul at Khiching. 

(e) Siva Nataraja from Khiching. 

XXXVI. (a) Sarnath, bronze casket with domical lid. 

(6) Sarnath, Buddhist monk's bottle of bronze. 

(c) Image of Brahma from Java. 

(d) Sun image in a niche from Bhumara. Gupta period. 

(e) Siva Nataraja from Chittagong, Bengal. 

XXXVII. (a) Chaturmukha linga from Java : figure of Suiya. 

(b) Chaturmukha linga from Java : figure of Vishnu. 

(c) Chaturmukha linga from Java : figure of Brahma. 
' (d) Chaturmukha linga from Java : figure of Siva. 

XXXVIII. (a) Siva Nataraja from Southern India. 

(b) Garuda from Panchasara near Rampal, District Dacca. 

(c) Garuda from Lhasa, Tibet. 

(d) Coins of new type acquired for the Indian Museum. 

(e) Coins of new type acquired for the Indian Museum. 
(/) Inscribed Lakshmi-Narayana from Mathura. Front. 
(g) Inscribed Lakshmi-Narayana from Mathura. Back. 

XXXIX. (a) Avalokitesvara from Bandarbazar, District Sylhet. 
(6) Tnvikrama from Jora Deul, District Dacca. 

(c) i. Unidentified relief , ii. An attempt to crush the Buddha. 

(d) i. The Temptation. 11. Buddha with three mutilated persons. 

(e) A novel representation of the Bath of the Bodhisattva. 
XI* (o) Image of Naga Dadhikarna found at Mathura. 

(b) Fish incarnation of Vishnu at Bajrajogim, near Rampal, District Dacca. 

(c) Siva-hnga with Parvati. Kaganpura, District Dacca. 

(d) Wooden image of Vishnu from Muradnagar, District Tippera. 

(e) Chandi (?) from Sonarang, Dacca Museum. 

(/) Buddhist (?) goddess from Tippera District (Dacca Museum). 

XLI. (a) Facade of Cave No. 4 at Bagh (Gwahor State). Before clearance of debris. 

(6) Facade of Cave No. 4 at Bagh (Gwahor State). After clearance of debris. 

(c) Interior of Cave No. 5 at Bagh (Gwahor State). Before clearance of debris. 

(d) Interior of Cave No. 5 at Bagh (Gwalior State). After clearance of debris. 

XLII. (a) The Samrat yantra and Narivalaya yantra in Jaieingh's ^observatory at Ujjain 

1 p (Gwahor State). After conservation. 

(ft) The Digamna yantra in Jftiwngh's observatory at Ujjam( Gwahor State). 
After restoration. 



PLATE XLUcantd. 

(c) Madrasa tomb at Chanderi (Gwalior State). After conservation. 

(d) Some images from the rums of Jama temples at Budlii Chanderi (Gwalior 

State), collected and arranged after clearance of site. 

XLIIL (a) A large brick building excavated in a mound at Pawaya (Gwalior State). 
(6) Terracotta heads and carved bricka excavated at Pawaya (Gwalior State) 

(c) Pieoe of lintel of a large gateway excavated at Pawaya (Gwalior State). 

(d) Piece of lintel of a large gateway excavated at Pawaya (Gwalior State). 

(e) Brahmamcal rock-cut sculptures near Budhi Chanderi (Gwalior Htate) 



ANNUAL REPORT 

OF THE 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY 
OF INDIA 

FOR THE YEAR 
1924-25 

SECTION I 

CONSERVATION 

TT is with much regret that I have to record the great loss that the Introductory 

* Archaeological Department has sustained by the untimely death of Dr. 

D. B. Spooner, O.B.E., B.A., Ph.D., on January 30th, 1925. Dr. Spooner was 

a scholar of rare distinction and had served in the Department from the 

year 1906, where he did extremely good work in an unassuming manner. 

He commenced his career in the Archaeological Department as Superintendent 

of the Frontier Circle being afterwards transferred in the same capacity to the 

Eastern Circle which in those days included what is now the Central and 

Eastern Circles. In the year 1917 he was appointed Deputy Director General 

which post he held till the time of his death. He officiated as Director General 

several times during Sir John Marshall's absence and should under ordinary 

circumstances have been editing this report. During the period when the report 

is usually compiled Sir John Marshall was very much occupied in conducting 

the excavations (1925-26) in Sind and therefore the task of editing it has 

fallen upon me and I should acknowledge the very great assistance which Rai 

Bahadur Daya Bam Salmi has given me in its execution. 

The grant for the conservation of our ancient monuments was the same 
as that for the previous year viz. Rs. 6,52,200 while for exploration Rs. 12,000 
were allotted. But notwithstanding the fact that a considerably larger amount 
could have been expended without difficulty, plenty of useful work has been* 
undertaken and carried out, to which assertion is is hoped the following pages 
will testify. 



CONSERVATION 2 

Northern "A sum of Rs. 1,32,033 was spent on the conservation of Muhammadan 

Circle an British Monuments in the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. Out of 

United j.y g amoun tj R B . 51,202 weie expended by the Archaeological Superintendent 

Muhammadan (^ 8 - 22 > 159 on special repairs and Rs. 29,043 on annual repairs) and Rs. 39,995 

and British by the Public Works Department (Rs. 20,425 on special repairs and Rs. 19,570 

Monuments annual repairs) and the balance of Rs. 40,836 went to the maintenance of 

Khan Sahib f , i / j 

MaulviZafar the archaeological gardens. 

Haaan " The repairs and maintenance of the protected monuments in the Agra 

Agra* District, the execution of which, as remarked in the last year's report, has 

been transferred to the Archaeological Department, were carried out depart- 
mentally. They consisted of no less than 9 works of a special nature, besides 
a large number of petty works executed in connection with annual repairs. 
At the Agra Fort the conservation of the Moti Masjid, Machhi Bhawan and 
Jahangiri Mahal was continued from the last year and the pavement of the 
courtyard to the north of Jahangiri Mahal was completed. The outer court- 
yard to the east of the Mahal is also to be paved and this it is proposed to 
take in hand next year. Among the minor works executed at the Fort 
were the relaying of part of the missing pavement of the Akbari Mahal 
and the dismantling and rebuilding of the east guUasta of the north gate 
in the fore-court of the Diwan-i-Am which was in imminent danger of col- 



( At the Taj Mahal the chief work undertaken was the dismantling and 
re-constructing of the dome surmounting the north-west minar. Owing to the 
rusting of the central iron rod the maujpatti or lotus cresting had cracked and 
the finial had become very shaky. The rod has been replaced by a new 
galvanised one and the maujpatti and finial reset. The work although a small 
one required a very high and strong scaffolding which formed the heaviest item 
in its cost. Other works executed at the Taj were the repairs to the roofs 
of the colonnades surrounding the fore-court, underpinning and pointing the 
compartments and verandahs of the enclosure used as a chick nursery and 
filling up the open joints in the parapet walls of the mosque and jawab making 
them water-tight. 

" Mention should also be made of the replacement of the old underground 
lighting cable at the Taj by a new armoured cable, a work which was executed 
under the direction of the Electrical Engineer, United Provinces. The old cable 
which had been in position for more than thirteen years, had become defective 
and often the lighting, particularly in the shrine, was interrupted. The new 
cable, which is of an improved type, should put an end to this trouble. Now 
that Agra hf.s been provided with an electrical installation it is under considera- 
tion as to whether it will not be more economical and satisfactory to obtain 
current from the city supply and put the Taj engine to other uses. 

" At the Ram Bagh the modern additions which had been made to the 
old baradaris werr dismantled and the baradaris restored. The Ram Bagh is 
one of the oldest Mughal gardens in India, its present name being, probably, 
the corruption of Aram Bagh (the garden of rest). Of its ancient buildings. 



CONSERVATION 



only a few chhatris and a marble platform with a central tank and a baradari United 
on either side now exist. These baradaws were transformed sometime ago into Provinces 
two rest houses, one for Europeans and the other for Indians. But as they 



lay outside the city, where there are now a number of European and Indian Monuments 
hotels, they had ceased to perform their original functions and it was, therefore, 
considered desirable to dismantle them and bring back the old baradaris as 
far as possible to their former form. The removal of modern additions revealed 
many interesting features which have been restored (Plate J). The work is 
still in progress and will be completed next year. 

" In consequence of heavy rain and abnormal floods in the Jumna river 
in the month of October, the compound walls of several buildings particularly 
of those standing on the river bank viz. the Khan-i-Alam garden near the 
Taj, Itimad-ud-Daulah, Chini-ka-Rauza and Ram Bagh were badly damaged- 
A special estimate for their immediate repairs was framed and the damage 
was made good. For future record stone tablets indicating the highest flood 
level and the date (7th October 1924) have been set in the river-side walls of 
the Khan-i-Alam garden and the Ram Bagh ; at Itimad-ud-Daulah the record 
was engraved on the north plinth of the pavilion facing the Jumna. 

" At the Roman Catholic Cemetery the Padre Santos' Chapel has been 
provided with new iron grated doors, and the missing facing stones on the 
dome of the tomb adjacent to that of Thomas Gunner have been replaced* 
by new ones. Many dilapidated tombs have been thoroughly repaired and 
a portion of the compound wall which collapsed in the heavy rain, mentioned 
above, has been rebuilt. The work of extending the archaeological office building 
continued from the last year, has been completed. The extension consists 
of two rooms for the accommodation of Conservation Assistants and drafts- 

men. 

"At Akbar's tomb, Sikandra, the restoration of the west end of the Sikandta 
western causeway mentioned in the last year's report has been executed. The 
estimate for the work amounted to Rs. 5,700, but byre-using the old serviceable 
stones and with the low tender rate, it was completed at a cost of Rs. 3,638 
only, and the saving of Rs. 2,061 has been re-appropriated for other works. 
The mosaic work at the Akbar's tomb which consists of white marble set in 
red sand-stone shows signs of decay, and many of its inlaid pieces have become 
loose or have disappeared. The restoration of this whole inlay ornamentation 
is a very big work, requiring a special estimate and grant. A start was, however, 
made on it during the year under report out of the annual repairs grant and 
it is proposed to do it gradually as far as funds permit. ^At Maryam's tomb 
the decayed stone brackets in one of the south-east chhatrls were replaced by 
new ones and a shaft which was out of plumb was dismantled and rebuilt. 
The roof of the Kanch Mahal was made water-tight and a few broken patches 
hi its floor were repaired. The tube well at the Kanch Mahal which was 
being constructed by the Public Health Department has be*n completed. The. 
proposal is to provide an engine and pumping plant for the irrigation of 
the garden in Akbar's tomb. An estimate for the erection of an engine 

o 2 



CONSERVATION 



Northern 
Circle 



Maulvi JfcJar 
Hasan 

Fathpw Sikri 



house has been prepared and this will be undertaken departmentally next 
year. Petty repairs were carried out at Sadiq Khan's and Salabat Khan's 
tombs, where the approach path to the extent of some 350 ft. was 
remetalled. 

" At Fathpur Sikri the paved pathway to the Rang Mahal which was 
commenced last year has been completed. The palace is reputed to be the 
birfch place of the Emperor Jahangir, but the statement does not receive any 
support from original historical works. The Emperor Akbar had lost several 
of his children before Jahangir was born and he was very anxious that a 
son should survive to succeed him on the throne. Jahangir writes in his 
Memoirs " At the time when my venerated father was on the look out 
for a son, a dervish of the name of Shaikh Salim, a man of ecstatic 
condition, who had traversed many of the stages of life, had his abode 
on a hill near Sikri, one of the villages of Agra, and the people of that 
neighbourhood had complete trust in him. As my father was very submis- 
sive to dervishes, he also visited him. One day when waiting on him and in 
a state of distraction, ho asked him how many sons he should have. The 
Skaikh replied, 'The Giver who gives without being asked will bestow three 
sons on you.' My father said, ' I have made a vow that, casting my first 
son on the skirt o| your favour, I will make your friendship and kindness his 
protection and preserver'". 1 According to a local tradition Akbar ordered the 
erection of the Rang Mahal, when he learnt of the possibility of a child being 
born and sent his wife to stay there in close vicinity to the Saint ; but 
there is nothing to prove that the birth of Jahangir actually took place in 
that palace. On the contrary the Emperor says, " When my mother came near 
the lime of her delivery, he (Akbar) sent her to the Shaikh's house that J 
might be born there." 2 It seems that the queen stayed in the Rang Mahal 
with all her establishment, but repaired to the Saint's house for the auspicious 
event. The assumption that the palace was constructed for the special purpose 
of the stay of Jahangir 's mother appears to have given rise to the tradition 
that the Emperor was born there. The Rang Mahal is, therefore, the first 
palace built by Akbar at Fathpur Sikri, which he subsequently made his capi- 
tal and embellished with magnificient and ornate buildings which still attract 
people from afar. The palace lies in the neighbourhood of the residential 
houses of the Pirzadas or the descendants of Shaikh Salim Ohishti, and as 
the approach to it led through the compounds of their houses, it was not 
without inconvenience that visitors could inspect it. The pathway has given 
an easy access to the building which is now more frequently visited by the 

public. 

"Repairs were undertaken at the Chor Darwaza, one of the several gate- 
Ways of the walled town of Fathpur Sdkri, which had been badly damaged 
by the heavy rain mentioned above and stood in need of immediate repairs. 



1 The Tiwmk-i- Jahangin or Memoirs of Jahangir, English translation by Kogre ard Beveridgo, gage 2. 
Op. eft. 



CONSERVATION 



At the palaces the chief works executed unde/ the head of annual repairs were United 
as follows : Provinces 



(a) Restoration of the building known as the kitchen. 
(6) Repairs to Chanderpol Darwaza which included the repaying of it* Monument! 
floor with coursed rubble masonry, relaying its roof with concrete 
and underpinning and pointing its walla. 

(c) Replacement ol the decayed stone shafts, brackets and capitals in 
two openings of Birbal's stable. 

" The contribution works at the Dargah of Shaikh Sahm (Jhiahti mentioned 
in the last year's report have been completed. Other works executed under 
this head were the paving of the chabutra to the east of Nawab Islam Khan's 
tomb and the clearance of the birkha or the water reservoir under the court- 
yard of the Dargah opposite the Badshahi Gate. The birklia consists of a 
vast water tank surrounded by arched galleries with a staircase descending to 
it from the pavement of the courtyard. On account of the scarcity of drink- 
ing water at Fathpur Sikri it was constructed to collect rain water from the 
roof of the shrine of the Saint and the neighbouring buildings. This purpose 
it still serves and supplies drinking water to devotees urid the public, residing 
in the neighbourhood. But for a very long time it had not been cleaned, 
with the result that a considerable quantity of mud hud accumulated in it. 
The work, however, was made easy by the discovery of an outlet which WHS' 
not known before. A plan of the reservoir indicating the outlet has been pre- 
pared and it will now be possible to clean the tank annually. 

" The old lort of Jagner which stands on the top of a rocky hill is related Jttgner 
to owe its origin to the Hindu rulers of the country, but it was rebuilt during 
the time of the Emperor Akbar, as recorded by a Nagan inscription dated 
Sambat 1628 (1571 A.D.) on the red sandstone gateway of its inner court. 
In the year 1915 a conservation note was drawn up for its repairs by the 
late Mr. Gordon Sanderson, who had, however, suggested that no extravagant 
programme for the restoration of the structure should be embarked upon, but 
the fort and the buildings contained in it should be rescued from falling into 
total rum. Initial measures of conservation, however, had not been undertaken 
before the year under report. All the jungle growing on the walls of the fort 
and on the buildings has now been removed, and the inner courtyard together 
with the gateways has been cleared of debris (Plate TI, a and 6). The cracked 
lintels two in the gateway of the inner court and one in the main entrance 
to the north were supported by rubble masonry pierK. 

"At Lucknow the special repairs to the Kazmain continued from the 
year have been completed, and the Hurrounding chambers used as residences 
were evacuated. The paving of the inner compound with small lakhauri brick* 
and the clearance of the chambers mentioned above, of mud infilling^ and 
unsightly straw ckhappars erected by their occupants have resulted in a marked 
improvement to the building. Other works earned out a Lucknow weie- 
repairs to certain monuments damaged by floods and the renewal of a wheel 
of one of the cannon at the Residency. 



Northern 
Circle 

Kbfeit Sahib 
Maulvl Zafar 
Hasan 

Jaunpur 



Benares 



Etawah 



Gardens 



CONSERVATION 6 

" At Jaunpur repairs were undertaken at the Jami mosque where the ablu- 
tion tank, which leaked was made water-tight, cracks in the west wall filled 
in, and broken parnalas replaced by new ones. The floors of the gateway of 
the Fort and of hammam were relaid with kankar and the open joints in the 
ashlar masonry on the west front of the gate Were pointed. The floor of the 
Sherzaman Khan-ka-Rauza, which had been dug up by porcupines, was also 
laid with concrete, and a new wire fencing was provided to the approach road 
at the south end of the Sai bridge at Sikrara. 

" At Benares the water-pipe supplying water to the tank in the Aurangzeb's 
mosque was refixed and wooden doors were provided to the opening of the 
north stairway leading to the roof. The ground adjoining the Battis Khamba 
was levelled and the chabutra exposed ; at the same time the grave to the 
south was repaired and made tidy. 

" In the Etawah District the dilapidated gateways of the Ekdil and Ajitmal 
Sarais were repaired. In the former a broken arch was supported by a brick 
masonry relieving arch and the loose facing stones together with a few Majja 
slabs and brackets were reset. At the Ajitmal Sarai the broken arch of the 
west gateway was rebuilt and the cracks in the roof were grouted. Wooden doors 
were provided to the entrance of the staircase leading to the roof, and the decayed 
brick-work of the northern chhatn was repaired. The sarais of Ekdil and Ajit- 
rnal lie on the Etawah-Kalpi Road, about 6 and 24 miles respectively from 
Etawah. The Ekdil Sarai bears an inscription on its east gate to the effect 
that it Was constructed by one Ekdil Khan m the year 1046 A. H. (1636-7 
A. D.). The Ajitmal Sarai is approximately of the same date. Both these 
Sarais stand on the ancient road passing through Agra and Etawah to 
Bengal. 

" At Sardhana the dilapidated graves in the Roman Catholic Cemetery were 
repaired. As mentioned in the last year's report it was agreed to pay a moiety 
of the expenditure incurred by the Mission on the repairs to the Roman Catholic 
Church of Sardhana. A sum of Rs. 7,500 was paid to the Mission last year 
and the balance of Rs. 2,367-8-0 was given during the year under report. 

'' The Ta] Mahal gardens were maintained in good condition throughout the 
vear, The new floral scheme and the introduction of more coloured foliage 
plants into the shrubberies had a very satisfactory effect. A large number of 
new rose trees was obtained and planted in the rose gardens which have there- 
by been considerably improved. The canna gardens were also well looked after 
and gave a good show of bloom. The lawns are gradually being taken in hand, 
four plots having been trenched and regrassed during the year under report. 
Some gold fish were obtained and placed in the central tank, which was fur- 
ther improved by the planting of some lotus plants presented by Mr. R. L. 
Clarke, the Commissioner of Agra. The nurseries at the Khan-i-Alam garden 
supplied all the .plants required in the other archaeological gardens at Agra, 
and in addition contributed considerably to the revenue. Propagation received 
due attention, and the sweet pea collection in particular wa* much improved. 



CONSERVATION 



The lower part of the nurseries suffered some damage from the floods and United 
a number of chrysanthemums and other plants were destroyed. Provinces 

"At the Fort efforts were made to improve the shrubberies, climbers and 



turf which still are not very satisfactory. In the Itiniadu-d-Daulah garden Monument* 

the lawns and shrubberies received due attention. A few trees were removed 

from the shrubberies to let in more light, and new shrubs were planted where 

necessary. The shrubberies really require entire replanting, but this is not 

feasible until the proposed conservation of the causeways has been completed. 

At the Rambagh a large number of fruit trees were planted, and from the 

present rate of progress it is believed that the whole garden will be replanted 

in the course of the next two or three years. The Jumna floods did great 

damage here, nearly all the newly planted trees having been destroyed. As far as 

possible all this damage has been repaired, but considerable labour was entailed 

in clearing the garden of silt and rubbish left behind by the floods. The 

Chini-ka-Rauza garden and the old Roman Catholic Cemetery received the 

usual attention and at the latter casuaripas were planted along the boundary 

walls. 

" The extensive grounds of Akbar's tomb, Sikandra, were kept as neat 
as possible. A few shrubberies were planted along the sides of the newly 
paved causeways to the west of the tomb, and all gaps were filled where 
necessary in the old shrubberies. Casualties in the groups of trees planted the 
previous year Were replaced. The planting of an avenue of pines (Pinus 
lomjifolia) from the main entrance to the tomb platform is under consideration. 
Pines were included in the original planting of this garden and they would 
therefore be appropriate 

" The Residency Garden and the grounds attached to the Nadan Mahal 
and Ibrahim Chishti's Tomb at Lucknow were maintained in good condition 
throughout the year and kept neat and tidy. 

" At the Khusro Bagh, Allahabad, the central portion only of the garden 
round the tombs, embracing an area of about six acres has been accepted by 
the Archaeological Depaitment. Hitherto this area has not been an independent 
section, but a scheme tor its lay out has been prepared in order to provide 
the tombs with a suitable setting. 

" It was mentioned last year that the Archaeological and Military areas 
in the Fort at Agra had been separated and that the small charge of two 
annas a head was levied. It may be of interest now to note that a sum of 
Rs. 8,011* has been realised at the gate during the year under review, 
and that this sum added to Rs. 3,415 received from shopkeepers licensed to 
trade in the Archaeological area fully repays in the first full year's work- 
ing the original cost of the undertaking. 

" Out of a sum of Rs. 83,023 spent on the conservation and maintenanc 
of Muhammadan and British Monuments in the Delhi Province Rs. 17,170 was Province 
expended on special repairs, Rs. 18,274 on annual repairs and* Rs. 47,579 on the Muhammadan 
maintenance of gardens. On account of the limited grant tor conservation, only Monuments 
a lew works of a special nature were carried out during the year the chief 



CONSERVATION 



8 



Northern 
Circle . 



MaulviZafar 



of these being the repairs to Sher Shah's gateway opposite the Parana Qila 
(Hate II c and d), which was one of the city gates of Sher Shah's Delhi. To 
the east of it is a long range of compartments on either side of the road 
which passes through the gate. These compartments, which are supposed to 
have originally belonged to a bazar, are in an advanced state of decay, and 
the only measures of conservation undertaken here were to clear them of 
debris and make their walls water-tight in order to prevent them from falling 
into total ruin The northern bastion of the gate and the connecting wall 
which had been in a crumbling state were repaired and strengthened with a 
rubble masonry buttress. On the south a portion of the parapet and a few 
l)ioken merlons crowning it Were rebuilt, and their original features, the arrow 
slits and the machic&uhs, restored. The work is still in progress and will be 
completed next year. 

"Connecting the Fort gardens with the permanent irrigation water supply, 
a Work which was commenced last year, has been completed. Another engineer- 
ing Work in connexion with the gardens was the deepening of a well to the 
west of the Qutb areas and providing it with a steam elevator to supply water 
to the Qutb gardens. 

" At Humayun's tomb a portion of the east enclosure wall which collapsed 
last year during the rains has been rebuilt. The mortuary chambers under the 
terrace containing a large number of graves oi the members of the royal 
Mughal family were cleaned of rubbish and the floor of a few* of them laid 
with concrete. At the same time the loose paving stones at the south-west 
corner of the terrace were reset and made water-tight and the broken slabs 
under the pa-malas replaced by new ones. The enclosure wall of Isa Khan's 
Mausoleum together with the dwarf wall round the main tomb were extensively 
underpinned and rebuilt where broken. At Safdarjang's tomb the loose stone 
railings on eithei side of the staircases leading to the raised terrace were reset 
and the missing jalis at the tomb proper and the south staircase were renewed. 
The floors of the chhatris standing at the four corners of the enclosure Were 
relaid with concrete and new chhajjas, where such were missing, were provided. 

" Repairs were also executed at the Moth-ki-Masid where the back wall 
and especially the corner turrets Were underpinned and liberally treated with 
grouling. The open chambers on the first storey of these turrets together with 
the projecting windows on the north and south had their floors relaid with 
concrete, and the broken plaster was secured. The mosque is a very^ interesting 
structure of the Lodi period, and the following story is related in the Khula- 
eatu-t-Tawarikh 1 about its erection and explains the origin of its curious name 
" moth '* which is an Indian pulse. 

" One day Sultan Sikandar Lodi (1488-1517) saw a grain of mvth in the 

Jami Mosque which lie held up and handed over to his wise and sagacious 

minister Mian Bhoia (Farishta part I, p. 191 has Bhura) who made an obei- 

" sauce and took it. " The latter considered that, as the grain had received the honoui 



1 Khulagatu-t-Tawwikh by Sujan Rai of fiatalft, dited by Mawlvi Zafsr Hasan, 1918, p. 228. 



9 CONSERVATION 

of the touch of the emperor's hand, he should make arrangements to give it Delhi 
an everlasting fame. He accordingly sowed it in the orchard attached to his Province 
house, and the plant which grew from it yielded more than 200 grains. They J^^nS 
were multiplied by this process for several years, until from their produce he Monument* 
acquired a large sum of money, which he spent in building an imposing mosque 
in the city of Delhi. He informed the emperor of the erection of the mosque, 
and the story of the grain of moth, and the mosque was thereafter known 
as Moth-ki-Masjid. 

" Other buildings which received attention were the Bijai Mandal and the 
domed tomb immediately below it to the west. According to Sayyid Ahmad 
Khan the Bijai Mandal Was a tower in Jahanpanah, the city of Delhi founded 
by Muhammad Shah Tughlaq, and its original name was Badi Manzil. Ad- 
joining the Mandal on the east, at a lower level, is a dilapidated structure 
with heavy grey stone pillars supporting a flat roof which extends as an open 
terrace, while on its north and west is a high mound of earth marking probably 
the remains of other ancient buildings lying buried under it. A flight of steps 
and an open passage were, however, disclosed this year at the south-east cor- 
ner and at the back of the domed tomb m the course of removing earth for the 
drainage of rain Water. These steps and the passage have been exposed to 
view and it is not unlikely that the clearance of the mound may result in 
new interesting discoveries. Conservation measures applied to the domed tomb 
included the provision of an iron bar in each of its open archways to keep 
out cattle, making water-tight its roof and rebuilding the broken clerestory 
windows. At the Bijai Mandal the west wall has been pointed, while breast 
Walls have been built at the openings in the winding staircase to prevent 
accidents. 

" At the tomb of Ghiyasu-d-Din Tughlaq the underground chambers to the 
west were cleared of the earth and debris accumulated there, and the bulg- 
ing stones in the facing of the outer entrance were dismantled and reset. The 
former work was executed departmentally. It was believed that the graves of 
Ghiyasu-d-Din Tughlaq, his wife and Muhammad Shah Tughlaq lying in the 
central shrine were merely cenotaphs, while their real sepulchres were in a 
crypt beneath them, with an underground passage opening into it. Explora- 
tion undertaken met with no success however except to prove that the graves 
are real ones and that there is no vault or cell under them. At the Khirki 
Masjid a glazed earthenware pipe line has been laid to drain off rain water 
from the excavated area round the building, and the broken patches in the 
lower cells have been underpinned. The Wooden doors of the mosque have 
also been repaired arid covered with galvanized iron sheets to protect them 
against the attacks of porcupines. In the Delhi Fort the tahkkana under the 
Bang Mahal, which is used as a godown for the Museum, was paved with 
brick, and the carved marble plinth stone in the central arch of the Mumtaz 
Mahal was restored. 

" Among the minor works may be mentioned (a) the replacement of the 
turnstile at the entrance to the Hauz Khas enclosure by an iron wicket gate ; 



CONSERVATION 



10 



Northern 
Circle 

Khan Sahib 
Maulvi Zafar 
Hatan 



Gardens 



(b) the erection of rubble masonry steps bridging over the wire fencing on the 
pathway to Muhammad Shah's tomb at Khairpur ; (c) repairs to the roof, 
parapet walls and chhajja of the baradari surrounding the Raushanara's 
tomb, and fixing wire netted frames in the openings of its corner 
chhatris ; (d) pointing the arches and walls of the Kashmiri Gate ; and (e) 
rebuilding the broken steps and making water-tight the roof of the Chauburji 
Mosque. 

" At the Delhi Fort Garden the usual standard of efficiency was main- 
tained except in the case of the lawns which deteriorated on account of the 
appearance of several troublesome types of weeds, the seeds of which are in- 
troduced by the Jumna water pumped into the garden for irrigation. Steps 
have been taken for hand weeding, but for the proper maintenance of lawns 
it is very necessary to make use of seed niters, if possible, in the new irriga- 
tion system. 

" The garden of Humayun's tomb has improved steadily in response to 
the more liberal New Capital Water Supply installed last year. The soil which 
had been impregnated with salt from the brackish well water is gradually 
becoming fresh and clear again, and this helped a great deal in making the 
flower scheme successful. The number of casualties amongst the trees and 
shrubs was very small. At the garden of Safdar Jang's tomb a start Was 
made on the new scheme of lay out which, it is hoped, will be completed 
next year. In the Purana Qila grounds the improvements which took place 
last year by the introduction of the New Capital Water Supply was maintained, 
although minor difficulties were experienced on account of the new lines being 
partially blocked up, at times, through silt accumulating in them. The uneven 
surface of the lawns, due to sinkage and the porous nature of the soil referred 
to in the last year's report, still exists owing to lack of funds for re-dressing. 
The garden of the Kotla Firoz Shah suffered badly from lack of water at the 
commencement of the year. The electrical pump in the baoli Was abandoned 
on the connection of the garden pipes with New Capital Water Supply, but 
it was not until the month of May that Water Was made available from the 
new source. The supply, however, rapidly improved matters and an excellent 
monsoon was further helpful in making and maintaining the whole ground 
a pleasant green. 

" The water supply in the Hauz Khas grounds was sufficient and the garden 
was in good condition throughout the year. At the garden of the Qutb Minar 
extreme difficulty was experienced in maintaining the general flora during the 
spring and early summer months, although very few casualties occurred. The 
well to the east of the garden, which had been rapidly deteriorating for some 
time past, collapsed early in June and there remained only two wells from which 
to draw water. The well in the west of the garden was accordingly deepened 
and a steam elevator was erected there. All the garden pipe lines have now 
been linked up to this well, the third well to the north of the garden being 
held in reserve. It has yet to be seen whether the deepened well will yield 
sufficient water throughout the year." 



11 CONSERVATION 

"For the year under review a sum of Rs. 50,532 inclusive of agency charges Pun jab 
was sanctioned by the Government of India for the conservation and mamte- S'^JJ* 
nance of Hindu and Buddhist Monuments in the Punjab, and subsequently an Monuments 
additional Us. 397 were sanctioned for the construction of a petrol and oil store Mr. Madho 
-at Taxila. Of the total of Rs. 50,929, the sum of Rs. 38,534 was utilised n Sarl| P Vat8 
the following works at Taxila, viz. : 

(1) Rs. 30,000 for the new museum under construction, (2) Rs. 397 for the oil 
store, (3) Rs. 3,520 for the annual maintenance of the temporary 
museum, excavated monuments, etc., (4) Rs. 3,000 for special conser- 
vation works and (5) Rs 1,617 for the maintenance of a Police Guard. 
The balance was expended on the special repairs to the temple at Baij- 
nath and the tank at Surajkund, while Rs. 5,540 were withdrawn for 
excavations at Harappa and other purposes and Rs. 3,882 were spent 
on the annual repairs and maintenance of Hindu and Buddhist Monu- 
ments (Rs. 2X>15) and on agency charges (Rs. 1 ,865). Rs. 700 were given 
for the purchase of notice boards. Of the thirty-one boards procured, 
three were fixed on the ancient mounds at Harappa, and the rest 
are awaiting distribution. 

" Repairs to the temple at Baijnath were continued from last year, an additional Saynath 
sum of Rs. 135 being sufficient to complete the work. 

" As foreshadowed in the last year's report only such work at Suraj Kund Xuraj Kund 
as was absolutely indispensable for making the place tidy and finishing off the 
repairs already commenced was undertaken during the year at a cost of Rs. 1,405. 
The balance of the allotment, viz., Rs. 596 was reappropnated to other pur- 
poses by the Director General. 

" A sum of Rs. 25,887 inclusive of agency charges was granted for the United 
conservation and maintenance of the protected Hindu and Buddhist Monuments Provinces 
in the United Provinces. This was later supplemented by Rs. 1,068 bringing g^J[JjJJ d 
the total allotment to Rs. 26,955, but from this, the sum of Rs. 500 was handed Monuments 
over for exploration at Harappa leaving a final balance of Rs. 25,596 for con- Mr. Madho 
servation proper. From this grant, Rs. 19,955 were placed at the disposal Sarup atl 
of the local Public Works Department for (1) special repairs to several monu- 
ments or groups of monuments at Dwarahat (Rs. 6,845), (2) special repairs to 
the Fort at Garhwa (Rs. 5,000), (3) conservation of Gupta relics at Bilsar 
(Rs. 1,036), (4) completion of the surface drain to the north of the museum at 
Sarnath (Rs. T14) and (5) for annual repairs to Hindu and Buddhist monuments 
in the United Provinces (Rs. 3,173). The residue of Rs. 5,641 was allotted to 
the Archaeological Superintendent for the conservation of the Buddhist ruins 
at Sarnath including the purchase of new bricks and for the provision of notice 
boards. Thirty-seven standard enamelled notice boards were purchased and have 
been fixed at various sites or made over to the Archaeological Superintendent 
at Agra on whom will devolve the conservation of these monuments from next- 
year. A brief summary of the works carried out dunng the year under review is 

given below. 

* 



CONSERVATION 



12 



Northern 
Circle 
Mr. Madfao 
Sarup Vats 
Dwarahat 



" The conservation works upon the temples at Dwarahat which have been 
carried out under the direction of Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni from 
beginning to end were brought to completion during the year under review. 
During the year 1924-25 the areas around the six groups of temples were 
turfed and provided with quickset hedges and wicket gates and at the 
Maniyan and the Mrityunjaya groups, the Ratan Deo shrines, the Ban 
Deo temple and the Thalkuraka naula the following structural repairs 
done. 

k ' In the Maniyan group the amalakas of temples Nos. 5 and 6, which 
were lying broken have been restored and provided with finials. The small but 
entirely ruined niche lying between them was also cleared away and thick 
stumps and roots of trees growing at its back were removed. Temple 
No. 4 of this group, the southern portion of which had already collapsed, 
was attended to. The broken parts of the plinth and floor were restored, 
some underpinning done to the west wall and the remaining inclining portions 
straightened. No attempt was made to restore the superstructure of the 
southern portion. The area to the south of these three shrines had been 
washed away by heavy rains. This was raised to its original level and the 
dry stone retaining wall, which runs along the entire south side was built 
up another 3 feet. A retaining Wall had also to be built up along part of 
the east side in order to provide a space in front of shrine No. 1, and 
approach steps were constructed close to the south-east corner of the group. 
Unfortunately part of this work had to be done twice, as immediately after 
the completion of the retaining wall a heavy ram swept away a length of 52 
feet (Plate III, c). The floors of shrine No. 1 and of the mandapa of temple 
No. 2 were cleared and levelled. The bulged out walls of temple No. 2 
were set straight and its roof made Water-tight, and a pillar was also supplied 
for the mandapa of temple No. 3. 

" The Mrityunjaya group is a collection of four temples, the principal 
shrine, No. 1, consisting of a cella and mandapa, being dedicated to Siva in the 
form of mrityunjaya or the vanquisher of death. It enshrines a Sivalingam 
and a relief of Siva and Parvati, but in none of the other three shrines are 
there any objects of worship now. The crowning portion of the sikhara of 
temple No. 1 had fallen and was resting partly on the flat top of the spire 
and partly on the ground (Plate III, a). The east or front face had badly 
opened out and was repaired by rebuilding the bulged out portions and 
replacing numerous missing stones where large cracks had formed. Damaged 
stones in the sikhara were changed and secured, and the amalaka and the 
finial restored. In addition, the roof of the mandapa was plastered and 
the joints in the ceiling were made water-tight (Plate III, 6). The greater 
part of the southern wall of the mandapa had to be rebuilt with old and new 
stones. The sikhara of shrine No. 2 is missing, and the floors of the cella 
and the porch wpre hidden below a mass of 5 feet of debris which has now 
been cleared. The leaning pillars of the porch were set straight and the roof 
and walls made water-tight. The area at the back of these two temples and 



13 CONSERVATION 

to the north of No. 1 was excavated to an average depth of 4. feet and re- United 
vealed the basement of two smaller shrines. Provinces 

" The Ban Deo temple which is a deserted siMtara shrine stands on the jjjjjjjyjj* 
bank of the stream known as the Khiro. Its spire is not so attenuated as Monuments 
those of the others, nor is the severe monotony of its facade broken by 
the usual amalaka string course. Compared with the xest, it is of inferior 
technique and possibly somewhat later in date. The conservation of this shrine 
consisted in clearing the cella, removal of vegetation, replacing a missing pillar, 
rebuilding, after dismantling, part of the back wall with old and new stones 
and grouting cracks on the front face. It has also been provided with a 
dwarf retaining wall oi dry stone masonry and the enclosed area has been 
levelled and grassed (Plate III, d). 

" At the Ratan Deo group, the plinth of the common portico of the three 
principal shrines on the south was broken and has been entirely rebuilt and the 
missing amalaka of the central shrine on the west replaced. Lastly repairs 
were carried out at the Thalkuraka naula or covered spring. This is coeval 
with the Kacheri and Ratan Deo shrines, and contains in a niche in the back 
wall a beautiful image of SesJiasayi Vishnu. The god Brahma issues, as usual, 
from his naval, while Lakshmi holds his right foot, arid a representation of 
the NavagraJias is carved in the upper field. The pedestal bears an inscrip- 
tion in five lines and is dated Thursday, the seventh day of the bright half 
of Magha, ol the fiaka year 1130 or 1214 A.D. Mr. Hargreaves also noticed 
a few years ago a damaged relief of Siva and Parvati, the defaced inscription 
on which bore the year 1065 of the Saka era, but the relief is- no longer there. 
The chhajja of this naula was repaired with large stone slabs, the pavement 
in the court relaid and the compound walls repaired. 

'* For special repairs to the fort at Uarhwa in the Allahabad District only Gwhwa 
a sum of Rs. 958 was spent against the allotment of Rs. 5,000. This was paid 
to the contractor for rebuilding the western wall of the fort 4 feet high for 
a length of 75 feet. The work was actually completed last year but payment 
was withheld owing to the unsatisfactory nature of the repairs which had to 
be redone during the year under report. The balance of the allotment was 
not utilized as the local Government did not think it advisable to start a 
new work at this site as the question of transferring all conservation works 
in the United Provinces to the Archaeological Department for execution from 
the 1st April, 1925, was under consideration. 

" For the conservation of Gupta relics at Bilsar, Rs. 900 were provided, Bihar 
but the expenditure amounted to only Rs. 382 which were spent on the 
purchase from Calcutta of fencing material and depositing the same at the 
site Owing to the excavation of the site in 1923-24, it was necessary to 
alter the method of fencing as previously proposed, but correspondence on 
the subject was somewhat protracted the balance had to be surrendered. 

" Out of the sum of Rs. 2,758-12-8, being the balance .of Rs. 5,000 
vided by Mr. Khee Za Rhee, the representative of the Buddhist community 
in Calcutta, for repairs to ruins at Kasia, Re. 1,029-8-3 only were utilized, 



CONSERVATION 



14 



Northern 
Circle 
Mr. Mmdho 
Sarup Vat* 



Sarnath 



as Work could not be started earlier than the beginning of March. This sum 
was spent in conserving Monastery D, which occupies the north-western part 
of the Mathakuar-ka-kot. But even here lack of time compelled the Superin- 
tendent to leave untouched the thick coats of lime on the north and east 
walls. To understand the importance and the extent of work done, it is neces- 
sary to describe briefly the monastery itself. In plan the monastery resembles 
other Buddhist convents, but it is of a strikingly large size and of remarkably 
.solid construction. It measures 150' XI 48' on the outside and has a large 
central courtyard about 74 feet square. On each side there is a row of monks' 
cells, which open into corridors 9 to 10 feet wide (Plate IV, a). The main 
old entrance was on the east and faced the sacred Parimrvana stupa. The 
entrance was guarded by two turrets, of which traces Were found by Dr. 
Vogel in 1904-05. The outer and inner walls of the monastery are respectively 
8J and 5 feet in thickness leading Dr. Vogel to suggest that the convent may 
have been several storeys in height. This assumption is fully borne out by 
descriptions of similar buildings by the Chinese pilgrims. The cells are of 
uniform size and, like the verandahs, are paved with concrete. The court- 
yard is paved with brick tiles measuring 15i"x9"x2i" and 14"x8"x2i" 
and has two wells, one to the north and the other to the south. The top 
of the latter well, rises very much higher than the level of the original court, 
' in fact to the same height as did the mound itself before excavation (Plate 
IV, a and b). Its construction, therefore, marks the later occupation of the 
site. The other well, connected with the original floor, having been buried 
after the desertion of the monastery about 900 A D. The principal measures 
of conservation undertaken were to carefully remove the lime mortar, which 
had been plastered on the tops of the south and West walls, and to then 
build up the walls to an average height of some five or six feet. Old bricks 
were gathered from all over the site to repair the walls but, as such were not 
available to the extent required, the two courses on the top Were constructed 
of specially manufactured bricks of the same size. The brick-work throughout 
has been laid in mud mortar recessed J" behind the face, except in the case 
of three top courses which are in lime. The conserved walls have been neatly 
dressed on top with 9" of clean earth to induce the growth of grass. Before 
actual repairs could be undertaken, the thick jungle which literally enveloped 
the monument was thoroughly cleared. In this process the most laborious, 
though equally useful work has been the effective destruction of roots and trees 
growing out of joints in the walls, and from the later well in the court. 
The courtyard was also cleared of debris. 

" At Sarnath the brick drain attached to the main shrine and forecourt, 
which was repaired to a length of 40 feet last year, was cleaned and conserved 
for the remaining length of 219 feet. Its sides were repaired, the floor paved 
with old bricks, and the top recovered throughout with old stones, except 
for open spaces purposely kept at intervals to allow of easy cleaning. The 
floor of this drain under the second gateway of the Dharmachakrajinavihara 
being practically level with the flood level of the jUl to the north, the broad 



15 CONSERVATION 

channel more than 200 feet long, 40 feet broad and over 17 feet deep, exca- United 
vated last year was found insufficient to contain all the Water. It was, Provinces 
therefore, deepened further and given a slope at the bed of 1 in 50 to ^ ee P BudShSt** 
the water away from the second gateway. But during the rains even this Monuments 
was found inadequate and being kathha the channel is gradually silting up. 
This question is at present rather a troublesome one and some means will 
have to be devised to overcome it. 

" The unexcavated mound which stood between the second gateway of the 
Dharmachakrajinavihara and monastery No. 4 has been cleared and the area 
levelled and dressed. Nothing now obstructs the view between the first and 
the second gateways. The south boundary wall of the Dharmachakrajinavihara 
has been built up for a total length of 425 feet and ranging in height from 
2 to 4* feet. As old bricks in large quantities Were not available only a 
portion of the Wall could be constructed with them, the greater part being 
built with specially manufactured bricks which were used for facing, while the 
core was filled with fragmentary old bricks. In the course of clearing the 
above mound, some interesting copper antiquities lying two feet below the 
surface were discovered. They consisted of three stout bangles and three 
anklets in pieces, an arghapatra and a tiny tray, possibly, for sandal paste, 
a broken ]ug and a beautiful casket decorated with concentric ribs all over 
the body. The casket is in two portions, the upper part or lid being fitted 
round the lip of the lower and clasped to it by means of three ring hooks held 
together by a copper wire. On opening, the reliquary was found to be empty. 

" Several stupas and shrines in the forecourt of the main shrine were also 
conserved and the sides of the raised causeway in front were repaired and the 
top levelled and dressed with clean earth to a length of 130 feet (Plate IV 
c and d). 

" All the above works at Sarnath were completed at a coat of 
Rs. 2,939-6-0 including the cost ot bricks (Rs. 215). The contractor who under- 
took to supply the latter having failed to do so in time, another was asked 
if he could manufacture bricks within the period required, but he could not 
supply more than 4,000. In the circumstances, therefore, Rs. 1,359 could not 
be spent and this sum was reappropriated for the maintenance ol the Archaeo- 
logical Museum at Sarnath and the exploration work at Harappa as stated in 
a previous paragraph/' 

" The Lahore Fort having been evacuated by the Military in February Punjab 
1924 it became possible to take in hand the preliminary measures for the Muhammadan 

contemplated lav out of the archaeological area. It bad been hoped that it would ? nd * rl * l *h 

,1-1-1 1111 i Monuments 

be possible to include in the archaeological enclave the land lying between the Mr H 

Diwan-i-Am and the road in front of the present police barracks in order to Hargreavea 
arrange that the Diwan-i-Am might stand in the midst ot spacious lawns and Lahore Fort 
thus become suitable for Durbars and similar official functions. Unfortunately 
the Government of the Punjab were unable to agree to this and it will now* 
be necessary to erect the boundary fence only twenty-five feet distant from 
the edge of the platform of the Diwan-i-Am. This is to be regretted as the 



CONSERVATION 



16 



Frontier 
Circle 
Mr. H. 
Hargreav** 



Shalamar 
Gardens 



GvtibiBagh 
Gateway 



Buddhu't Tomb 



Asaj Khan's 
Tomb 



North-West 
Frontier 
Province 
Mr. H. 
Hargreaves 



Jamalgarhi 



appearance of the monument will suffer greatly in consequence of the proxi- 
mity of the fencing. 1 

" Before any decision could be reached as to the lay out of the archeeo- 
logical area it was necessary to ascertain by trial trenches what ancient 
remains of the Mughal and Sikh periods still existed underground. The opera- 
tions carried out have revealed the existence of a large tank of unsuspected 
form, some of the fountains of the Sikh period, ruined hammams and other 
structures of which drawings have been made. The dismantling of the numer- 
ous modern additions to the historical buildings has yet to be undertaken. 
The chief item of expenditure has been the six-foot iron railing to be erected 
around the historical area. 

" A scheme for the provision of Water for the proposed lawns and gardens 
has been prepared and the work will be put in hand as soon as funds become 
available. The projected works at the Lahore Fort are extensive and, even 
if funds are available from year to year, are not likely to be carried to com- 
pletion under five years. 

"No other important special conservation measures were undertaken in the 
Punjab but at the Shalamar Gardens near Lahore the iron railing on the edge of the 
upper terrace overlooking the main tank was replaced by a marble balustrade 
of appropriate design, and the east wall of the nursery garden was rebuilt. 

" In order to obtain water for the garden around the Gulabi Bagh Gateway 
on the road to Shalamar a syphon drain was made to cany canal water under 
the Grand Trunk Road. 

" The enclosed area around Buddhu's Tomb, Lahore, referred to in last 
year's report was discovered later to be the property of the North Western 
Railway. It therefore became necessary to purchase this land for which a 
sum of RH. 466 was paid. 

" Of the imposing group of monuments at Shahdera in the Sheikhupura 
District one of the most pleasing is that of Asaf Khan, the brother of Nur 
Jahan, whose tomb lies but a short distance away. For many years this 
monument, garden and extensive enclosing wall have received continuous 
attention and during the year under review Rs. 1,050 were expended in com- 
pleting the work. No formal gardening has been attempted here and the 
tomb stands in the midst of grassy lawns broken here and there by groups 
of palm and other trees. Despite its simplicity there is a sense of restful 
quietude at this site which renders it one of the most fascinating of the monu- 
ments in the neighbourhood of Lahore. Numerous trees which formerly grew 
on the brick-on-edge pavement have been removed to prevent further damage. 

''Only RB. 1,375 were expended on two special conservation works in 

the North- West Frontier. The first was the improvement of the long and 

steep path to the Buddhist monument of Takht-i-Bahi in the Mardan Tahsil of 

tho Peshawar District, the second being the conservation of a few of the recently 

1 excavated monastic buildings at Jamalgarhi, some ten miles north of Mardan." 

1 Since thw wa* written the Government of the Punjab ha* offered to make over to the Arohieologioal Department 
the whole Fort except for a small portion in one corner, Ed. 



17 CONSERVATION 



" The effects of the recommendations of the Inchcape Committee still Western 
c ontinue to be felt in the Western Circle where as a result of the shortage Circle 
of funds, the programme of works has had to be confined to strictly urgent Bombay 
measures of conservation and a number of estimates framed on the basis of' - * nff zi 
proposals of the Department, which have been awaiting allotment for several Mn K> N< * 
years,, had to be postponed further. Out of the grant of Us. 83.810 for conserve- Dikehlt 
tion Ks. 1,687 were surrendered by the Public Works Department leaving a 
balance of Us. 82,123. Works to the extent of Us. 22,330 were executed 
departmentally at various centres which included Elephanta, Karla, Shamvar 
Wada, Ahmednagar, Sarnal, Nanaghat and Jaigarh. The balance of Its. ,">9,793 
was placed at the disposal ol the Public. Works Department. The total expen- 
diture incurred during the vear on conservation amounting to Ks 70,528 exclud- 
ing agency charges is shown in Appendix A. 

"At the Elephanta caves several improvements were effected. The \von\ElepJianta 
out surfaces of the concrete blocks of the landing pier were repaired by adding 
6* of cement concrete to their height. A training wall was built over the 
top of the Main Cave to divert water from the front facade. Beside these 
measures carried out by departmental agency, the clearance of the water reser- 
voir in the west wing of the main cave was entrusted to the Public Works 
Department. The latter work was undertaken at the instance of the Public 
Health Department which objected to the unsatisfactory quality of the water? 
The amount of silt that had gathered in this reservon during the last ten 
centuries or more since its excavation, was as much as 18 feet in places. 
The variety and age of the objects discovered in course of clearance bear 
testimony to the long continued use of this cistern as the principal source 
of water supply to the dwellers of the rock-cut temples. The most remarkable 
find was that of an inscribed copper jar dating back to H)87 A.D., which 
has now been deposited in the Prince of Wales Museum, Bombay, along \\ith 
certain pottery found in the silt. After exposing the bed steps wore tuken, 
before allowing the tank to be refilled, to encase with cement the loose dis- 
integrated stone pillars left in the cistern to support the roof. 

" The removal of the unsightly stone booths from the foreground of the Karla 
Chaitya Cave at Karla was followed by further levelling and dressing which 
has considerably improved the surroundings of this impressive monument. The 
problem ol stopping the disintegrating action of rain water on the facades 
of caves in Western India is always difficult to tackle and in the case of 
Karla had assumed serious proportions, as all the water from the hill -top 
found its way in the form of a torrential stream just over the Vihara Caves. 
Elaborate arrangements were made during the year to divert the water from 
its course. Two masonry dams were built in the bed of the water courses 
on the hill-top above and a training wall was constructed, so as to restiict 
the flow to a fixed channel. The course of the stream on the level ground 
in front of the caves was further regulated and diverted o a specially eorf- 
structed channel. AJB a result of this undertaking, the flow of water over the 
cave front is now reduced to a minimum. 



CONSERVATION 



18 



Western 
Circle , 

DUnUt*** 



Nanaghat 



Sivnen 



"The further conservation of the enclosure walls of the Shanwar Wada 
Palace of the Peshwas in the city of Poona was carried out at a cost of 
Rs. 3,700 during the year. The interior facing brick-work of the northern 
and western walls was renewed with specially moulded bricks for a length of 
about COO feet. The passage on the top of the rampart which was broken 
throughout the west and part of the north sides was made level to receive 
the final course of 4* concrete terracing over it and thus render the structure 
waterproof. As the lawns laid out in the Palace grounds in front of the 
main square and over the side courts were in urgent need of a more reliable 
supply of water than the existing old reservoir in the south-east corner of 
the rampart near the Ganesh gate could give, arrangements were made with 
the Municipality of Poona city for laying a new pipe line in the Shanwar Wada 
enclosure. With the generous support of the Government of Bombay, to whose 
interest and initiative the whole scheme of the demolition of modern buildings 
and excavation and preservation of the Palace remains owes its existence, 
it is hoped that the final treatment of this sole surviving relic of the Peshwas 
in their capital will be taken up and completed before long. 

" The great inscription of Nanaghat situated in a pass of the Sahyadris 
or Western ghats, and invaluable to the student of Indian Epigraphy owing 
to its preservation of certain rare early forms of lettering and numerals, may 
aptly be described as the Hathigumpha inscription of Western India. Lying, 
picturesquely at the head of the pass, which strikes one as one of the most 
important high-ways marked out by nature for communication between the 
west coast littoral and the centre of the Deccan plateau, the Nanaghat route 
must have been in the early centuries of the Christian era the chief artery 
of the maritime commerce of the Andhra Empire, connecting the country 
round the capital Pratishthana (modern Paithan) with the port of Surparaka 
(modern Sopara). It was therefore appropriate that the Andhra kings recorded 
here their various sacrifices and pious gifts for the illumination of their 
subjects. Rao Bahadur Krishna Sastri, Government Epigraphist for India r 
who visited the place last year to revise certain readings drew attention to 
the necessity of preserving the inscribed rock-surface from further disintegra- 
tion. Measures suggested by the Archaeological Chemist were at once taken 
in hand. These consisted of rendering the roof of the cave water-tight, divert- 
ing water from the inscribed walls, stopping unrestricted access to the caves 
by erecting an expanded metal partition wall, and filling the crevices of the 
rock preliminary to the preservative treatment of the inscribed surface. Most 
of the work was completed before the monsoon and the application of the 
preservative solution, which must be done in perfectly dry weather has been 
left over for the next cold weather. 

" Anotner work executed by the department was the contribution work 
at Sivaji's birth-place, at the hill fort of Sivneri near Junnar, 56 miles 
north of Poona. TJhe hill on which the fort stands has a long history extend- 
ing from the times of the Satavahana dynasty to the period of the Maratha 
Empire, of whose founder it possesses the proud distinction of being the- 



19 CONSERVATION 

birth-place. The protected area here is of considerable extent and comprises Bombay 
the fort, which must have been built in the time of the Yadaviw of Devagiri Presidency 
in the 12th century, the three groups of Buddhist caves in the scarp of th excluding Stud 
rock below the fortifications and the fine rock-cut reservoirs of the same period, 
the Muhammadan tomb and mosque in the fort dating back to the time of 
the Nizamshahi rulers of Ahmednagar and the ruined house of the Killedar 
or commandant of the Fort, where a little two-storied room is shown as the 
birth-place of Sivaji. In such an extensive group, it has been scarcely possible 
to attempt more than the annual clearance of vegetation out of the annual 
maintenance grant. The Hon'ble Mr. 13. V. Jadhav, Minister of Education, 
Bombay, having drawn the attention of thr Hombay Government to the neces- 
sity of improving the condition of the Killeclar's house in a manner befitting 
its historical associations and through the munificence of His late Highness 
the Maharaja Scindia of Gwahor, a contribution of Us. 1,000 was made a\ till- 
able for starting the work of repairs to Sivaji's birth-place. The plinth of 
the house, scarcely visible before, has now been excavated from the debris 
and the ground plan of the building of which the existing rooms form a corner 
have been almost fully exposed. The work was in progress at the end of this 
vear, and the treatment of the existing remains is expected to continue next 
so far as funds permit. 

" One of the most important conservation works in progress in th&Sarnal 
Western Circle is the reconstruction of the GalteHvara temple at Sarnal in the 
Kaira District with the materials preserved at the site. The nwndaixi of the 
temple was carefully dismantled a few years ago as the whole structure was 
in a dangerous condition, but with the interval of several years since the stones 
were numbered and sorted, the task of resetting every stone in its proper 
position has not been rendered easier. The necessity of obtaining skilled labour 
from long distances adds also to the difficulty of executing the work. During 
the year under report, the stones of the plinth on the north of the numdafia 
were reset in their original beds and preparations were made for setting aright 
the pillars of the mattdaiM. 

" At the Fariabagh or the Water Palace of the Nizamshahi kings of Ahmed- Ahtnednagar 
nagar, certain preliminary works were done, such as clearance of debris, 
repairs to the steps leading to the roof, and provision of an expanded metal 
doorway. These were considered necessary before taking m hand the actual 
meausres of strengthening the terraced roof of the building. The complex of 
baths and other buildings found in the course of excavation in the Ahmed- 
nagar Fort was treated in accordance with the requirements of the Military 
authorities, who hold charge of the Fort. The work done during the year 
includes the provision of a wire-fence to demarcate the limits of the archaeo- 
logical area and the filling up of certain low portions of the excavated build- 
ings, after having entered them on the plans preserved for record. 

*' The Fort of Jaigarh in the Ratnagiri District protects Jhe entrance to the Joigark 
important port of the same name, which was at one time one of the chief 
ports of southern Konkan. The fortifications consisting of an upper and a 

x2 



Western 
Circle 

Mr. K. N. 
Dikshit 



Molwnjo-daro 



Bijapur 



CONSERVATION 20 

lower enclosure arc supposed to have been built by the Sultans of Bijapur 
in the 10th century. The mam entrance to the sallyport in the lower enclosure 
"rienr the se.i was in urgent need of repairs, the voussoirs of the arch and the 
parapet wall on the top of the gateway being in danger of collapsing. The 
officers of the Public Works Department favoured the course of dismantling 
and rebuilding, but it, was considered more desirable to keep the old arches 
intuct and strengthen them by careful grouting. On the instructions of Sir 
John Marshall the repairs were undertaken departmentally and the voussoirs 
have been successfully treated with grouting and the gateway has been given 
u fresh lease of life. 

" While conducting the excavation at Mohenjo-daro, opportunity was taken 
by the Archaeological Superintendent to erect at the cost of Rs. 2,992 a few 
rooms to house the tents, tools, furniture and minor antiquities and to serve 
as quarters for the staff employed to look after the remains throughout the 
year 

" The preservation of the great dome of the Got Gumbaz at Jtijapur is 
work winch requires the constant solicitude and meticulous care of all officers 
entrusted with its charge. The measures begun last year which aimed at 
maintaining intact the fabric of the dome, were continued during the year 
under review and the wider cracks in the external plaster were carefully 
Vepaired strictly m accordance with the old method of construction. The work 
of repairing the fallen patches of plaster in the soffit of the dome is now 
being taken in hand, an expenditure of Ks. 70 being reported during the year 
for erecting the scaffolding necessary for preparing a detailed estimate of the 
work. The magnitude and difficulty of the work can be imagined when it 
is remarked that the apex of the dome is over 150 feet from the ground floor 
and this will have to be reached by the scaffolding when the central part of 
the soffit is taken in hand. 

"The tower in the heart of the city of Hijapur known as Haidari or 
Upli Buruj was another monument under repairs during the year. It is said 
to have been built m 1584 A. D. by Haidar Khan, a famous general of the 
Bijapur forces in the time of Ah Adil Shah and Ibrahim Adil Shah II and 
presumably served the purpose of a watch-tower, as it commands a good 
view of the whole city within the walls, as also of the country beyond all 
round. A stone parapet wall was constructed on the outside edge of the steps 
of the helical stairway leading to the top, to prevent the possibility of 
accident, as the tower is a favourite resort of the citizens of Bijapur. Other 
monuments where special repairs were in progress at Bijapur during the year 
under report were the Uagan and Asar Mahals. The tank in the courtyard 
of 1he latter Mahal is a link in the chain of the Adilshahi water-works leading 
from the Begnm Talao to the Gol Gumbaz. Unfortunately the silting up of 
the tank and the connecting channels led to the complete stoppage of water 
in the Gol Gumba/ area. It was therefore with the object of renewing the 
old supply of water in the Gol Gumbaz as a preliminary to the lay out of 
lawns in the grounds, that the work of clearing silt from the Asar Mahal 



21 CONSRKVATTON 

tank and intervening water -towers has been taken in hand. At Torvi, 4 miles Bombay 
from Bijapur the short-lived capital of Ibrahim Adil Shah, the work of 
pinning the spalled brickwork of the lofty compound walls ot the Nan Mahal 1 
was resumed. 

"At Badami, the beautiful capital of the early Hialukyas, further improve- Badami 
ments have been made near the Jaina Cave in the northern group. The space- 
in front of the cave has been widened by providing a retaining wall and 
filling up the intervening area up to the plinth level of the cave. The Juina 
Cave probably had at one time independent means of access to the tank on 
the east, since fallen into disuse, the present pathway from the Krahmanicul 
group of caves having been recently made through the Htone wall which sepa- 
rated it from the Juina enclave. The open court in front of Cave No. 4 (old 
No. 3) has now been properlv levelled and dressed and the whole group now 
presents a neat and impressive appearance. The special repairs to the Suvali 
temple, also of the early Chalukya period, perched on the top ot one of the 
spurs in the northern hill at Badami, were brought to a completion during 
the year. The north and west face* of the basement of the temple are now 
cleared of debris and reveal a frieze ot sculptured panels in good preserva- 
tion, depicting scenes from the early life of Krishna and other mythological 
incidents. 

"Reference was made in last year's report to the temples at I \ittud kalJVi//<uM and 
and Aiholo Detailed site plans have now been prepared showing how much 
{Additional land will lc required for the preservation of these IAVO most im- 
portant groups of monuments. 

" The port of Bhatkal in the Kanara District, the southernmost town of 
the Bombay Presidency, is famous for a group of temples built in a peculiar 
style where stone is exclusively used even in the sloping roofs. One of these 
temples, known as the Narasimha Devasthana, which was in serious disrepair, 
was taken in hand this year. The repairs consisted of the renewal and replace- 
ment of fallen members of the roof and holding them together by means of 
copper clamps and dowels, the stopping of open joints in the roof with suitably 
coloured mortar and other minor works. Karwar being a great distance from 
headquarters the supervision of works in the District IB rendered very difficult. 

"The surroundings of the ancient temple of the ' Chalukyan ' style dis- 
covered under the rampart of the fort at Sholapur were further improved 
during 1924-25 by underpinning the loose overhanging masonry of the fort 
wall and constructing a buttress against the east wall of the inner gateway. 
The area inside the barbican of the fort was properly levelled and drained bv 
cleaning earth accumulation and exposing the old water-outlets. 

"The group of Brahmanical caves probably of the 10th or llth century Anton 
situated at a distance of about 2 miles from Ankai Railway Station have 
been made more accessable by constructing a night of regular masonry steps 
to the top of the hill and the front face of the two caves has been cleared by 
removing the earth accumulation. It is proposed to trace the old drainage 



CONSERVATION 



Western channels on the cave-top and then arrange, if necessary, to divert the water 

Circle now failing over ^j ]e f ron ^ f ace O f ne Cav e 8 . 

Dik'shit " " -^e hill-fort * Pratabgarh near Mahabaleswar, the summer residence 

Pratabgarh * *^ e Government of Bombay, is one of the most famous in early Maratha 
history, as being the scene of the murder of the Adilshahi General, Afzal 
Khan, by Sivaji and the complete rout of the Bijapur forces in 1659 A.D. 
The tomb of Afzal Khan which was declared protected several years ago has 
recently attracted a number of votaries, whose pious activities have well-nigh 
destroyed the pristine simplicity of the original structure. A sum of Rs. 900 
was spent during the year for rebuilding a collapsed corner of the retaining 
wall, but it has since been decided to leave the future maintenance of this 
monument to the Provincial Government. 

Akmedabad " The management of the endowment of the tomb of Shah Alum at 

Ahmedabad, a monument famous for its wonderful stone jali work, is vested 
in the Collector of Kaira, who made an allotment of Rs. 5,000 during the 
current year for certain necessary repairs to the shrme. The work executed 
consisted of rebuilding some portions of the compound wall, renewal of the 
floor of the caretaker's quarters, fixing iron doors into the underground tank 
and the provision of piano wire netting in the tomb to stop the nuisance 
caused by bats. 

Mahmudnbad " Of Muhammadan well architecture in Gujarat, the Bhamaria well near 

Mahmudabad in the Kaira District is an important specimen and was taken 
jn hand for conservation during the year. The disintegrated brickwork of the 
walls of the octagonal chambers in the first underground floor was carefully 
repaired with bricks laid in, lime mortar. The broken steps of the stair- 
way have been made good and the plan of the structure at the present ground 
level exposed in the course of clearance. 

Hyderabad " The Haram of the Talpur Mirs, the last ruling dynasty of Sind, situated 

/Siwrf) in the fort at Hyderabad, is a modest building dating from the end of the 

eighteenth century. Its chief interest lies in the multi-coloured painted designs 
on the walls and roof of its main apartment. The high plinth, on which the 
building stands, being rather unsound, had to be supported by a retaining 
wall of brick masonry. Other necessary repairs to the verandah roof and 
wooden pillars were also done. 

Naokot " The Fort at Naokot in the Thar and Parkar District is situated far 

away in the interior of the sandy wastes of the Thar desert. The heavy rain- 
fall of 1919 and subsequent years having seriously damaged the rampart of the 
fort, it was considered necessary to fill up the numerous gaps in the stone- 
work to prevent the penetration of water into the structure. The surface was 
accordingly made water-tight and all vegetation cleared. Suitable earthenware 
spouts have now been provided for the disposal of rain water from the walls 
in future." 

Central Circle " In the rentral circle durin 8 tte y ear under review a sum of Rs. 36,881 

Mr. J. A. Page in all (exclusive of agency charges) was expended on the conservation of 
ancient monuments. 



23 CONSERVATION 

"Of this amount Ks. 16,716 were spent in the Provinces of Bihar and Bihar and 
Orissa, namely, Rs. 13,496 on special "repairs and RB. 3,220* on annual repairs Orissa 
and maintenance and the residue of Rs. 20,165 in the Central Provinces and 
Berar, where Rs. 10,074 were spent on special repairs and RB. 10,088 on annual Jfalanda 
repairs. 

" The operations at Nalanda in Bihar were carried out by the Archaeo- 
logical Superintendent direct ; but all other conservation works in the Central 
Circle were done through the agency of the Public Works Department. 

" On the conservation of the monastic remains excavated at Nalanda, a 
sum of Rs. 9,998 was spent during 1924-25 out of a total grant of Rs. 10,000. 2 
A brief note on the outstanding features of this Buddhist site is given in the 
account under exploration (pages 82-86 ^nfra)^ and need not be repeated here. 

" The existence of numerous successsive levels of occupation in the same 
structure, which is a prominent characteristic of all the remains yet uncovered 
at Nalanda, necessarily imports considerable complication into the work ot 
excavation and repair ; for it is the aim in conserving these remains to exhibit 
as far as possible a definite portion of each structure erected on the one site, 
from the earliest to the last. Walls that emerge too badly shattered to pre- 
serve, are being reconstructed with new materials in strict conformity with the 
old work, the constructional features of which are being reproduced in the 
new repair. 

et No attempt is being made to raise the walls of these monasteries beyond 
what is necessary to reveal their planning ; and no feature is being reconstructed 
for wh:ch definite warrant is not forthcoming from the internal evidence the 
site affords. " Restoration " IB a word rightly in bad odour among critics 
of the 1 9th Century repairers of English historical buildings ; and if the work 
is avoided in reference to the works at Nalanda, so are the sins it has come 
to connote. 

" Monastery No. I. Among the individual sites affected wan Monastery 
No. I noteworthy for the nine separate levels of occupation it embraces- 
where the badly undermined wall of the courtyard m the N.-E. quarter was 
underpinned. This operation entailed cutting out the badly bulging parapets 
of the two earliest levels of occupation, and reconstructing them with nev- 
bricks of the same large size as the old ones. 

" As those bulging parapets carried the whole of the weight of a high 
wall built directly on their ruins at a later period, their removal and replace- 
'ment had necessarily to be carried out with considerable care; and the work 
was done in short lengths of 3 feet at a time, after the supporting earth in 
that distance had been removed. Some eighty feet run of this underpinning, 
of an average height of about 6 feet, has been done, and only the contiguous 
side of the later *' caves "-structure now remains to be similarly supported, 
when the whole of the N.-E. quarter of the monastery, representing the earliesi 



* Includes expenditure on Nalanda and on enamel notices incurred by the Archaeological Superintendent diiect 
1 The original grant wa RB. 7,500, which waa subsequently increased by reappiopnation. 



CONSERVATION 24 



Central Circle l eve l of occupation, can be safely exposed to view . Reference to this operation 
Mr. J. A. Pafte is also made in the account of the excavations earned out on the site (pages 
82-86 vtifra). 

" Another work done in this monastery \vb the repair of the originally 
( olonnaded chabutra that projects into the courtyard from the south wall. 
Tin 1 missing portions of the later cut-brick facing (coincident with the 3rd 
earliest level of occupation in the court) were made good on all three sides, 
with the exception of a short length on the front, which has been omitted to 
show the plain brjck facing of the earlier chabutra behind it. On the north 
side of this cJiabutta, where the earth has been reduced to reveal the earliest 
level of occupation, the exposed foundations of the cut-brick facing have been 
supported on a system of concrete piers and lintels, so that both earlier and 
later structures can be seen here. 

" The west end of the south external wall of this monastery, together 
with its contiguous coll. has been built up where it abuts on monastery No. 
I-A, thus marking the separate entity of each of those two adjoining buildings. 

" Monastery No. I-A.- The most extensive repairs were done at Monastery 
site F-A, situated to the immediate south-west of Monastery I. The walls 
here, as excavated some 4 years ago, were in so altogether shattered a Condi- 
tion that the greater part of them has had to be rebuilt with new materials 
(Plato V, a, b, c and d). In this reconstruction work many points of interest 
came to notice, and the careful study and correlation of fragmentary items of 
evidence in the old remains has peimitted the reconstruction of several features 
in the new work that might easily have been overlooked. Thus, it has been 
possible by inference to ascertain the precise construction of the door-frames 
and woodwork in the openings of the monks' cells , and, while the actual join- 
ery is not being replaced, the peculiar brick construction of the walls in which 
it was fixed has been indicated in the new repair. 

" These door-frames were constructed in a very different fashion from those 
of the present day. They had a double sill : one, of which the ends passed 
into Square holes in the jambs on either side, and another immediately below 
and in front of it to help xo keep it in position. This latter sill also was car- 
ried into the walls at each end for one-third of its height, and the brickwork 
actually built over it This curious construction, though of interest, is techni- 
cally unsound ; and evidence of its unsoundness was afforded wholesale in the 
collapse of the old jambs above it where the wood had either decayed or had 
been reduced to charcoal in the ruin of the monastery by fire. 

" Other points of constructional interest in these old doorways that have 
been retrieved and repeated in the new work are the curious square slots, some 
8* square and 20* deep, that were left in the brickwork of one jamb imme- 
diately inside the door frames. A clue to the purpose of these was obtained 
in the find of charcoal and a burnt iron hook and chain-link in a correspond- 
ing hole in the* entrance gateway of Monastery I adjacent, and it became at 
once apparent that these holes served to accommodate short wooden beams or 
bars that could be drawn forward to fasten the doors, which must necessarily 



25 CONSERVATION 

have been a single leaf swung from the opposite jamb (for with such a method Win and 
of fastening, it could not have been a double one, hinged from both j 
and meeting in the middle of the opening), and moreover must have opened 
inwards into the cell and not outwards to block the verandah. 

" In the opposite jambs of the cell doorways were discovered the ruined 
remains of deep little niches oi corbel construction, which turned on themselves 
at right-angles, forming a letter " L " in plan. These would be concealed by 
the door when open. A similar niche, but shallower and of simple square plan, 
occurred in the side walls of the cells themselves , and these, too, have been 
reconstructed in the new work 

" The fragmentary remains of the mam entrance doorway of this monas- 
tery, again, have been rebuilt breast-high on the internal evidence they afforded 
and on the analogv of the almost identical doorway in Monastery No. T, o{ 
which much more of the old work is extant . und here, too, the original method 
of affixing the door frames and joinery has been indicated in the repair. The 
concrete floor of this entrance vestibule has also been made good in conformity 
with the old work, necessary drainage bring effected bv a slight slope toward 8 
the entrance threshold 

" Another feature of interest that, came to light in this work was the 
existence, in the thickness of the " party- wall " between this monastery and^ 
Monastery I-B to its west, of a long narrow passage, which connecting at its 
north end with si cell of Monastery I-A, led out round the south-west corner 
of Monastery T-B a sort of f ' ba<,k stairs " exit for the monks. At the north 
end of this passage were disclosed the foundations of a straight stair leading 
up to the connecting loofs of the two monasteries, direct descent fiom which 
again into Monasterv F-B was provided bv u dog-legged 1 stair found in its 
.north-east corner. 

* Thus, private communication was aifcmled between the two adjoining 
monasteries and between both and the open court at the lear of them ; and 
the " unofficial " character of this jacibty is indicated in the very low, narrow, 
niche-like entrance, high in the wall of the north-west corner cell of Monastery 
No. J-A, to get through which would require considerable agility. The extreme 
lowness of this little opening was doubtless due to theie not being .sufficient 
space between its sill and the cell ceiling above, to permit of its being made 
higher. But one thinks of the discovery oi the gaming dice in a cell here 
last year ; and wonders if this very convenient and unobstrusive feature of th e 
monastery plan had any bearing on it The connecting stair in Monastery 1-A 
has been partly reconstructed in the repair, together with its concrete treads 
and risers. 

" Flanking the entrance of a typically planned monastery here at Nalanda 
have always been found two deep cells, in which no doorway or othnr normal 
means of access has been apparent. It seemed probable that they were used 

x " Dog-legged ", it should perhaps be explained, is the technical name given to a stair that ascends for half 
its height to a landing and then turns on itself in the opposite direction to complete the asoent, so that in section 
,the stair reaembles in shape a dog's hind leg. 



CONSERVATION 26 

< 

Central Circle ,as stores for treasured possessions or, more likely perhaps, for grain. A point 
Mr. J. A. Pagec] eare( j U p j n the reconstruction of the walls of Monastery I-A to the east of 
its main entrance was the means of access provided to these cells in this par- 
ticular case. An adjacent stair was heing repaired, which careful study of its 
fragmentary remains revealed to be a " dog-legged " construction, rising for 
half its height to a landing and then turning again in the opposite direction 
to leach the roof Fn one coiner of the landing, tiaces of the filled-in jambs 
oi a small opening coi belled ovei at the top were found, an opening through 
which a man on all fours could just crawl. This was carefully cleared, and 
j1 proved to be the entrance to a narrow passage that curved round and led 
into the adjacent store cell, which it entered at a height of about 12 feet 
from the floor. 

" Tho question arose, why so small and low an opening when apparently 
the height available above the landing that gave on to it was sufficient for an 
opening that one could enter upright ? The answer disclosed itself in the ves- 
tiges of beam-holes lu the cell wall that originally contained the timbers of the 
ceiling and thus limited the height available for access to the store cell from 
the stuir landing. These and similar points lend much interest to the conser- 
vation of an ancient nun, and incidentally illustrate the importance oi Hie 
closest supei vision in the conduct of such operations. 

" The walls oi this Monastery No. 1-A have now been carried up to 
suitable height (varying between 3 and 8 ieet) on all foui sides, together 
with the cells along them , and practically the whole of the repair needed for 
this building has been made. The Wall-tops have all been concreted over to 
keep them water-tight, and on this concrete brick-bats and earth have been 
laid to facilitate the giowth oi giass and so induce a more natuial appeal ance 
of ruin. 

" The floors of the verandah and cells have been made good with rammed 
biick, and the thresholds of the cells with concrete, in accordance with old 
work ; and except for the repair of the lines of cooking cJiulas found in the 
centre of the courtyard, which will be done next year, the conservation of this 
monastery is now complete. 

" Monastery No. I-B. Here in this smaller monastery, which abuts on 
Monasteiy I-A lo the east, the external wall on the east side was raised some 
3 feet higher, and the cell walls contiguous to it, which were tadly ruined, 
were rebuilt from the floor level. Jn the north-east corner the Walls of a dog- 
legged stair found on the cleaiance of debris have been leconstructed, togethei 
with its concrete steps , the rums as disclosed being too shattered to repair. 
This stair and its connection with that in the adjacent monastery ,I-A have 
been mentioned earlier in this account. The badly ruined entrance hall and 
gateway on the north of the monastery, of which the merest vestiges remained, 
have been built up, and the lower of the concrete floors here repaired ; care 
hav.ni; been taken,, to preset ve and leave open to view the features .of both 
earlier and later structures erected on this same site, with an interval of some 
seven feet between their respective floor levels. The corresponding pavement. 



27 CONSERVATION 

in the cells, too, have been left exposed, the upper pavement over the eastern Bihar and 
half and the lower over the Western half of the monastery. Ofissa 

" Inside the small courtyard of this monastery, at the later level, a length 
of the concrete parapet, which projected some 8 inches beyond the face of the 
earlier wall beneath it, has been supported on a pair of reinforced concrete 
lintels, similar to those to be described below. This expedient has permitted 
the earth to be removed over half the court to expose to view the brick 
paving of the earlier monastery, so that here also the remains of both periods 
can now be seen. 

" The wall-tops of this monastery, again, have all been made water-tight 
with a layer of concrete, concealed beneath a further covering of brick-bats 
and earth ; the thresholds of the surrounding cells have been made good with 
concrete, together with those of the later entrance vestibule ; and the floors 
of the cells and of the inner verandah have been consolidated with rammed 
brick ; so that the conservation of this monastery also, which was brought to 
light two years before in an extremely shattered condition, is now complete 
(Plate VI, a and b). 

" The completion of the repairs needed tor these two adjoining monas- 
teries, designated I-A and I-B, during the past year, represents very substantial 
progress ; for together they cover an area of some 21,000 square feet and theif 
walls, seven feet thick and more, have had to be raised in many places from 
several feet below floor level. This progress has only been possible through 
the manufacture on the site itself of the special large brick required for the 
purpose . 

" Monastery No. 4, situated immediately north of Monastery No 1, also 
received attention, and the projecting facing of a later Wall built around the 
shrine chambei of an earlier monastery was similarly supported on a series of 
nine reinforced concrete lintels constructed on the site (Plate VI, c and d), 
The lintels Were affixed over short lengths oi rail-iron let into the earlier wall 
beneath the later projecting face ; and theii reinforcement was contrived by 
the simple, though effective, expedient of embedding in both areas of the 
" resistance couple " galvanized iron-wire netting, so that the lintels could be 
used either side up. This, the most urgent Work demanded in Monastery No. 
4, was the only repair carried out here during the year. 

" Brick-Making Op&ratwns.- A round lakh of large " Gupta " bricks aver- 
aging IS'XIO'XS" m size have been made this year on the site, and their 
manufacture has greatly facilitated the progress of the conservation work on 
these monuments. 

"It is no exaggeration to say that the Work has been speeded up to five 
times its rate than when the larger fragments of old bricks had to be gathered 
from the debris, dressed and cut for use in these repairs ; and the cost has 
been reduced correspondingly. * 

*' In the current year the cost of making a lakh of these bricks works 
.out at approximately Ks. 31 per 1,000, us against tne Rs. 56 per 1,000 in the 

F2 



CONSERVATION 28 

Central Circle estimates for this work obtained from outside contractors. 1 Though their manu- 

Mr J. A* Page fibture throughout the winter months involves a great deal of extra trouble, 

especially in times of wet and unsettled weather, 2 it is gratifying to be able 

to record how largely this work has helped on the conservation of the Nalanda 

remains. 

" At Rajgir, a sum of Rs. 323 was spent against an estimate of Rs. 967 
towards the conservation of the ancient walls of the Old and New forts. The 
ancient history and the antiquities of Rajgir have been discussed at length in 
the Annual Report for 1905-06. The inner walls of the Old City were con- 
tained within the plain bounded by the enclosing hills ; and the outer forti- 
fications have been traced over a line up and down hill from Vaibharagiri over 
Sonagiri, thence to Udayagiri and along the southern range of hills to Giriak, 
and so back at intervals over Saligiri, Chhatagiri, Ratnagiri and Vipulagiri, 
over a distance that agrees closely with the 150 U (approximately 25 miles}> 
mentioned as the length of their circuit by Yuan Chwang, the Chinese Bud- 
dhist pilgrim, who visited the locality early in the 7th century A.D. The 
fortifications, which are built of massive undressed stones, are standing at their 
greatest height on the east and west of the Banganga pass, where their eleva- 
tion is about 12 feet. It in here that the greater number of the original 
bastions are still to be seen ; and other features of interest in the walls are 
the stairs, or rather ramps, which give access to the top. Watch towers, 
erected at a later date, are also in evidence, and conspicuous among them is 
the tower on the Vaibhara Hill, which has been identified with the " Pipala 
Stone House " described by the pilgrims Fa Hian and Yuan Chwang. The 
walls of this tower have a slight batter, and towards the base contain numer- 
ous small cell-like chambers entered through openings about 3 feet high. It is 
in this structure that the Buddha is reputed to have dwelt while at Raja- 
griha. This tower, which is now better known locally as Jara-sandh-ki-baithak, 
s among the remains that are under repair here, which also embrace the ruins 
of the north entrance gateway to the Old City, a zig'zag length of wall that 
ascends the hill side to the east as one passes through the defile towards the 
Banganga River, and further a length of the wall of the New Fort, with its 
contiguous bastions, in the immediate vicinity of the Dak Bungalow. It is, of 
course, impossible to take active measures to preserve the whole circuit of the 
remains, and attention has therefore been concentrated on these portions as 
being more readily accessible to the visitor. Here, again, no restoration is 
being attempted : all that is being done is the clearance of jungle-growth 
from the remains and the replacement of the large stones that have fallen 
rom the facing and now lie at the foot of them. The repair of the modern 
wall erected around the so-called " Shell inscription " cut in the rock-path 
through the small defile, which was in progress from the previous year, was 
completed at a total cost of Rs. 246 against an estimate of Rs. 245, Re. 38 

1 Th repnuenti ft toUl wring of some R. 2,400. 

<tavytagteeatowhfta"bhtt"wM #- 

regard to the MtUorologioft] Depftrtment'i view.. 



29 CONSERVATION 

being spent during the year under review. Furthermore the Sonbhandftt cave BifeftfjUKt 
at the southern foot of the Vaibhara Hill, a Jain monument excavated in OHM* v 
about the 3rd or 4th century A.D. and the so-called Maniyar Math, a briok 
monument of the same approximate date which was brought to light during 
the excavations of 1906-06 have now been made more accessible to the visitor 
by the cutting of a foot-path through the dense jungle around them. Provi- 
sion for this work was included in the estimate mentioned above. 

" The New Fort under reference above lies some two -thirds of a mile out- 
side the northern entrance to the valley containing the Old City. Protected by 
a wall of massive masonry, it appears to have resembled an irregular pentagon 
in shape, with a circuit of some 3 miles. On the south, towards the hill, a 
portion of the interior was cut off to form a citadel, and here some sections 
of the wall are still in fair preservation. It is on this side that the repair 
is to be done. 

" A curious little monument that received attention during the year is Colgong 
the Rock Temple at Colgong in the Bhagalpur District. A solid masB of gra- 
nite with a small excavation in its south side forming a cell, it stands promi- 
nently on a small hill close to the Ganges. With its sloping sides and barrel- 
shaped roof, it is reminiscent in a way of an early structural chaitya. The 
temple is peculiar in style and is probably assignable to the 7th or 8th century 
A.D. The works carried out here comprised the construction of a foot-path 
up the hill side to render the temple more accessible, and the erection of a 
notice board under Section 5 of the Ancient Monuments Preservation Act, on 
which a sum of Rs, 61 was spent against an estimate ol Rs. 86, 

" The special repairs in hand against an estimate of Rs. 3,557 on the two Po/ommt 
old Chero Forts at Palamau were completed at a total cost of Rs. 3,588, a 
sum of Rs. 178 being spent in the year under review. The Forts are located 
deep in the jungle of the Forest Reserve, and the principal item of the work 
was for jungle clearance from the ciroumvallations of the old structures. Though 
the estimated work has been completed, much more remains to be done to 
reclaim the old walls from the ever-encroaching jungle, land it is hoped to 
fund a further estimate of Rs. 4,281 next year to carry on this work. A 
description of these forts, known respectively as the Purana and Naya QUa, 
and a note on their history, from their founding in the first half of the 17th 
century A.D. by Medni Rai and his son, respectively, to their surrender to 
the East India Company in 1772, have already been given in the report on thiy 
work for the year 1922-23. 

" On the repair of a number of the temples at Bhuvanesvar, which has Bhwcmeavar 
been in progress since 1922-23, a further sum of Rs. 1,589 was spent during 
the year under review, making a total expenditure to date of Rs. 3,000 against 
an estimate, as revised, of Rs. 4,0*0. The works in hand are of a minor 
nature and embrace fifteen different shrines. A* remarked in the previous 
year's report on this work, the repairs consist fwrintsipally in the provision ol 
expanded metal doors for the openings in the shrines to exclude bjrds and 
animals, minor fepalfcs to masonry, jungle awdication and the like. These 



CONSERVATION 30 

Central Circle monuments, with the single exception of the Raja Rani shrine, are not now 
Mr. J. A. Pafu protected under the Act VII of 1904, since it has not been possible to recon- 
cile the divergent points of view of the Archaeological Department and the 
Temple Committee in regard to the appropriate manner of their preservation 
and the measures requisite to that end. As a special case the Government 
of India have agreed to finish certain repairs commenced prior to the raising 
of thin issue, and on these repairs being completed, responsibility for the preser- 
vation of the temples will devolve on the Managing Committee. Noteworthy 
among these shrines under repair is the Parasuramesvar temple, probably the 
earliest of the whole group and dating from about the 8th century A.D.; the 
Maghesvara, representative of a middle period of development; the Vetal Deul, 
with its horizontal Dravidian features blended into the dominent verticality 
of the Indo-Aryan style ; and the Raja Rani, exhibiting the later development 
of this temple architecture. A descriptive account of these Orissan temples 
and of the local evolution of the Indo-Aryan style of architecture that they 
exhibit is contained in the report for the year 1922-23, to which a reference 
in invited for particulars of interest in this connection. 

Khandagin and " Special repairs were commenced during the year under review on the famous 
Odmgvn Jaina Caves excavated in the Khandagin and Udaigiri Hills in the Pun District, 

against an estimate of Rs. 690, and a sum of Rs. 474 was spent. The work 
comprises principally the erection of simple square pillars to support a detached 
mass of rock above the Khaudagiri Cave ; the tilling in with concrete of a 
wide fissure in the top of the Tatwa Cave No. II, after the removal of the 
covering earth above ; jungle clearance generally and the improvement of foot- 
pathfe to the caves ; and the removal of daubings of red lead, turmeric and 
whitewash from the cave sculptures, which had been applied by visiting pil- 
grims. The caves, which date from about the middle of the 2nd century B.C., 
have often been deacribed, but it may be of interest here to recall that the 
practice of excavating them from the solid rock originated in Egypt and found 
its way into India through Persia and the rock-cut tombs of the Acheemenian 
kings. Distinguished from the Buddhist caves of Western India by an entire 
absence of chaitya halls, these Orissan caves are all Jaina in origin ; but per- 
haps their archaeological importance is best exemplified in the evolution of the 
indigenous sculptural forms that they exhibit, with the advent and eventual 
disappearance of the Western Asiatic influences that affected them as they 
passed into the Christian era. And the epigraphic importance of the Khara- 
vela Inscription in the Hathi Gumpha Cave here, with its record of campaigns 
in the Andhra Dominions of the Deccan and in Magadha in the 2nd century 
B.C., is well known. 

Konarak " Monuments under maintenance embrace the following : the Black Pagoda 

at Konarak, and the Museum erected in 1914-15 in its vicinity to accommodate 
the many fallen sculptures recovered on the site. Built in the 13th century 
by Narasimha I of the Eastern Gangs dynasty, this Surya shrine is perhaps 
one of the most noble monuments dedicated to the service of Hinduism. Of 
stupendous size, perfectly proportioned, and with a delicate and profuse orna- 



81 CONSERVATION 

mentation subdued to broad effects, the temple, even in its present state of Bihar and 
ruin, is profoundly impressive ; and in its original entirety compelled the ad- 
miration of the muslim Abul Fazl, who describes it in his Ain-i-AEbaris A 
prominent feature of the design is the high plinth, carved with numerous 
wheels, on which the shrine is set up, the whole being intended to represent 
the Rath or chariot of the Bun-god Arka, to which the temple is dedicated ; 
and grouped around the mass are figures of colossal elephants, tigers and caparisoned 
horses. A smaller temple of Mahadevi and a Nat Mandir or dancing hall 
exist in the same enclosure, which measured some 890' X 540' and originally 
was bounded by a battlemented wall, of which little trace, however, now 
remains. The name " Black Pagoda " originated with the early European 
mariners, for whom the monument served as a convenient landmark, and it 
is so mentioned in the diary of Sir Streynsham Master, Governor of Fort 
St. George (Madras), in connection with a vojage along the coast in 1675 A.D. 

" The Barabati Fort at Cuttack was built by Mukandadeva, the last indepen- Cuttack 
dent Hindu ruler of Gris^a, in the latter half of the 16th century A,D. Main- 
tenance here, however, is limited to the moat walls and the entrance gate ; 
for nothing now remains to indicate the original internal arrangements of the 
fort, which the Ain-i-Akbari describes as containing a palace of nine courts. 
Apart from the Mosque within the area, which is not maintained by the Ar- 
chseological Department, the only structure extant above the moat walls is the 
entrance gateway, which is &aid to have been subsequently erected by a Gov- 
ernor under the Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah in A.D. 1760. And this gate- 
way is badly shattered by the ingrown roots of a great bar tree that rises 
from the top of the gate itself. Picturesque a feature as this great tree is, 
it undoubtedly imperils the existence of the ruined gateway, especially during 
a high wind, and it is hoped to fund an estimate next year for its removal 
piece-meal from the ruins, preliminary to putting them in weather-tight repair. 

"At Sirpur, in the Eaipur District, the shelter under constmction to Central 
accommodate the many Buddhist, Sivaite and Vishnuite sculptures collected Province* 
from the surrounding jungles, was completed at a total cost ol Ks. 4,308, Mr ' J * 
against an estimate of Es. 4,349. Tbe shelter has teen built in the immediate wpw 
vicinity of the old brick temple of lak&lman, the ruins of which, reputed to 
date from the 9th century A.D., weie jut into rejair a few years before. The 
shelter is a structure of biick piers roofed with concrete on jack-arches, and 
has been erected on an old falla platfcim Keasuriig scnue 70 feet and 36 

feet. 

" At Chanda, the work of building up the fallen inner front of the Acha- Chanfo 
lesvar Gate of the fat, which was staittd two jeais ago, is now all but com* 
plete, a sum of Bs, 3,700 having leen sjent on it up to the end of March 
1925, against an estimated cost of Ks, 3,8SO. As stated in the pievious year's 
report, this work reflects much credit on the Public Work* Department officers 
concerned, for the difficulties attending it were oousideiable. The only recmd 
of the gate available, from which its original fe&tmes could fce reconstructed 
was an enlargement of a photograph taken before its collapse, which the 



CONSERVATION 



Central Circte 
Mr. J, A. 



Marktmd* 



Archaeological Superintendent Was able to supply. The Achalesvar gate is one 
four main gates affording entry into the Chanda Fort, which, is reputed 
to have been built in the 16th century A.D., and is perhaps the most im- 
portant and best preserved monument of the Gonds that has survived to pre- 
sent times. Certain of the other gates have also fallen into disrepair, and it 
is hoped to take up the work of their conservation next year, if funds are 
forthcoming. On the maintenance of the fort walls generally an additional 
sum of Rs. 425 was spent. A description of the Chanda Fort and a brief 
history of the Gonds have been given in the report for the year 1922-23, to 
which a reference is invited. 

" On the Balapur Fort, in the Akola District, the conservation of which 
was continued from the previous year, a sum of Rs. 3,000 Was spent, making 
a total expenditure of Rs. 5,295 to the end of March, against an estimate 
of Rs. 8,700. The outer walls of this old brick tort, which was erected about 
the middle of the 18th century by Ismail Khan, the first Nawab of Ellichpur 
under the Nizam of Hyderabad, had suffered dilapidation, and a bastion on 
the north side and another on the west had collapsed, together with a length 
of an adjacent curtain wall. The fallen portions are being rebuilt about breast 
high from the foundations, the earth above them will be dressed back to 
" natural slope " and stone-pitched to facilitate the drainage of surface water 
and the broken ends of the adjacent walls underpinned to arrest further col- 
lapse. This method of repair, though less pleasing in appearance than a com- 
plete reconstruction of the fallen portions would be, is equally effective from 
a structural point of view, and it has the additional merit in these times of 
financial stringency of being very much more economical. A further sum of 
KM. 150 was spent on the upkeep of this monument. An account of this Fort 
and its history is given in some detail in the report for the year 1922-23. 

" Among the monuments under maintenance the following may be men- 
tioned : 

<- The Markanda Rishi temple of Mahadeo at Markandi in the Chanda 
District. Badly shattered by lightning some 200 years ago, its spire and man- 
dap roof are now largely missing but even in its ruin it is a stately struc- 
ture, with its dominant horizontal bands, continuous around the sikhara base 
and mandap walls, relieved with a lighter treatment of vertical panelling in 
shallow facets embellished With little groups of figures, principally of Siva and 
Par vat i. The vertical facets of the sikKaro, are progressively recessed to form 
a diagonal plan in which the central projections dominate, carrying their ver- 
tical lines to the top of the tower. Banded facets of undercut mouldings 
alternate with flat lace-like surfaces as they ascend the sikhara, affording a 
light contrast to the banded base while sustaining its horizontal harmony* 
Originally at each corner of the square-planned mandapa a subsidiary pyramidal 
roof rose to group with the main pyramid that surmounted the centre. But 
all these pyramids except that at one comer have now disappeared. A 
eolumned porch originally projected from each of the three sides of the mandafM t 
giving access to the interior ; only the carved and sculptured doorways behind 



S3 OON8EKVAT10N 

them, however, now remain. The temple formed the central feature of a pio Central 
turcsque group of about 20 shrines, all enclosed within a quadrangle measuring tWVroC 
some 196 feet by US feet. They are of different sizes and in various stages 
of preservation, but all are sculptured in greater or less degree and are assign- 
able to about the 10th and llth centuries A. IX The style of these temples 
is closely analogous to that of the famous Khajuraho shrines in Central India. 
In 1909 the conservation of the site was taken up, and as a preliminary to 
further repair the many fallen face stones with their elaborate carving, that 
were strewn about the area, Were stacked together in order, the better sculp- 
tures being accommodated in a long low building called the Das Avatar temple 
which forms an open cloister on the West side of the compound and in 1911- 
12 the remains of the principal shrine were put into weather-tight repair. 

" The Akola Fort, with its Dahihanda Gate and Darbar Bastion. The Fort Akola 
dates from the time of Aurangzib and, while lacking in the higher architec- 
tural qualities, is of interest in the history of the locality. An inscription 
on the Dahihanda gate gives the date of its erection as 1114 Hijri (A. D. 
1697) during the reign of the Emperor Aurangzib Alamgir, when Nawab Asad 
Khan, his prime minister, held Akola in jagir> which was managed for him 
by Khwaja Abdul Latif. Another, on the Fathburj bastion nearby, mentions 
the same Khwaja, but refers to the Emperor Shah Alam. The fortifications 
were added to in the times of the later Moghul Emperors. Akola is said to 
have been the scene of a fight between the Nizam of Hyderabad's forces and 
the Marathas and in 1790 the Pindari, Ghazi Khan, was worsted before the 
town by the Bhonsla's commander. General Wellesley is also said to have 
encamped here in 1803 en route to Argaon, where he gained his signal victory 
over the Marathas, which finally shattered their resistance and ended the 
2nd Maratha war. 

" The ruined temple of Savari Devi at Kharod in the Bilaspur District. Kkwod 
Like the Lakshman shrine at Sirpur in the Raipur District under reference 
above, on which it is closely modelled, it is built of finely cut brickwork, 
and would appear to date from about the 9th century A. D. Its somewhat 
low sikhara, divided vertically into major and minor facets, is banded hori- 
zontally with well-defined mouldings, which emphasise its low proportions. The 
mandapa roof is missing, and the ruined entrance walls have been built up 
again in plain dressed masonry. The whole stands on a broad chabutra, which 
forms a low terrace around the shrine. The principal interest in this temple 
is the finely carved brickwork that composes it. The shrine was put into sub. 
stantial repair in 1907. An inscription is preserved in situ in the mandapa 
wall of the Lakshmanesvar temple nearby. It is dated 993 in the Kalachuri 
era (1182 A. D.) and contains a complete list of the Haihaya kings from Ka- 
lingaraja to Batnadeva III. 

" An old Vaiahnava temple at Janjgir, also in the Bilaspur District. Dating Janjgir 
from about the lOfeh century A. D., and similar to the famous Khajuraho 
templet in atyle, the ahriae is noteworthy for its elaborately sculptured facades. 
The base of the ai/cttara is decorated with two lines of images representative 



CONSERVATION 



Btihari 



Central Circle of Varaha, Narasimha and Brahma, with subsidiary figures of Devi, dancing 
Mr. J. A* Pagft^irb and griffins, Surya being given the place of honour in the back or we&t 
wall. Over the doorway of the shrine are carved the Hindu Trinity, Vishnu 
in the centre being separated from the other two, Brahma and Siva, by re- 
presentations of the nine planets. From the horizontally banded base, with 
its multiple shallow facets, the long vertical lines of the upper siktiam extend, 
decorated at the corners and at the central facet with a diminutive attached 
sikhara. A curious parapet-like feature raised above the entrance doorway 
now terminates the facade in an abrupt manner; and it is clear from the 
present truncated appearance of the tower that the shrine was never complet- 
ed. The monument is raised on a high terrace of considerable extent, also 
elaborately moulded and sculptured. This high base was put into repair in 
1905 and the shrine itself in the year 1910. A smaller temple, less profusely 
sculptured but with siklara complete, is also kept up in the vicinity. 

" The Vishnu Vahara temple at Bilhari in the Jubbulpore District. The 
present temple is of comparatively modem construction, and with the double 
storey and ribbed dome bears indications of Muhammadan influence in the de- 
sign. The porch on its east side, however, is built up of ancient columns, 
nearly all of which differ in design, and they were apparently reassembled here 
to serve their present purpose. Besides the columns, which are chastely carved 
with a light relief, there are two sculptures of very beautiful workmanship 
built into the sides of the entrance to the shrine. These represent the 
usual door-keepers, Ganga on the one side and Yamuna on the other. Each 
of these river deities is attended by a serpent king and bears its disting- 
uishing emblem, a Makara or dolphin for the goddess of the Ganges, and a 
jKurma or tortoise for that of the Jumna. It is in these carved columns and 
sculptures that the archsBological value of the monument resides. A number 
of other sculptures found in the vicinity were collected on the wide platform 
on which the temple is raised when the monument was put into repair in 
1919-20 at a cost of Bs. 1,389. Bilhari, the modern corruption of the 
Sanskrit "Vilahari," is said to have been the capital of the Kalachuri 
Kajas of Chedi a territory approximately co-extensive with the modern 
Central Provinces the last record of whom is an inscription dated in the 
year 1181 A. D. 

"At Burhanpur, in the Nimar District, a sum of Rs. 1,710 was spent 
towards the construction of a system of groynes in the river bed, below Shah 
Nawaz Khan's tomb. The monument is a pleasing structure, four-square in 
plan, enclosed by lower arcaded verandahs and surmounted by a large dome, 
deep continuous Mayas shade both the verandah and the recessed upper 
facade, and at each corner of the structure rises a prominent attached minar, 
fenefltrated above and crowned by a little dome. Shah Nawaz Khan was 
a soldier of fortune whose sister was married to the Mughal Emperor Shah 
Jahan (1628-59 A. D.) He subsequently became a recluse, and his tomb was 
built in his lifetime. The keeper of the tomb is said to have in his posses- 
sion deeds from the Moghul Emperors dated in 1637 and 1688 A. D. directing. 



Bvrhanpur 



35 CONSERVATION 

bis ancestors to render assistance in the suppression of the Kolis, The groynes Centra! 
under construction have been necessitated by the serious erosion of the high P***^ 116 * 8 
river bank on which the tomb is elevated, which threatened to bring about 
its collapse at no very distant date. The groynes are being built of a frame- 
work of heavy ballis infilled with river flints, and will project at an angle 
into the river bed to break the force of the flood water. The estimate for 
this work amounts to Rs. 3,162. 

" At Nadir Shah's tomb, in the same locality, the work of refacing the 
ruined external walls, commenced in 1919-20, was continued, the total expendi- 
ture to date being Es. 10,264. This refacing has now been carried up to its 
full height in the north-west corner of the tomb and is in course of erection 
on the other sides. The work is being done in plain ashlar ; only the square 
outlines of mouldings and projections are being repeated and no carved de- 
coration. The tomb is contained in the same walled enclosure as that of Adil 
Shah adjacent, and steps are being taken to lay out this area on simple appro- 
priate lines as a garden, and to open up again the original gateway that led 
into it from the north. A brief note on the history of Nadir Shah (1399- 
1437 A. I).), the first * independent prince of the Faruqis of Khandesh and the 
founder of the capital city Burhanpur, hag already been given in preceding 
reports, as well as a description of his tomb- 

" A further sum of Rs. 764 in all was spent on the upkeep of the Bur- 
lanpur Fort, imposed on the right bank of the Tapti 80 feet above its bed 
ind believed to have been founded by the Faruqi Raja, Adil Khan I, though 
the bulk of the present remains are patently Early Mughal ; on the ruins of 
the Bibi ki Masjid, among the oldest monuments ot Burhanpur, and built by 
one ot the Faruqi queens probably between 1520 and 1540 A. D. ; on the Raja- 
ki-Chhattri, a large open-coloumned pavilion seemingly of the Mughal pericd ; 
and on the Tombs of Nadir Shah and Adil Shah, and of Shah Nawaz Khan 
under reference above. 

" The conservation of the old Jami Masjid in the Asirgarh Fort was 
continued at a cost of Rs. 2,165 during the year under review. A sum of 
Rs, 12,770 in all has been spent on this work against an estimate of Rs. 13,993, 
and the repairs are now nearing completion. The architectural features of the 
mosque, which dates from the period of Shah Jahan, have already been des- 
cribed in the report for the year 1922-23. The building had formerly been 
used as barracks during the military occupation of the Fort by the British 
and the works in hand are directed towards removing the evidence of this 
occupation and reclaiming the structure to its former state. This has involved 
the removal of modern additions to the roof, of alien window frames from the 
mihrab recesses along the west wall of the prayer chamber, the renewal of 
:hkajja stones and brackets along the east front and the substantial rebuilding 
>f the two tall minars which form so conspicuous a land-mark in the country 
tround. The difficulties of conserving this structure are greatly increased by 
ihe desolate nature of its locality for the village afc the foot of the fort has 
ong been abandoned and all labour has to be imported, together with the 

02 



CONSERVATION 36 

Central Circle supplies necessary for its subsistence. But the work is waH worth while to 
Mr. J. A. Page % e fort is of much historical interest, and it is an imposing and pietoeiqtte 

monument, A brief note on its history, from its capture by Alauddin Khilji 
in 1295 to its surrender to the British in 1819, has already been given in 
the report mentioned above. On the maintenance of this fort during the 
year under review a sum of Ks. 407 was spent, the work compriiing chiefly 
the eradication of jungle growth from the walls and the repair of the approach 
roads up the hill side. 

" Other monuments under maintenance are : The tomb of Shah Noroan, 
at the foot of the Asirgarh Fort. Shah Noman, it is of interest to note, was 
the son of the world-renowned Persian poet, Hafiz. His tomb is a small 
square, insignificant structure surmounted by a low dome set on a short octa- 
gonal necking, and the whole surface is covered with platter." 

Eastern Circle "The conservation of Raja Harishchandra's tank in the village oi Raghu- 
Bengal rampur near Rampal in the district of Dacca was undertaken departmentally. 

? r * R Ji D * ^k* 8 tan ^ was * a ^ en un( k* tne care * *k e Archaeological Depaitinent partly 
ft m<0ur on account of the high esteem in which it was held by the villagers. The 
causes of this regard are peculiar. On days of a high tide the mass of acquatic 
vegetation, with which its deep waters are filled, rises and eo the local villagers 
have come to believe that there is some underground connection between tnis 
tank and the large rivers outside such as the now defunct Ichhamati or the 
larger Dhaleswari. Most of the villagers agree in stating that at one time 
utensils required for worship on festivals could be obtained from this tank 
simply by uttering prayers from its banks, and early the following morning 
the required number of utensils would be found arranged on the ghat. After 
use these had to be cleaned and returned to the place where they had first 
been found and on the next morning the utensils had disappeared as myste- 
riously as they had made their appearance. One day certain uteneils 
required by a villager weie asked for and received by him, but when he wanted 
to return them his daughter-in-law concealed one of them. The remainder, 
however, were placed at evening time on one of the ghats, but the villagers 
were surprised next morning on seeing that the utensils had not vanished* 
They remained on the ghat for three successive mornings, but on the fourth 
they had disappeared. The villagers complain that this act of dishonesty on 
the part of a woman caused the cessation of a very useful custom to the 
village. 

" There are a large number of tank* in the ancient city of Vikramapura 
of which Rampal is the modern representative. Some of them are very big 
indeed, for instance, the Vallalasagar tank which is nearly a hundred acres 
in area. The district around also abounds with tanks of all sues, But with 
the exception of the tank of Harishchaudra none have masonry walk. Daring 
the year jungle was removed from the aides of this tank and the uppermost 
layer of floating vegetation was cleared away. While removing this layer 
trunks of large trees were discovered; these had grown m floating island 
in a manner similar to the floating islands on the Dal lake la Kashmir. No 



37 

regular allotment was sanctioned for this work at the beginning of the year I 
and it was started in February with sums reappropriated from grants sur- 
rendered by the Public Works Department and the actual expenditure up to 
the end of March was Rs. 5,327. Towards the end of the year, a gh*t on the 
southern side was discovered. The ghat consists of a sloping way in the 
centre with low broad walls on each side and resembles similar cause-ways 
on the great tanks at Sarkhej and Dholka in the Ahmedabad district of 
Bombay, but this type without steps is rare in Bengal. One exists in the 
old elephant stable*, at Murshidabad in a tank, called the tank of the Filkhana. 
Babu Haridas Basak of Dacca, in whose zemindari the tank is situated, very 
kindly permitted this Department to undertake the conservation of this tank, 
before the formal acquisition by the Government of the land on its sides. 

"Steps are being taken to preserve six great mounds containing Buddhist Sabka* 
remains at Sabhar near Manikganj in the Dacca district. These mounds have 
yielded terracotta plaques and Buddhist images in large numbers during casual 
excavations. Some partial excavations were carried out with the permission 
of the landlord by some private gentlemen under the leadership of Mr. Nalini 
Kanta Bhattasali of the Dacca Museum and the antiquities found have been 
deposited in the Museum at Dacca. During recent years, in spite of the pro- 
tection under the Ancient Monuments Preservation Act. these mounds have 
continued to serve as brick quarries for the local villagers, who have found 
a number of valuable antiquities during their excavations, Difficulties having 
arisen in the acquisition of the land it was only possible to do a little clearance 
during the year, 

<c In the Bankura district the conservation of the nineteen temples in and Vithnupvr 
around Yishnupur begun by Mr. K. N. Dikshit in 1922 was completed this year 
at a cost of Rs. 704. In the same district the conservation of the temple of 
Siddheswar at Bahulara was completed at a cost ot Rs. 649. A piece of tend Bahutara 
close to the temple of Jayadeva at Kenduli in the Birbhum district was acquired KendvU 
in order to enable the Public Works Department to complete the fencing 
around the ancient court-yard of this temple. 

" In the Rajshahi district boundary pillars Were erected round the Padum Deopara 
Sahar tank at Deopara. This tank had been excavated by King Vijayasena 
of Bengal and on the banks of it he had built the temple of Pradyumnesvara. 
Some very urgent preliminary repairs were carried out in the stone mosque Kusutnba 
at Kusumba in the same district at a cost of Rs. 597. At Gaur and Pandua 
in the Malda district work was hampered owing to the delay in the acquisi- Gaw 
tion of land. A sum of Rs. 1,000 provided in the budget for the excavation 
of some underground chambers near the Gumti gate could not be utilised be- 
cause the land could not be purchased in time. The special repairs to the 
Darasbari mosque were completed at a cost of Rs. 1,830 and the preliminary 
repairs to the Baiagazi wall, erected by Sultan Alauddin Husaiu Shah as the 
inner enclosure of the palace built by him, weie finished at a cost of Rs* 624. 
Protected monuments' notice doards were fixed to twelve monuments at Gaur 
at ft oast of Rfl. 179. In the Burdwan district special repairs to the large 



CO NSEJ* VATION 



38 



Eastern Circle 

Mr. R. O. 
Banerji 

-Gaurangapur 
Kkeraul 
Dacca Dittrict 



Jiampal 



Masjtipur 



Assam 

Mr. R. D. 
Banerji 

Garhgaon 



brick temple at Gaurangapur ascribed to king Ichhai Ghosh were commenced 
and the temples at Baddipur in the same district were provided with wire 
fencing. The wire fencing round the mosque at Kheiaul in the Jangipui 
sub-division of the Murshidabad district was also completed. 

"In the Dacca District Rs. 123 were spent in providing notice boards tc 
the protected monuments and boundary pillars were erected round the Sat- 
gumbaz mosque near Dacca. The special repairs to the mosque at Atash 
Khana or the artillery park of Amir-ul-Umara Nawab Shayista Khan I were 
begun and Rs. 1,926 were expended on them. In the same district the serious 
condition of the mosque of the celebrated Musalman saint Baba Adam at 
Kazikasba near Kampal was brought to the notice of the Director General 
and Rs. 1,000 were sanctioned by him from the reserve at his disposal for the 
preliminary special repairs to this monument. Out of this amount only Rs. 700 
could be spent before the end of the year in providing struts beneath the 
collapsing roof and cracks in the domes. A conservation note has been framed 
and an estimate for thorough repairs to this building amounting to Rs. 10,318 
has been approved. The actual repairs consisting of underpinning the walls, 
rebuilding the collapsed arches and reconstructing missing portions of the domes 
and side walls will be taken up in the course of the coming year. In the 
Khulna district special repairs to Khan Jahan All's mosque at Masjidpur were 
also commenced. 

"Altogether Rs. 7356 were spent on special repairs carried out personally 
by the Superintendent of the Eastern Circle and Rs, 10,204 on special repairs 
or original works carried out by the Public Works Department of Bengal (Rs. 
8,433 plus RB. 1,771 agency charges). The cost of annual repairs and main- 
tenance of ancient monuments in Bengal amounted to Rs. 7,461 (Rs. 6,166 
plus Rs. 1,295 agency charges). 

"In Assam preliminary repairs to the palace of the Ahom rajas at Garh- 
aon in the Sibsagar district were begun, Rs. 1,428 being allotted for this pur- 
pose. A good deal of work remains to be done at Garhgaon. The palace 
was very severely shaken during the earthquake of 1897 and repairs to it during 
the last twenty-eight years have not been thorough. The lower two storeys 
are still buried in the d&bris from the upper storeys and can be visited only 
with difficulty. The area enclosed by the wire fencing is at present too small 
and the mounds in front of the building detract from the view of it. Owing 
to shortage of funds, schemes ior the thorough conservation of this remarkable 
monument had to be postponed. In reality, this building was designed 
to be a twenty-one-Ratna temple of the Bengali type. Ifcs original appearance, 
as illustrated in Sir Edward Gait's History of Assam, was that of a Bengali 
temple, pyramidal in shape and originally seven storeyed with four small towers 
or minarets at each corner and a single one on the top storey, which latter, 
however, has collapsed entirely. The roofs of many of the smaller towers have 
yet to be made water-tight and dtbris must be removed from the rooms 
of the second floor. In fact a good deal of pioneer work gtill remains to be 
done in the case of this monument before larger schemes for its final ooaaerva- 



39 CONSERVATION 

tion can be taken in hand. Rs. 276 were spent in providing notice boards to Asian* 
the monuments in the Sibsagar sub -division of the Lakhimpur district and 
a small sum was expended in surveying and levelling the ground around 
the palace at Garhgaon. The Natmandir attached to the Sibdole temple Sib 
at Sibsagar was repaired as was also the Bishnudole temple at Gaurisagar 
near it. Repairs were executed at the Rang-ghar palace at Jayasagar at a 
cost of Rs. 189, and Rs. 1,214 were spent on the Karanghar Palace in its 
vicinity. The ruins of this vast palace were cleared of jungle and a 
very large amount of rubbish and debris was removed from the interior, 
exposing the remains of the original palace to view. A thorn barricade was 
placed around the image of Durga at Deopani in the same district to protect ^ 
from the ravages of wild elephants and R. 300 were spent on the prehistoric Pathar 
monoliths at Kaaomari Pathar also in that district. 

""In the Naga hills district a notice board was fixed near the monolithic 
columns at Dimapur and others were put up near the rock-cut temple at Maibong 
and in front of the raja's palace at Khaepur in the Cachar district. The majority of 
the Central Government monuments in Assam have now been provided with notices/' 

"The special repairs to the old Chola temple at Motupalle in the Guntur Southern! 
district have been in progress for some time. Although of no architectural Circle 
merit, the temple which is dedicated to Siva in the form of Virabhadra, con- Madras 
tains some very valuable and interesting historical inscriptions and the place JVfir* A. H. 
is also mentioned by the famous traveller Marco Polo who visited this port _? I JT* 
during the reign of the Kakatiya Queen Rudramadevi, about the end of the 
thirteenth century, Most of the inscriptions are engraved on the exterior 
walls of the building which are built ot brick and mortar faced with cut stone 
on both sides. In places the stone-work had got out of position through settle- 
ment and other causes and so an estimate amounting to Rs. 1,095 was framed 
for repairing the walls, the roof and the stone floor which required grouting 
a nd pointing. Owing to its situation in a sandy desert near the sea, Motu- 
palle is a difficult place at which to obtain skilled labour or building material, 
the latter having to be conveyed from some distance. However the work is 
progressing and will be completed shortly and the temple saved from further decay. 

"The repairs to the Arsenal and old military quarters now converted i 
the Port and Customs office, the belfry, Powder Magazine and Dutch Cemetery 
at Masulipatam have also been in progress for the last few years. This year 
a sum of Rs. 461 was spent mainly on new plaster work and the buildings 
are now reported to be in good repair and the work completed. As these 
buildings are situated close to the sea, annual repairs will always be necessary. 
The usual annual repairs were carried out to the group of early rook-cut Bewada 
temples at Bezwada and the adjoining suburb of Mogalrajapuram and they 
are now in good order. 

"In 1023, an estimate amounting to Rs. 1,150 for special repairs to 
group of temples and Hill Fort at Udayagiri was approved and sanctioned and 
the work was taken up last year. This year a sum of Rs, 338 was spent on the 
repairs and the work has now been completed. An additional sum of Rs. 141 was 



CONSERVATION 40 

SoutneraCirclealso sanctioned for the provision of notice-boards. The gateway of the Fort and 
Mr. A. H. tike stone steps leading up to the two mosques on the summit of the hill were 
jq^jjed. The roof of the Ranganayaka temple and the Kalyana mandapa were 
replastered where necessary to make them water-tight and some of the cracked 
stone beams carrying the flat roof of the temple were supported with cut 
stone pillars. The gaps in the compound wall were built up to prevent cattle 
trespass. The decayed brick and plaster tower or stupi of the ruined Krishna 
temple was replastered to save the brickwork from falling and rank vegeta- 
tion was removed from the enclosure. 

ff A sum of Rs. 938 was spent on the usual annual repairs and the mainte- 
nance of two permanent watchmen to look after the famous Hill Fort at Gooty 
and the buildings it contains, and Rs. 234 were spent on special repairs to the 
parapets of some of the gateways and decayed portions of the rampart walls- 
The buildings are in good order and the Fort is being well maintained and 
kept free from rank vegetation. 

ft In connection with the numerous and important buildings at Hainpi in 
the Bellary district no less than twenty-two special works were undertaken 
at a cost of Rs. 2,326. These repairs consisted mainly of plastering leaky 
roofs to render them water-tight, providing cut stdne pillars to support cracked 
stone beams and transoms, and re-setting stone flagged floors and pavements. 
The cost of the usual annual repairs to the numerous roads and pathways 
to the monuments and the clearance of rank vegetation by the permanent 
watchmen amounted to Rs. 938. 

"The chief conservation work at Mahabalipuram is the annual maintenance 
of the roads and pathways and the care of the young trees, which have been 
planted to afford shade along the roads to the Shore temple and Five Raths. 
Owing to want of rain, the casurina trees that were planted along the road 
to the Five Raths some nine years ago, all perished in March last. The dead 
trees have been removed and rain-trees will be planted in their place as soon 
as the seedlings are big enough to plant out. Two additional coolies have 
been provided to help the two permanent men to attend to the watering of 
these young trees. 

" The old Dutch Fort and Cemetery at Sadras in the Chingleput district are 
now being properly maintained. When the fort was no longer required for 
military purposes it was blown up and the fortifications destroyed, the main 
gateway and the small cemetery within the fort alone surviving. For years 
the place was abandoned and cactus and rank jungle soon covered the site. 
Jt has taken some years to remove the jungle owing to the quantity of masonry 
Mbris strewn all over the site both within and without the fort. Patch plaster 
repairs were carried out to the gateway and the tombs in the cemetery and 
the usual annual removal of cactus attended to. 

fic|fofH "The only protected monuments in the Salem district are five picturesque 

old forts at Sankaridrug, Krishnagki, Bayakottai, Namakkal and Attar. The 
first four are mediaeval Hill Forts and that at Attur is situated in the town 
of that name. None of them are of much architectural value but all axe 



41 CONSERVATION 

of considerable historical interest and played an important part in the early Madras 
days of British ride in Southern India. As they have been neglected for many PwH&iqr 
years, cactus and jungle had grown over the sites and made the approaches 
very difficult. During the last few years, the removal of jungle, repairs to 
the long flights of steps leading up the hills, and patch plaster repairs to the 
gateways, fortifications and ruined buildings within the forts have been under, 
taken. No costly structural repairs have been executed as the buildings are 
-of no particular architectural value and it will be sufficient if steps are taken 
to arrest further decay only. This year a sum of Rs. 883 was spent on repairg 
to these forts and the work has been completed. 

" The repairs undertaken at the famous old Fort at Gingee were of much Congee 
-the same nature as those executed at the forts in the Salem district. The 
area occupied by Gingee fort is very large, there being some three miles of 
fortifications and a vast number of buildings located within the site requiring 
attention. There are also several miles of motor roads and footpaths to be 
maintained in good repair every year. The cost of the repairs including th e 
pay of the watchmen amounted to Rs. 2,967-14-0. 

"A sum of Rs. 1,040 was spent on repairs and annual maintenance of Vellore 
the beautiful Fort at Vellore, including the old Siva temple and mosque which 
it contains. Vegetation was removed from the inner and outer ramparts and 
disturbed portions of the fort walls were replaced. The mosque was replastered 
where necessary and the building cleaned and whitewashed and the work com- 
pleted. 

''The usual annual repairs were carried out to the old Forts at Palghat^ West Cooaf 
Telhclierry, Bekal and the Sultan's Battery at Mangalore and these monuments 
are now m good repair. Special repairs amounting to Rs, 376 were execut 
to the historical old Fort at Anjengo on the west coast. The fort walls were 
much overgrown with vegetation, the roots having penetrated into the masonry . 
and portions of the walls were in danger of destruction. The vegetation has 
now been rooted out and the holes thus made filled with mortar ; and the walls 
and gateways are now secure. As the fort is situated within a hundred yards 
of the sea, the wooden gates and their hinges, hasps and clasps, had seriously 
decayed. The gates were repaired and tarred and the metal work renewed. 

"The amount of expenditure on conservation works in Coorg for the yearCoorg 
under report amounted to only Rs. 262 and consisted of the usual annual main- 
tenance of the roads within the Fort at Mercara and plaster repairs to the big 
masonry elephants in the palace courtyard and the Rajah's seat. The three 
Jain temples at Mullur village also received petty plaster repairs to their roofs." 

" In the Burma Circle, special works were undertaken, during the year Burma Circle 
under report, at six centres, viz., Pagan, Mandate y, Amarapura, Sagaing, Pegu Burma 
and Myohaung in Arakan, at a total expenditure of Rs. 41,053. 

14 As was pointed out in the report for last year, the most important special 
gepairs to the Tilominlo and Sulamani temples at Pagan had been completed. 
The works at these temples during the year now under review consisted of 
repairs to the old brick drain at the Sulamani and to the enclosure walls 



CONSERVATION 42 

Burma Circle and portions of some of the gateways at the Tilominlo. The compounds of both 
Mont, Charles these temples were cleared of the unsightly debris and the thick vegetation. 
UIt> tliat had invaded them, and paths were laid round the temples as well as 

from the gateways in the outer walls to the principal entrances for the con- 
venience of visitors. It is anticipated now that with the expenditure of only a 
few hundred rupees yearly, for the clearing of vegetation, edging ofi the old 
plaster as it flakes off, and occasional grouting of cracks and crevices, these 
two interesting monuments, which are among the largest and form connecting 
^inks in tjhe development of religious architecture at Pagan, will last for a long 
time to come. 

" The repairs to the Tilominlo were begun in 1921-22 at an estimated cost 
of Rs. 45,707 ; but the total expenditure, counting Rs. 2,867 spent during 
this year, amounted only to Rs, 40,483 ; thus a saving of nearly Rs. 5,000 
has been effected. The actual expenditure on the repairs to the Sulamani 
temple also shows a saving of about Rs. 500 against the sanctioned estimate 
of Rs. 14,748 for the work. The completion of these two items now enables 
the Department to take up fresh work at Pagan. 

"As is well known, Pagan, once the metropolis of Buddhism in Indo- 
China, is now the greatest place of attraction in Burma from an archaeological 
standpoint, and the most important centre of conservation in this Circle. Its 
ruins cover a very large area, comprising the following village-tracts and places 

(I) Nyaung-U, (2) Wetkyi-in, (3) Taungbileya, (4) Pagan, (5) Mympagan, (6) 
Thiripyitsaya. (7) Twin-ywa, (8) Pwazaw, (9) Minnanthu, (10) Taungba and 

(II) Thayetkon. In this area is found many types of Burmese religious archi- 
tecture in brickwork, from the smallest and simplest monument to the most 
imposing in design and size ; all, or at least the very great majority, being 
built between the middle of the llth and the end of the 13th centuries A. 
D. There are hundreds of monuments, and Government have made a re- 
presentative selection out of this large number for conservation at the public 
expense ; this selected list comprises 44 monuments. Since the regular campaign 
of conservation work was started in 1902, the Archaeological Department has 
succeeded in repairing 34 of them including the Sulamani and the Tilominlo 
temples referred to above. Among those that still remain to be repaired 
may be mentioned the Dhammayazika at Pwasaw, and the Dhammayangyi 
and the Shwesandaw at Pagan, each of which is among the largest monuments 
and is in a class by itself. 

'* This year the repairs to the Dhammayazika have been taken in hand at an 
estimated cost of Rs. 36,626 but, as this enterprise is a large one, this amount 
will have to be distributed over a period of three or four years. During 
the year the Public Works Department spent on this monument a sum of 
Rs. 9,734. The estimate provides, in order of urgency, for repairs to (1) the 
ifcain shrine, (2) the five subsidiary temples on the platform, (3) the paltform 
and circuit wall enclosing it, and (4) the outer enclosure walls at a cost of 
Bs. 22,210, 4,181, 4,481 and 6,004 respectively, to which should be added 
Rn. 250 for repairing an ancient tank in the neighbourhood for the storage of 



43 CONSERVATION 

water while the work is proceeding, and KB. 500 for two temporary sheds for Burma Circle 
-the workmen. The provision of these last two items being necessitated by the ' 

facts that the river Irrawaddy, which is the principal source of water supply 
for the country around, is four miles away from the works, the quantity 
*of water available in a village tank in the neighbourhood being barely suffi- 
cient for the consumption of the villagers themselves, and sufficient workmen 
not being available locally most have to be imported from elsewhere, 

"The Dhammayazika was built by King Narapatisithu in 1197 A, I), The 
expenditure incurred upon it and the interest its founder took in its mainte- 
nance may be gathered from a stone inscription which is still in one of the 
8 ubsidiary temples on the platform. Therein it is recorded that Narapatisithu 
disbursed 44,027 ticals of silver as wages for the workmen and gave 18 pes 
(nearly 36 acres) of land. The wages included the cost of making bricks, 
burning lime, and collecting stones. On the completion of the shrine, the King 
dedicated for its maintenance 1,000 slaves, 500 of whom were Burmans and 
500 Indians, 500 pes of land and 500 bullocks. 

" It is a solid pagoda of the Shwezigon type at Nyaung-U, a conical stupa 
raised on a series of terraces standing on a platform, but its plan is of a 
shape found nowhere else. The three lower terraces are pentagonal in plan 
while at the base of them on each of the five 8 ides is a small temple with 
a square basement enshrining an image of the Buddha. The terraces are 
adorned with enamelled plaques illustrating the Jatakas, and similar to those 
at the Shwezigon, but the style and technique, although just over one hun- 
dred years later, mark a distinct phase in the development of pictorial art at 
Pagan. In addition to the usual legend in Pali, containing the name of the 
birth story depicted above it, these plaques, unlike those at the Shwezigon, 
contain also a short explanation in Burmese. It is notable that the cast of 
features of the figures represented on the plaques IB somewhat different to those 
of similar but earlier figures, that is, they already approximate more to th e 
Burmese cast. The whole building stands on a raised platform designed to 
harmonize with the plan of the main shrine, and a fifteen sided enclosure pierc- 
ed by five gateways, each gateway facing one side of the shrine, encompasses 
the temple (Plate VII). 

" From the short inscriptions in ink that are still extant on the wall 
on the subsidiary temples on the platform (Plate XXXIV (fe)), it is learned 
that minor repairs to these temples were undertaken in 1671 A. D., and to 
t;he Buddhas within them in 1735 A. I)., but there is no record mentioning 
any repairs to the main shrine since its foundation. However, that such re- 
pairs were once undertaken is evidenced from u small wooden image of a seated 
Buddha found in one of the relic chambers in the dome (Plate XXXIV ()) ; 
this image is still in a good state of preservation, and its features and technique 
show that it belongs to 15th or 16th century A. IX The works done here 
this year consisted of making water-tight the topmost layers of what remains of 
the sikkara and in repairing the circular mouldings there. The missing bricks 
the bell-shaped dome below the sikJmm were replaced, and the hole 

H 2 



CONSERVATION 44 

(Circle made by treasure-hunters filled up. This hole was rather a large one and it 
~~ vms at first proposed that for structural safety it should be strengthened 

by a supporting arch, but this proposal was abandoned in the course of 
repairs in favour of a less expensive suggestion. The hole, which was four 
feet in height, five feet in breadth and thirty feet in length with a dip o* 
eight feet in depth at the inner end, was filled up with sand for a height of 
three feet with a layer of bricks in mud mortar for the remaining portion, 
and was then closed up from the outside. One of the flights of steps 
going up the terraces was also repaired. It is proposed to undertake 
repairs to the remaining staircases and the terraces next year. 

" Conservation of the Palace was continued during the year. The open 
verandahs round the Glass Palace, the Chief Queen's Apartments, those of the 
Central Queen's and Levee Rooms and the Royal Pages' Apartment or Lapet- 
ye-zaung, have been paved with Pakhangyi stone slabs, and two brick drains 
on the north and south sides of the Glass Palace have been constructed. The 
expenditure during the year, including the cost of maintenance of the gardens 
on the Palace platform, amounted to Rs. 14,823, and the total expenditure 
incurred up to the end of the financial year under report since the year 1918, 
when conservation work at the Palace was first started, now amounts to 
Rs. 57,980, exclutive of agency charges. It is estimated that a further sum of 
Rs. 50,000 or more will still be required to complete the work, so that at 
the present rate of progress it will take three or four years or even five to- 
finish the work of conserving this important monument. Incidentally, the 
pyatthate (bastions) on the Fort Walls are now beginning to give trouble and 
more funds are urgently needed for their preservation. A rough estimate 
providing for all the necessary repairs to these bastions amounts to Rs, 48,820, 
against which a sum of only Rs. 4,000 could be provided this year. With 
this amount the underground portions of the wooden pillars of five pyatthats, 
(Kos. 25, 26, 28, 29 and 30) which had rotted away, were provided with con- 
crete foundations, roof timbers of pyattjiat No. 30 weie renewed and the pyat. 
tliats over the main gates (Nos. 12, 24, 36 and 48) were provided with cross- 
bracings. 

. "At Amarapura, King Bodawpaya's Tomb within the old city walls was- 

repaired during the year at the cost of Rs. 510. Owing to lack of atten- 
tion much damage to the building has been caused by the small trees growing 
on it. These and others growing around the building have been uprooted, 
and the cracks and holes caused by them filled up ; some of the fallen- 
battlements above the eaves were restored, and those round the circuit wall 
of the platform renewed. 

"At Sagaing and Pegu the special works consisted of fixing an American 
wire fence with reinforced concrete posts round an inscription shed at the former 
pbw> and in putting up a temporary wooden shed over the old Talaing insorip- 
tione, which had been collected a lew years ago and set up near ft monastery 
at Paya-thonzu village, near the latter place, at an expenditure of Rs. 303 and 
Rs. 3,404 respectively. 



45 CONSERVATION 

"Repairs to the Shitthaung pagoda at Myohaung in Arakan were conti- Bui ma Circle 
nued during the year, towards the cost of which the Government contributed Jyotowy t* 
a further sum of Rs. 2,500. The trustees, who have been carrying out the ***"* 
conservation works, report that the northern entrance of the corridor round 
the sanctum has been repaired, and that the walls and courtyard have been 
put into good order, existing models having been followed. A sum of 
Rs. 503-12-0 was spent during the year and the trustees hope to use next year 
the balance of Rs. 2,600 mentioned above together with such contributions as 
they may obtain from public subscriptions, on the necessary repairs to the 
remaining parts of the building and its enclosure walls, and in restoring to their 
proper places the stone sculptures that are now lying on the ground. 

"Besides the special works mentioned above the usual annual repairs 
were undertaken at all the various centres. The total expenditure under the 
latter item together with the cost of maintenance being Rs, 21,387, and the 
total of both amounting to Rs. 62,440." 

" During the year conservation works have been in progress in Rajputana Rajputana and 
and Central India at the following four places, viz., Ajmer, Amber in the Central India 

Jaipur State, Khaiuraho in the Chhatarpur State and Mandu in the Dhar^ rc k 
Q+X ' J * Mr.B.L. 

State - Dhama 

ff Several improvements have been effected at the great mosque, known Ajmer 
as the Axahi-din-ka-Jhonpra, The modern accretions, such as a kitchen, latrine 8 " 
and other unsightly buildings, which had been erected in the enclosure of the 
mosque by the faqir residing there, have been removed, and a new kitchen 
with a small courtyard and latrine have been built for him outside the north- 
ern compound wall of the mosque. A portion of the modern north compound 
wall towards the south, which had collapsed during the heavy rains of the llth 
September, has been rebuilt. A design for a teak-wood door to be fixed a* 
the east main entrance of the mosque has been supplied to the Public Works 
Department. This work will be taken in hand during next year. Notice 
boards prohibiting the ditfigurement of the monument by visitors, have also 
been set up, 

"The Kachhwaha Rajput palace at Amber, which had long been neglected Jaipur 
and defaced by modern additions and other unsightly repairs, has now Amber 
received consideration at the hands of the Jaipur Darbar and systematic con- 
servation work is being carried out under the supervision of the State Engineers. 
It is gratifying to observe that these officers are taking a very keen interest 
in the archaeology of the State. 

*' After the completion of the more important structural repairs, previously Cfahatarpor 
recommended by the Archaeological Department, to the great mediaeval 
temples, detailed reference to which was made in the report for the year 1922. 
23, supplementary conservation notes were drawn up and supplied to the 
Chhatarpur Darbar. It wag estimated that the cost of the supplementary 
repairs would amount to about Rs. 6,000 and the Government of India sane, 
turned half the sum, the balance being found by the Darbar. From the Govern- 
grant Ra, 756-0-9 and from that funded fcjr the State R*. 2,794-1 5-3 are 



EXPLORATION 46 

Rajputana and reported to have been spent during the year. Repairs to the temples ol 
Chaunsat Jogini and Kandhariya have been carried out satisfactorily by the 
"State Public Works Department. The jungle and the debris from around the 
other temples for the width of ten feet clear of them have been removed and 
the ground so cleared has been dressed and made level. 

" At Mandu the work of conservation has been progressing in a satis- 
factory manner, though very slowly. Repairs to the following monuments 
have been completed: Malik Mughi's mosque, Jahaz Mahal, Daika Mahal, 
Daiki Chhoti Bahin ka Mahal, tomb north of the Alamgir gate, Baz Bahadur's 
Palace and Darya Khan's tomb. A supplementary conservation note on the 
monuments at Mandu has been supplied to the Dhar State by the Archaeo- 
logical Department and works recommended in it will be taken up gradually. 
A total bum of Rs. 9,683 was expended on the ancient monuments of the State 
during the year, of which Rs 5,731 were from the Central Government's grant." 



Circle 
Mr. B. L* 

Dhama 

Dhar 
Mandu 



Northern 
Circle 
Hindu and, 
Baddhiet ' 
Monuments 

Punjab 
Sir John 
Marshall 



SECTION II. 

EXPLORATION AND RESEARCH. 

"At Taxila " , writes Sir John Marshall, "very substantial progress was 
made in the excavation both of the older city on the Bhir Mound and of the 
later Scytho-Parthian city of Sirkap. Careful plans of the areas cleared 
during the past and previous years in the Bhir Mound and Sirkap have been 
prepared, showing in several colours the different strata of buildings super- 
imposed one above the other, and the time will soon be coming for the pub- 
lication of these materials, as well as for discussing the manifold questions 
that await solution regarding the lay-out ot the towns anu the internal arrange- 
ments of the houses. Meanwhile, however, the remains unearthed are much 
too complex to be described without the help of drawings and, on the other 
hand, the cost of publishing incomplete plans year by year in the Annual 
Report would be excessive. Accordingly, I must content myself for the present 
with observing that the houses brought to light during the past season, though 
distinguished by certain variations in detail, are generally of the same character 
as those previously discovered on the Bhir Mound and Sirkap sites, respec- 
tively, those in the earlier city being noticeably Smaller and more haphazard 
in construction than those in the later, which still continues to reveal a 
remarkably spacious and regular lay-out. A feature of the buildings in both 
cifcies on which emphasis has not, I think, been previously laid, is that, al- 
though the lower parts of their walls were invariably built of good rubble or 
diaper stonework, the upper parts were not infrequently composed largely of 
mud. This distinctive method of construction has already been noticed by me 
in an earlier report in connection with the monastery at Fippaia and with 
some of the smaller monasteries near the Chir Tope. In the light of the* 
evidence afforded by those buildings, coupled with the relatively small amount' 



47 EXPLORATION 

of stone d&ris found in many of the houses, it now seems clear and indeed Punjab 
beyond any reasonable doubt that this was the method very commonly eni- Taarifa 
ployed not only in the Scytho-Parthian city of Sirkap, but in the older city 
as well. 

" The surface remains on the Bhir Mound that is the remains comprising 
the last and penultimate strata extend on an average to a depth of some 
five or six feet below the present surface of the ground, and it was with 
these remains that the digging of the past season has been mainly concerned 
(Plate VIII (a)). But besides clearing a considerable area of these two upper 
strata, advantage was also taken of such open spaces as offered themselves 
in the streets or where the later structures had disappeared, to penetrate to 
the strata beneath. The opportunities, however, for this deeper digging were 
very small, and it was not to be expected that any discoveries of great moment- 
would emerge. This digging, however, has served to confirm the conclu- 
sions drawn from a trench sunk at the outset of the operations on the, 
Bhir Mound namely, that there are at least two well-defined strata of remains 
lower down and that virgin soil is reached at a depth of some 16 to 20 feet, 
It has also shown that the earlier buildings are markedly rougher in construc- 
tion than their successors. Another point of interest on which further light 
has been thrown by the deeper excavation concerns the "soak pits" or rather 
r 'soak wells** to which I drew attention in the report for the year 1920-21.1 
I then put forward the view that many of the wells brought to light in the 
Bhir Mound were used, not for the drawing of water but for the disposal of sew- 
age from the houses. This view has now been strikingly corroborated by the 
discovery of a soak-well constructed out of large earthen jars set one above 
the other with a hole through the base of each. A photograph of this soalt- 
well is reproduced in Plate VIII (6) and it will be seen from it that a well 
constructed in this fashion could never have been used for the purpose of 
drawing water. Similar soak-wells, it may be noted, constructed out of a 
succession *of earthenware vessels, have been found in Mesopotamia. 

" Though there is little tp be said for the moment regarding the actual 
structures laid bare during the past season, some of the smaller antiquities 
found in them are of more than usual interest. Most valuable of all is a 
collection of coins and jewellery found in an earthenware gham near the eastern 
limits of the excavations. The g/tara in question was found about 6 feet below 
the present surface, that is, in association with the second stratum, which had 
already been judged to belong to the 3rd or 4th century B.C. The pot is 
quite a small one less than 7 inches in height but it contained no less than 
1,167 coins of silver besides several pieces of gold and silver jewellery. Most 
of the coins are punch-marked Indian issues, including a number of the local 
Taxilan types. As may be seen from the illustrations of them on Plate IX, 
they are of various shapes and sizes. Some axe oblong bent bars/ from l{* 
to 2* in length, punched with the usual "cross and ball" symbols; others, 



Northern 
Circle 
Sir John 
Marshall 



EXPLORATION 48 

are circular, oval, square, rectangular or polygonal, and exhibit an immense 
variety of punch marks, the analysis of which will require a special memoir 
to itself. Others, again, are tiny circular pieces punched on one side only, 
and so small that one wonders how they could ever have passed from hand 
to hand and been used as an effective currency. What, however, gives this 
find of coins a unique value is the presence in it of three Greek coins fresh 
from the mint, two of Alexander the Great and one of Philip Aridaeus, be- 
sides a well worn siglos of the Persian Empire. The issues of Alexander and 
Philip (Plate IX) bear on the obverse a head of Alexander wearing the lion- 
skin, and, on the reverse, Zeus seated on a throne with eagle on his right 
hand and sceptre in left. Thus they closely resemble one another, though 
the legends and monograms on the reverse differ. The special interest attach- 
ing to the find of these freshly minted coins of Alexander and Philip Aridaeus 
is that apart from the fact that it is the first recorded find of these coins 
in India, it definitely confirms previous conclusions as to the period when 
Indian punch-marked issues were in circulation, and also confirms the date pre- 
viously arrived at for the upper strata of buildings on the Bhir Mound. As 
to the former, it is worthy of note that the oblong bars seem to have been 
in use simultaneously with the square, round and polygonal pieces. The jewel- 
lery found along with these coins comprises a gold necklace of fluted beads 
alternating with circlets adorned with granulated drops of various patterns, 
and a silver necklace of pendant drop beads hemispherical below and T shaped 
above, the cross of the T being pierced through for the string ; also two plain 
phuhs and a fragment of the side piece of a head ornament. Among the 
vases found this season is one that is specially attractive. Shaped like a 
modern martban (Plate VIII (eZ)) it is stamped round the shoulder with 'bead 
-and reel 1 mouldings and bands of floral patterning, the design being obviously 
the outcome of Hellenistic influence. Other objects from the Bhir Mound 
excavation include the following : A series of interesting terracotta medallions, 
fwrne of which may have been test-cast* struck in the process of jewellery 
making, though the one illustrated in Plate VIII (c) with a human mask 
in the centre was apparently intended as an ornament and for that purpose 
provided with holes for attachment; two intaglio seals, one a scaraboid of 
polished black stone engraved with a lion couchant and a mndipada in the 
Held (Plate XI, fig. 11), the other of terracotta also depicting a couchant 
lion but with a seated bird in the field; a cylindrical glass ear-ring with a 
10 petalled lotus (diam. If*) ; an iron ankusa (length 2' if) ; a three flanged 
spear (length 3' 2{*) and a portion of a dagger or knife handle of fossilised 
ivory (length 4j*). 

"In Sirkap, my operations were devoted mainly to the further clearance 
of Blocks B and C (Plate X), the fore parts of which, facing on to the High 
Street, had been previously excavated ; and, apart from a few deep pits, dig- 
ging was confined to the eaily Kuahana and Scytho-Parthian strata. Of the 
antiquities brought to light in these two blocks the mo*t fftriking *a a 
deposit of jewellery from one of the snwll rooms in block B (Sl47). This 



49 EXPLORATION 

deposit, which like the coins on the Bhir Mound was also found in an earthen- Punjab 
Ware pot, contained the following pieces : Taxila 

1. Two ear-rings of gold of crescent and pendant form enriched with 
clustered drops and granulation (Plate XI, figs. 9 and 10). The clasp of the 
crescent is of double horse-shoe design ornamented with cinquefoil rosettes, 
two hearts and straps. These two ear-rings are precisely similar to those found 
previously in Sirkap and illustrated in ray Guide to Taaila, Plate XVI, figs. 1, 
2, 3 and 5. 

2. A gold necklace of 27 pieces (Plate XI, fig. 2). At either end is a 
terminal inlaid with lapiz lazuli and white paste, of which fragments still 
adhere. The other pieces are inlaid alternately with rock crystal cut en 
cabouchon and white and blue paste blue in centre and at base, white in the 
four " comma " leaves. 

3. Two hollow barrel-shaped ornaments of gold cloisonn work inlaid with 
scales of turquoise (Plate XT, fig. 4). 

4. Three hollow gold bangles, diam. 3". 

5. An oval seal of carnelian set m gold with four rings at the back for 
attachment. The seal is engraved with figures of Eros and Psyche^ with a 
little Eros behind the latter (Plate XI, fig. 1). 

6. Eighty three plain tubular beads of gold (length I" to J*). 

7. Two solid silver bangles ending in square heads, diam. 3f." 

*' The vase containing this jewellery was found at a depth of 5' 6* below 
the surface and appears to date from Parthian times, that is, from about the 
beginning of the Christian era. 

" Other antiquities from blocks B and include : a headless figure of 
steatite (Plate XII, fig. 9) holding a bird on his left h*nd, and, though muti- 
lated, interesting as one of the few figures of this period in the round ; a 
soapstone plaque relieved with a svastika (Plate XII, fig. 6) ; two ivory hair 
pins (Plate XII, figs. 3 and 4), one decorated with a comb-like ornament 
and the other with a bird ; a five-pronged key of bronze pierced with a hole 
through its handle (Plate XII, fig. 2) ; a bronze inkpot with serpentine handle 
(Plate XII, fig. 7) ; an incense burner on a stand of pierced copper work 
(Plate XII, fig. 10) ; a stopper of an antimony bottle surmounted by a humped 
bull (Plate XII, fig. 1) ; a relic casket of steatite in the form of a stupa 
with four umbrellas (Plate XII, fig. ) ; a grind-stone in two parts with the 
iron spike Suill attached to the lower part (Plate XIII, fig. 1) ; a pan with a 
ranTs head Landie (Plate XII, fig. 12); a ladle (Plate XII, fig. 11) ; a jug (Plate 
XIT. fig. 8) ; a goMsmith's blow pipe of copper (length 8{") ; terracotta coolers 
(length 18 J* and 11J*) ; crucibles (height 2J* and 2") ; two bronze and copper 
finger rings engraved respectively with a winged horse and male figure in 
intaglio, the latter inscribed (Plate XI, figs. 6 and 3) ; a glass seal engraved 
with a lion (Plate XI, fig. 7) ; tortoise and fish-shaped beads ; and a terra- 
cotta vase (height 2|*) containing 20 copper coins of which 18 belong to Kadphises 
1 and 2 to Asw II. 

1 



EXPLORATION 



50 



Northern 
Circle 
Sir John 
Marshall 



Red Bahadur 
Daya Ram 
Salmi 

Chatiru 



Frontier 
Circle 

Mr.H. 
Hargreavea 



"Besides these excavations in blocks B and C some further clearance 
wae also done in the "Palace" area and in the buildings connected with or 
immediately adjoining it. Among the latter was a small stupa, of which only 
the basement remains, containing at its centre a cylindrical steatite casket in. 
which was a minute relic hone wrapped in a thin covering of gold. What 
was much more important from an archaeological point of view, was the dis- 
covery alongside of this stupa base of four terracotta " votive tanks " (Plate 
XIII, fig. 3) resembling several already recovered from Sirkap. From the 
position of the four tanks now discovered it is clear that they are actually 
in situ (Plate XIII, fig, 2), in the place (viz., at a Buddhist or Jaina stupa) 
where they weie dedicated. Miniature tanks of a somewhat similar kind under 
the name of 1 ama~pukur are still dedicated by maidens in Bengal to Yama, 
the Cod of Death, and there can be little doubt that their use in India has 
been perpetuated from a very early age. What, however, is far more remark- 
able is that they were also in use in ancient Egypt as far back as the third 
dynasty, many specimens having been found in graves of that period, though 
what the connection was between India and Egypt (for that there must have 
been a connection can hardly be disputed, seeing the peculiarly distinctive 
character of the tanks) is a point that still remains to be determined. Let it 
be added that the special characteristic of these tanks is the presence in or 
on them of aquatic animals, birds and lamps, the whole together symbolising 
the four elements : earth, air, fire and water. 

"Other objects of interest from the Palace area comprise a female figurine 
of copper (Plate XI, fig. 8) in alto-relievo ; a spherical casket of steatite 
(diam. 2*) ; two stucco heads (height 4* and 3j*) ; a copper ring bearing the 
effigy of a bull and an inscription in Kharoshthi Yavalabrasa (Plate XI, fig. 5) 
and a terracotta toy horse/' 

" The mound at Chaitru, known as Bhim Tila, lies about 5 miles north-west 
of Kangra. It slopes down from north-west to south-east and is about 200 
feet long, 100 feet wide and 40 feet high. It stands on the* east bank of 
the Manjhi stream and was lately intersected by the road to Dharamsala ; 
the cutting yielding a Buddha head in stone. Trial excavations were started 
first on the highest portion north-east of the road, but yielded nothing except 
a rough stone platform of irregular shape laid immediately on traces of small 
brick flooring. This platform is sacred to country folk who bring newly married, 
couples to sacrifice goats for the perpetuation of wedlock. It does not appear 
to be very old and, perhaps, dates back to the time when this spot came 
to be invested with special sanctity. The lower part of the mound on the 
other side of the road was pierced by four trial trenches which, except for 
basements of three small brick stupas enclosed by a thin wall (Plato XIV(a))y 
were altogether barren of any remains whatever. This digging was carried out 
at an expense of Bs. 698." 

" On January 29th, 1926, when on tour in the Peshawar District informa- 
tion was obtained unofficially that a find of sculptures had been made at a 
place called Qaaim Kale in the Mardan Tabsil. Enquiries from the AattBtai* 



51 EXPLORATION 

Commissioner, Mardan, elicited the information that a report had been received North- West 
Irat no action taken. The site was visited on the 31st January and was found frontier 
to be a small hamlet some 4 miles south of Yakubi, which latter place w 
reached by way of the canal banks from Kalu Khan some 6 miles distant. 
The land in the vicinity has recently been newly occupied as a result of the 
opening of the Upper Swat Canal. A mosque was being built at the south- 
west corner ,of the village on a small mound, and a well dug to provide water 
for ablution and when earth was required for the roof of the mosque the 
area between the moaque and the new well was levelled for this purpose. In 
so doing an ancient brick-lined well 4j feet in diameter was discovered. This 
was in perfect condition and after clearnnce and the addition of five courses 
of brick has again been brought into use and the new one abandoned. No 
whole bricks could be obtained but from fragments recovered they seem to 
have been 8* in width and 2" thick. 

"In clearing the well seven pieces of Grseco-Buddhist sculpture were 
recovered. These were of good style but all much damaged. There were 
.none of special interest but the pedestal of a lost Buddha image was well 
preserved and showed a seated Maitreya Bodhisattva with three monks to 
right and three laymen to left. The sculptures were left in charge of 
the finder, one Grulab, son of Ahmadji, until orders were passed for their 
disposal. 

" This find is of interest as the site was close to the ancient highroad 
from PuflhkalSvati to UdabhSuda and was in all probability destroyed by the 
White Huns. The fact that this area only now comes again under cultivation 
and occupation seems to indicate that m Buddhist times physical conditions 
were more favourable than at any later period, for the land BeemB to have 
lain waste until the recent extension of irrigation. 

" Before beginning the excavation of the Bampur Mound at Mastung, Baluchistan 
detailed below, visits were paid to various ancient sites and mounds in 
Baluchistan, in the neighbourhood of Sibi, Quetta and Mastung, in order to 
obtain, if possible, evidence of Indo-Sumerian culture in this region. No 
such evidence was, indeed, forthcoming, but the information and the mate- 
rial evidence obtained were not without value, and form the first step toward** 
a complete and detailed survey of the very numerous ancient sites m Balu- 
chistan. 

"This mound lies about 8 miles north of Sibi and is referred to on page ui Mound 
33 of the Gazetteer of the Sibi District, wherein it is stated to be 628 yards w Sibi 
in circumference and about 135 feet in height above the level of the sur- 
rounding country. This height is greatly exaggerated. The site was visited 
on the 8th March 1925 and found to be irregular in outline, its length from 
east to west some 450 feet, its greatest width 300 feet and its highest point 
some 35 feet above the adjacent fields, but the greater part of the mound 
^and its projections are considerably lower. 

"Potsherds are found all over the surface of the mound, but in the sides 
of the cuttings made by the villagers, who remove the dark parts of the soil 

i2 



EXPLORATION 



Frontier 
Circle 
Mr. H. 



Luni Mound 



Three movnd* 



for manuiing their fields, there are no noticeable strata of either potsherds o 
ashes, or other signs of human occupation. A collection of representative 
^specimens of these pottery fragments has been made for study and comparisoi 
with those recovered on other sites in Baluchistan. Four fragments of brokei 
brick were noticed and these were all ill-shaped and ill-burnt. 

" Hie greater part of the material of the mound is soft, grey earth, and 
appears to be full of shorn. No traces of walls were found in any of the 
cuttings. Water-worn pebbles and small boulders are visible on some of the 
slopes, but these do not resemble those from the interior of the Buddhist 
stupas of the North- West Frontier Province. The mound is highest at its 
north-east corner where a fort is said to have been erected in Durrani times. 
According to the Gazetteer this fort was built by Haji Kakar, Governor oi 
Pishin, under the Barakzais, and the ruins are said to still remain (1907). 
All traces of this fort have now disappeared. In all probability it was merely 
of beaten earth which has disappeared under the wind and rain of the inter- 
vening years. 

" No coins or chert flakes or cores were found but one worked flint with 
pecked edges was picked up on the north side of the mound, and a villager 
exhibited some shell beads and a barrel-shaped cornelian, said to have been 
recovered there. A man from the neighbouring hamlet said that nothing was 
ever found when removing earth for manure, but the Political Agent, Sibi, 
writes, " I believe some time ago two very large earthen pots were taken out 
of this damb, but some bones were also found so the Work was stopped.*' 
Locally it is believed that a large treasure is concealed in this mound, but 
that belief can hardly be strongly held, otherwise the mound would have been 
excavated long ago, for not even solid structures of Gandhara deterred trea- 
sure seekers. Photographs were taken and a collection of potsherds obtained 
for study and comparison. 

" The mound cannot mark any very large or important ancient site, but 
it certainly seems to date to an early period. Excavation would, in all pro- 
bability, reveal at least, large earthen vessels such as have already been 
reported, but until further search has been made for traces of Indo-Sumerian 
culture in other parts of Baluchistan the exploration of this site is not recom- 
mended. 

41 Kuchlak in the Quetta Tahsil lies 13 miles north of Quetta on the 
railway to Chaman. A& several mounds were reported to exist in the neigh- 
bourhood an inspection was made of them in company with the Curator 
of the McMahon Museum, on the 19th March. 

" Mound 1. Just west of the railway station and close to the primary 
school is a low greenish mound. Very few potsherds were noted and these, 
in all probability, are due to recent occupation of the site by wandering 
Baluchi tribes, The mound is probably artificial, but at this juncture it does* 
not appear worthy of excavation, as it is insignificant in size and baa no- 
strikmg surface indications. 



53 EXPLORATION 



" Mound 2. About a mile west of the railway station rises a low 
mound, indubitably artificial. On the east side some earth has been removed hr ^Jj^jgj* 
by cultivators presumably for manuring their fields. A few brickbats were 
noticed and on the surface are numerous undressed stones. No walls are visible 
and no flint or chert cores or flakes were found. Fragments of ancient grind- 
ing atones were lying on the mound, and a small piece of copper was picked 
up. Potsherds were not particularly numerous and all were undecorated, save 
one fragment of buff earthenware which Was ornamented with a rectangular 
design in chocolate lines. A villager said that sometimes complete earthen 
vessels were recovered containing a blackish earth and occasionally a bone. 

" Most of the earthen vessels found in excavations at Mastung have proved 
to contain earth only. The presence of an occasional bone proves nothing. 
All these long occupied Baluchistan sites are full of the bones of animals, 
the refuse of the former inhabitants, and it is not at all surprising that these 
are found in pots recovered therein. 

" Mound 3. Three miles south of Kuchlak and on the left hand of the 
railway line when coming from Quctta is a high and striking mound, roughly 
circular in shape, rising some 45 feet above the plain. Its greatest length is 
about 270 feet. It is of the usual indurated clay, but the surface is covered 
with stones, most of them small. Stones are not common in the immediate 
neighbourhood and these must have been brought some miles. Whether they 
were used in rough stone wallings it is impossible to say. 

" About seven feet below the top of the mound a trench has been dug 
all round seemingly by troops during manoeuvres. Fragments of pottery oi 
various kinds are found all over the mound and in the adjacent fields, but 
very few good decorated specimens. A collection of potsherds was made for 
study and comparison. The few villagers met with reported that sometimes 
human bones are found in the mound and earthen vessels in the contiguous 
fields, but it is not certain that they are competent to recognise human bones. 
No figurines, beads, shell ornaments, flint or chert cores and flakes were re- 
covered, nor was anything heard of any such objects having ever been found 
there. No coins seem to be found in these mounds and, indeed, it is sur- 
prising how rarely coins seem to 'be found anywhere in Baluchistan. 

" In comparatively recent times this mound seems to have been enclosed 
by a mud wall, and may have been used as a fort. No name was given to 
it by the few people met in the neighbourhood, but from its position and 
striking appearance it is presumably the " Kasiano Dozakh " referred to on 
page 48 of the Quetta-Pishin Gazetteer. 

" As the surface indications do not suggest the presence of Indo~8umerian 
remains this mound does not call for early exploration. 

"Having seen in the McMahon Museum a number of specimens' of deco- Mound at 
rated potsherds from a mound near Saranan 30 miles north of Quetta 
visit was paid to this site on March 2Qth, 1925. The mound which is roughly 
rectangular in shape rises some 40 feet above the plain, its greatest length 
being about 450 leet and its width 300 feet. The whole is a mass of grey 



EXPLORATION 



54 



Frontier 
Circle 
Mr. H. 

Hargreavea 

Mound at 
Saranan 



BvtKahn, 

Mastung 



Mound near 

Mastung 



earth presenting almost unbroken slopes on the south and west, but on the 
north and east the sides are broken, irregular and water-worn. Potsherds are 
found all over the mound, but are particularly numerous in the hollows on 
the north and east, every shower tending to increase their number. Pottery 
fragments are also found on the level ground at the base of the mound, but 
otherwise the mound is untouched and shows none of the usual excavations 
made by villagers in search of earth for their fields, and in consequence it 
could not be seen whether strata of ashes and potsherds marked former occupa- 
tion of the site. No traces of walls exist and no bricks, flints or flakes and 
cores of chert were noted. 

" The mound is certainly artificial and appears to have been occupied for 
some considerable period, as is clear both from its height and the abundance 
of potsherds. These are both plain and decorated, the former frequently of 
good fabric. The decoration in general consists of linear patterns in black, 
while incised patterns are common on the plain Ware. A collection of pot- 
sherds was made. 

" No people were met with in the neighbourhood and it was impossible 
to ascertain the local name of this mound. According to information obtained 
in Quetta it is said to be known as Mugalke Damb, but it is the only large 
mound near Saranan and appears to be Well known and cannot be missed. 

" Lesfl than a quarter of a mile to the north-east of the Sampur Mound 
at Mastung is a series of contiguous mounds whose principal axis lies north- 
west to south-east. The mounds are lowest on the north-west and rise gradual- 
ly to a height of some 60 feet above the plain. The greater number are 
covered with gravel and small stones and two on the north-west still retain 
a conglomerate cap in parts, leaving no doubt as to the source of the stony 
covering. Occasionally a slope is quite free from gravel and exhibits a surface 
of uniform grey earth. These might be mistaken for artificial mounds but the 
absence of potsherds renders this unlikely. Moreover, where trenches have been 
dug by the troops during manoBuvres there are no indications of human oc- 
cupation. 

" In the low land between the two highest parts of the mound and on 
the lowest slope at the base of the highest hillock, potsherds are however 
found, and these areas might be worth exploring. It is unwise to dogmatize, 
but from the superficial evidences the greater part of these mounds appear 
to be natural hillocks. A panoramic view was taken on March, 25th. 

" A very conspicuous landmark, some 3 miles to the north of the Sampur 
Mound at Mastung, is a high white hillock very appropriately designated the 
Safaid Bulandi. This was inspected on April, 17th, The main mound which 
rises some 45 feet above the surrounding plain is roughly circular in plan 
and about 300 feet in diameter, but with its low extensions to the west is 
not less than 500 feet in length. No walls, brickbats, flints or chert cores 
or flakes were noted, but potsherds, many of decorated wure, Wtere numerous 
all over the mound and right up to the top where there is a siawt of one 
Yak Pasi. At the base of the mound is a spring with a pool of greenish 



65 EXPLORATION 

water where people bathe when suffering from skin diseases and, judging from t&e BaltfCbfctftfl . 
appearance of one sick man lying by the pool, even when attacked by small-pox. &|/Wdf 

" The mass of the mound is of the grey earth common to all the arti- 
ficial mounds of the neighbourhood and seemingly the decayed material of 
kachcha brick or beaten earth walls. All around in the plain are small low 
mounds also covered with potsherds on one of which, some 200 feet to the 
south, are some modern graves. From a superficial examination it would 
appear as if the Safaid Bulandi was of the same age as the Sampur Mound. 
A photograph was taken and a collection of potsherds made for examination 
and comparison with those found elsewhere in Baluchistan. 

" As a result of the recent discovery of allied civilisations in Mesopotamia Bakchi*tan 
and the Indus Basin attention was naturally directed to Baluchistan which 
occupies so important a position with respect to both these regions, and across 
which lie the routes by which this culture might have made its way either 
eastward or westward, 

" Archseologically, Baluchistan is an unsurveyed land, for though the 
existence of numerous deserted mounds is a matter of common knowledge, 
information regarding them is both scanty and vague. The difficulty was not, 
therefore, of rinding sites for excavation but in determining which sites were 
likely best to repay exploration, for it was improbable that all were of one 
age or of equal importance. After much deliberation it was decided to carry 
out trial excavations at the Sampur Mound, Mastung, 33 miles 'south of Quetta 
and later to proceed to Nal in Jhalawan, some 214 miles further to the south 
to explore the Sohr Damb, a mound which had already yielded pottery of 
a unique and unidentified type. 1 The very successful operations at the latter 
site do not, however, fall within the period under review and this brief note 
deals With the Sampur Mound only. 

" Both these sites lie outside British Baluchistan and in the Kalat State, 
and exploration there was only possible as a result of the assistance afforded 
by Nawab Sir Mir Shams Shah, Wazir-i-Azam, Kalat State, Colonel T. Keyes, 
Political Agent, Kalat State, and Mr. H. J. Todd, Assistant Political Agent, 
who not only furnished all possible information but arranged for necessary 
transport and escorts and were unwearied in their endeavours to ensure the 
success of our researches. 

"Mastung, which lies in 27 48' N. Lat. and 66 47' E. Long., is the Saw-pur Mound, 
second town in Sarawan and being 5,590 feet above sea-level possesses a 
salubrious climate. It is noted for the excellence of its fruits and of the 
wheat grown in the valley. Such a spot might have been inhabited from very 
early days and it Was felt that mounds in its neighbourhood might, therefore, 
yield evidence of Indo-Sumerian culture. According to the Sarawan Gazetteer 1 
the most noteworthy mound in Sarawan is "the Sampur which lies about 
4 miles west of Mastung, and is believed to be the remains of a city founded 
by Sam, grandfather of the Persian hero, Rustam." 

* Mwihftll, A. B. 1.. 19044, p. 100, 
Sarawo* Qoutte*. p, 42. 



EXPLORATION 50 

Frontier " The main axis of the mound runs roughly east and west and measures 

Circle about 600 feet, its greatest depth being about 300 feet, dimensions, it must 

Hargreaves ^ e confessed, somewhat small for a city. For convenience of description it 
Samjntr Mound, ^7 D divided into four separate areas (Plate XV (a)). 

Mastvng " No. 1, the eastern extremity and the lowest portion of the mound, 

measures about 180 feet from east to west and 260 feet from north to south, 
and is more or less level, nowhere rising more than eight feet above the 
adjacent fields. Potsherds were most abundant in this area and it was here 
that trenches A, B and Gr were dug. 

" No. 2 is the highest portion of the site and rises some 45 feet above 
the plain. From east to west it is 260 feet and some 300 feet from north 
to south. The highest portion is of grey earth and the sides have a sprinkl- 
ing of potsherds. On the north side is a flat low area with many pottery 
fragments and trench H was carried from its northern edge due south to the 
top of the mound. 

" No. 3 is a natural hillock covered with gravel, but on a low spur run- 
ning 120 feet to the northward some potsherds are found. 

" No. 4 is also a low natural mound covered with gravel, the disintegration 
of a former conglomerate cap. No potsherds are found in this area. 

" Around the base of the mound and here and there on its flanks trenches 
have been dug by troops during manoeuvres, and villagers have dug deeply 
into the mound on the south side, in order to extend their fields and to 
obtain earth, but none of these excavations had revealed Walls, though l&ichcha 
bricks could be traced in the face of one cutting, where the wind and rain 
had exposed their edges by removing the softer mud mortar. Excavation 
was begun on the flatter and lower portion to the east of the mound (Plate 
XV (a)). A trench, A, was run northward across this area and a few days 
later another trench, B, at right angles to this was carried eastward. 
In both these trenches which were dug in places to a depth of more than 
ten feet large earthen vessels were found, sometimes grouped together and 
frequently at markedly different levels (Plate XV (c)). Later at a point in 
B, where a group of these vessels was discovered, a trench G was carried 
at right angles across trench B and here again more of these large mats were 
disclosed, Plate XV (6), but no walls and no floorings. 

" Still hoping to recover some structural remains it was decided to dig 
another trial trench on the north side of Area 2, and across the spur behind 
Area 3. This trench B proved that the spur was a natural elevation, but 
on the east of it more large mats Were again recovered at various depths, 
from one foot to six feet underground. The material on the eastern limit 
of this trench was exceedingly hard and seemingly the remains of beaten 
earth, but no face of a wall could be traced nor evidence of mud brick 

" Layers of ashes to be seen at a depth of six feet in the south face 
of the highest portion of the mound (Plate XV (a,)), seemed to indicate that 
all above was artificial. In an endeavour to ascertain to what this great 
height was due a trench H was carried from the low northern edge of the 



57 EXPLORATION 

mound due south to the very top of the highest portion. The lower portions 

again yielded large mats, but the uppermost sections gave clear evidence of Stnwpur Mount* 

faichcha brick. Aided by the excessive dryness and a fierce wind which blew 

daily from about noon to sundown it became possible to trace on the very 

top of the mound the interior walls of a small room. These walls were of 

kachcka brick faced with mud plaster. This room was not perfectly rectangular, 

the ends being 9' 4", the two sides 14' 0" and 14' 6". No other room* were 

traced elsewhere in this excavation but in the higher portion of trench H a 

small rectangular pit 2' 10" X 2' 5" was found. The upper portion was filled 

with black ashy soil, the lower with soft earth which had clearly drifted into 

it. To ascertain its purpose it was cleared to a depth of 10 feet. Nothing 

was recovered in clearance and its purpose is doubtful. It may have been 

a drain or a well. The faces were quite distinct, but not formed of mud brick. 

" In order to ascertain the extent of former occupation to the east, two 
trenches C and D were dug across a field contiguous with the mound. Although 
dug to a depth of six foet they proved sterile and were again filled in. It 
Would therefore appeal that the piesent eastern edge of the mound marks 
pretty correctly the extent of the former occupation. A small trench F was 
dug on the south side of the mound at a spot whence the villagers had re- 
moved earth, but nothing, save a few potsherds was recovered here. 

'* No stone or pucca brick walls were found anywhere on this site, and 
the only Icaekcha walls recognised with certainty were those in the higher 
sections of trench H and the room on the summit. Some of these Jcachcha 
bricks were 19"x 13|" x 2j*. It was not easy to determine all the edges 
of the bricks in the small room, but two sizes were noted 12" X 12" and 
18" X IK". There can be no doubt that the highest portion of the mound 
(Plate XV (a)), is entirely artificial and due to the former existence on this 
spot of either some large and important building, such as a citadel or temple, 
or a number of structures lasting over a considerable period. The present- 
day Fort or Miri at Kalat gives a good idea of what the Sampur Mound 
might formerly have been; a low hillock surmounted by a citadel-palace, with 
the houses of the less important inhabitants clinging to the slopes and clustering 
around its base. The settlement can never have been very large, but was 
not the only one in the neighbourhood as the Safaid Bulandi, referred to 
above, is almost certainly of similar date. 

" The numerous large vessels recovered in all the trenches and to a depth 
of 10' 2J* are the most striking feature of this excavation. Their number, 
diversity and varying levels are astonishing. Twenty-nine in all were met 
with, and though the greater number were badly crushed and were heLd-together 
only by their earthy contents, nine were successfully strengthened interiorly by 
strips of cloth and glue and transported safely to the McMahon Museum, Quetta, 
where they are being stored. Some idea of the comparative size nd appear- 
ance of the^e vessels may be gathered from Plate XV (d). None of them 
were found in connection with walls or floorings, and it is uncertain whether 
originally, they were buried up to the neck in floors of beaten earth or just 



EXPLORATION 68 

Frontier placed on the earth. Perhaps both plans were adopted as V 19 in trench 

Circle J& rested on a brick, one of the few recovered at this site, whereas V 27, 

Mr. H. gg, 29 in trench H were dug out of beaten earth suggestive of a floor. What 

Sflmcw Afotwrf was the P ur P ose oi tne8e v ^ ssels - Were tnev funerary vases or merely house- 
' hold vessels left in the ground a the level of the occupation arose ? To this 
no certain and absolute answer can be given, but after the most careful exami 
nation of the contents ot the whole twenty-nine it appears unlikely that they 
were funerary vessels. The majority contained earth only, some were almost empty 
save tor u little line eaith, obviously the lesult of infiltration. Bones were, 
indeed, found in some of the vessels and a large broken one recovered in 
trench K contained more bones than were likely to have found their way 
into it by accident, These were submitted for examination to Colonel Deas, 
I.M.S., O.M.O., Baluchistan, who icported that they were all animal bones. 
As the mound is litteied with animal bones it Would be surprising if odd 
ones did not occasionally lull into these abandoned vessels. The few bones 
occasionally found in these mat* were rarely found together, but here and 
there in the earthy contents as if they had fallen in casually. Further explo- 
ration of sinulai mounds may probably reveal the purpose of these large vessels, 
for numerous sites in Baluchistan are Jeportcd to have yielded similar mats, and 
in the McMahori Museum aie specimens Irom three sites including Masking itself. 
Were the site a neolithic one, the possibility of burials in laige vessels might 
be entertained, but not at the date to which this settlement may be assigned. 
" The perplexing vessels do not in themselves afford any clue as to the 
age of the mound but fortunately the smaller antiquities recovered, though 
not vorv numerous are more accommodating. The* most striking of these is 
the silver cup (Plate XV (/)). This was recovered in trench A at a depth 
of 6 feet. It is 4^" in height and 3|" in diameter. For ancient silver 
it is wonderfully preserved, and may with some confidence be assigned to 
the beginning of the 1st century of our era. The horizontal flutmg.s are a 
Well-known feature, and the vase resembles the bionze vases found in the Indo- 
Farthian stratum at Taxila. The only other metal object found in this trench 
was the bottom part of a .small bronze cylindrical vessel, 1' 8" in height with 
two narrow bands ol ornament, the lower being a continuous band of connected 
spirals, a design also found on the handle of a copper vessel found at Taxila. 
The other finds in trench A are principally earthenware objects, both wheel 
and hand made, examples of which appear as No. 22 of Plate XV (e) ; 5, 8, 
9, 81 of Plate XV (g), 27 and 32 of Plate XV (h), and 7, 11, 23, 34 of Plate 
XV (i). The drinking vessels shown on Plate XV (g) are good specimens of 
earthenware, Nos. 5 and 8 being a reddish buff ware with a brick red slip 
and polished parallel lines. These as Well as Nos. 9 and 81 are undoubtedly 
of the same date as the silver cup and were found at levels varying 
from 3 to 7 feet. No. 22 is of coarser ware ; the mouth is eccentric and on 
one side of it is a round ornament, possibly a swastika. 

" The small antiquities recovered in trench B were two only, part of a 
broken bowl of good plain ware, and a large broken funnel. 



59 EXPLORATION 

" Trench E yielded Nos. 40 and 63 of Plate XV (t), wheel turned vases Baluchistan 
nuch as No. 38 of Plate XV (h), two bowls and a vase of hand made w&w,Sampwr Mound, 
the latter crudely ornamented in red. Three pieces of a shallow dish, l' J* 
in diameter, of thick red ware with a brick red slip on both sides, and having 
the interior decorated with bands of ornament in black were also found in 
this trench. A potsherd recovered very near the surface, having a buff ground 
decorated with circles in black and chocolate lines, floral forms and the head 
of a bird(?) is of particular interest as it resembles a vase now m the Lahore 
Museum which likewise came from Baluchistan. A fragment of a bronze 
coin of Indo-Scythian type and bearing traces of Oreek lettering was recovered 
at a depth of 6 feet but is unfortunately illegible. 

"Very few antiquities Ware obtained from trench <* but they comprised 
part of a bronze figurine of a horse, hand-made and wheel-turned wares, a 
conical terracotta seal with a diagrammatic representation of an animal and 
the miniature vase. No. 70 of Plate XV (h) 

" Four of the finds recovered in trench H are NOR. 54, 61, 62 and 74 of 
Plate XV (e). No. 54 is a c-urious asymmetrical vessel resembling a teapot, 
No. 62 a plain vase of good Ware badly affected by salt, while Nos. 61 and 
74 resemble modern candlesticks save that the socket is pierced with two 
holes possibly for suspension. The miniature vase, No. 53 of Plate XV (h) 
is of fine red Ware as is also No. 60 of the same plate, a very neat lenticular 
tlask with the spout on one aide. The purpose of the curious hollow object 
with two conical projections shown as No. 65 of Plate XV () cannot be guessed. 
Half of a very large plate, 14" m diameter, of buS Ware with dark reddish 
chocolate slip and decorated with incised patterns on both sides likewise ema- 
nates from this trench. 

" From the small room on the top of the mound came a miniature vase, 
lesembling No. 70 Plate XV (h), a large broken goblet of the same form as 
No. 81 of Plate XV (g) and a crucible of grey hand-made ware 

" A few terracotta spindle whorls, a piece of shell with eleven small incised 
circles, aome pieces of iron and copper, one clay and one copper bead, a terra- 
cotta amulet with a svastika in relief, numerous hones, grinding stones, rubbing 
stones, a potter's dabber, and quantities of round ptoiies resembling small cannon 
balls were also obtained in various trenches. Only fragments of two terracotta 
figurines were met with, one the bust of a man, the other the body of a ram. 

" No inference as to the date of the wheel and hand -made wares can be 
drawn from their fmdspots, as they Were found at all levels and would appear 
to be contemporary wares meeting different needs. 

"In brief we explored a mound which marks an ancient settlement on 
and adjacent to several low natural ridges and the highest part of which is 
due to some large structure, or group of buildings, of mud brick around which 
clustered smaller and simpler buildings possibly of beaten earth. Judging 
iftom the different levels at which the small antiquities nad mats were disclosed 

K 2 



EXPLORATION 



60 



Frontier 
Circle 
Mr. H. 

Harftrearea 



The pre- 
historic 
civilization of 
the Indus 

Sir John 
Marshall 



it would appear that the site was occupied more or less continuously for a 
considerable period by people whose culture Was relatively simple and whose 
household possessions were few and in no way striking. From the presence 
of the numerous earthenware vessels and the abundance of potsherds it may 
be concluded that they were not entirely nomadic and far more advanced 1 
than the present inhabitants. The site must have been occupied for some 
considerable time before and after the Christian Era and have been abandoned 
long before the Muhammadan invasion and never afterwards re-occupied. The 
antiquities recovered at this site not only add to our knowledge of the civili- 
zation of this region two thousand years ago, but at the same time indicate 
that the numerous mounds near Quetta, such as those at Kuchlak, Saranan, 
Safaid Bulandi and the Luni Mound referred to above, and which resemble, 
at least superficially, the Sarnpur Mound, are unlikely to throw any light upon 
Indo-Sumerian history or art. Baluchistan is however of great extent and 
the mounds of Jhalawan, Las Bela, Makran and the Kachhi have yet to be 
explored/' 

Sir John Marshall has given me the following interesting note on the 
pre-historic civilization of the Indus :- - 

" In the Annual Report for the year 1923-24, T have published a resume* 
of the remarkable discoveries made by the Archaeological Department among 
the pre-historic cities of Smd and the Punjab up to that year. During the 
year under review the exploration of this important phase of Indian civilization, 
which shows close affinities with the contemporary Sumerian civilisation of 
Mesopotamia, has been pushed forward in earnest. 1 am myself at this moment 
at work at Mohenjo-daro with an adequate staff of officers and technical 
assistants and during the past twelve months everything possible has been 
done with the limited means at our command to clear the ground for opera- 
tions on a more extended scale. Further excavations of a preliminary character 
but with most promising results have been carried out by Mr. Daya Ram 
Sahni at Harappa in the Montgomery District of the Puii]ab and by Mr. K, 
N. Dikshit at Mohenjo-daro ; valuable sidelights on the Indus culture were 
obtained from an expedition despatched to Baluchistan under Mr. H. Hargreaves ; 
and several previously unknown sites were revealed by an experimental 
aeroplane survey carried out along some fifty miles of the old bed of the Ravi, 
on which Harappa stands. Some of these newly discovered sites appear to 
be contemporary with Harappa itself while others may help to bridge the 
wide gap of some 2,000 years which at present separates this pre-historic from 
the historic age of India. Taking this survey on the Ravi as a rough criterian 
of what may be expected along other river beds, and remembering that some 
three or four thousand miles of these beds have still to be -examined, it may 
be imagined how almost limitless is the field awaiting the excavator. Fortunate- 
ly, the story of her immemorial past is one in which Indians are deeply 
interested, and members of the Legislative Assembly, with whom the final 
say in these matters rests, are now full}' alive to the value of the Work to 
be done. It may confidently be hoped, iherefore. that ttey will vote wht*t~ 



61 EXPLORATION 

ever funds are needed for carrying it forward on a reasonably liberal and The pre 
comprehensive scale. 1 historic 

' Though much smaller than Harappa, an excavator could hardly hope 
to find a more promising site than that of Mohenjo-daro. It consists of 
about a square mile of rolling mounds rising some 40 feet, at their highest, 
above the dead level of the surrounding plains. Wherever trenches have been 
sunk in these mounds, the remains have been disclosed immediately below 
the surface of a finely built city of the Ohalcolithic period (3rd millennium 
B. C.) and beneath this city of layer after layer of earlier structures erected 
successively on the ruins of their predecessors. The buildings hitherto exposed 
in the uppermost stratum belong to two classes : temples and private houses 
both constructed of kiln-burnt and sun-dried brick, the latter being employed 
mainly for the foundations of terraces and courtyards. The temples stand on 
elevated ground and are distinguished by the relative smallness of their chambers 
and the exceptional thickness of their walls- a feature which suggests tlmt 
they were several storeys in height To a temple also doubtless belongs the 
spacious courtyard with chapels or other apartments on its four sides. Whether 
the Worship performed in these temples was iconic or ardconic, has yet to be 
determined. The only objects found in association with them and intended 
apparently for cult worship are of two kinds, namely " ring stones " Plate (XXVI 
(d)) and " chessmen." The former have been compared with the " mace- 
heads '" of Sumer but their undulating shape and the ponderous size of many 
of them (they require 4 or 5 men to lift) make it very doubtful if they were 
intended to represent mace-head*. The latter are sometimes of faience, some- 
times of stone or other substances. Though small in size by comparison, their 
shape recalls to mind the mediaeval * k chessman " pillars of Assam with which 
it is not outside the range of possibility that a connection may be established. 
The fact, however, that no anthropomorphic images have yet been unearthed 
in these temples must not be interpreted as a proof that the Worship of such 
images was unknown. On a tablet of blue faience which has just come to 
light i depicted a figure seated cross-legged (like Buddha 011 a throne) with 
a kneeling worshipper to right and left and behind the worshipper a snake 
(ndga), while at the back is a legend in the pictographic script of the period. 
Now, it is possible that this seated figure is nothing more than a royal p**r 
sonage but the presence of the kneeling devotees and particularly of the n&gux 
certainly suggests that the central figure was intended to represent a deity 
rather than, a king, 

" The dwelling houses of the citizens at Mohenjo-daro, of which a 
considerable number have now been exposed, are bare of ail ornament but 
are remarkable for the excellence of their construction and for the relatively 
high degree of comfort evidenced by the presence of wells, bath-rooms, brick 
flooring and an elaborate system of drainage, all of which go to indicate a 
social condition of lihe people surprisingly advanced for the age in which they 
were living, The people were itill, be it remembered, in the trtmsitfton 

written I,*kh. 2* h*** been Mootioned fat Explomtion. E'd! ' 



EXPLORATION 



The pre- 
historic 
civilization of 
the Indus 
Sir John 
Marshall 



stage between the stone and copper ages. For every day purposes they were 
using stone knives or scrapers of the ('.rudest types, hundreds of which have 
been found in their houses. But they were familiar, nevertheless, with the 
working of copper, gold, silver and lead and probably of mercury also; they 
were manufacturing jewellery and other articles in highly polished gold, fine 
paste and glazed blue and white faience , and they were engraving Seals in 
a style worthy of the best Mycenaean art. These last seem to have been 
in wry common use, having been found in almost every building excavated. 
Ol those recovered by Mr. J)ikshit last season, the most striking perhaps is 
one depicting a " Brahmam " bull, the drawing of which shows great breadth 
and a fine sense of the decorative (Hate XXII ()). Incidentally, it may be 
remarked, this seal also proves that the breed of Brahmam bulls was every 
whit us good five thousand years ago as it is to-day Another interesting 
seal portrays the sacred ]>i}ud tree of India, with twin heads of antelope 
aprmgmg from its atem , and on others are tigers, elephants, rhinoceroses and 
a variety of other animals, but not, be it noted, the horse, winch was pro- 
bably imported into India at a later date by the Aryans The inscriptions 
engraved on the seals .'ire all in the pictographic script of the period, which 
has vet to be deciphered. A noteworthy find made beneath the floor of one 
of the houses was u group of copper vessels and implements, and in one of 
the larger vessels (Plate XX (a)) a collection of jewellery of polished gold, 
silver, carnelian and other stones, including a particularly handsome necklace 
or girdle of carnelian and copper gilt, talismanic stones in polished gold settings, 
" netting " needles of the same metal .ind bangles of stiver (Plate XX) were found 

" At llarappa most, of the ancient structures near the surface of the mounds 
have been sadly damaged by the depredations of villagers and railway contractors 
in search of bricks, but it is unlikely that much harm has been done to the 
lower strata. Generally speaking, the buildings exposed on this site as well 
as the antiquities within them are similar in character to those found at 
Mohenjo-daro. But there is one large edinoe wholly unlike anything at the 
latter site (Plate XXV (c)). What remains of it consists of two series of 
solid brick walls set prallel to each other, with a broad aisle 24 feet in width 
running down the middle. Up to tjie present twenty of these walls have been 
exhumed, ra., fourteen to the east of the central aisle and six to the -west 
all having a uniform length of 52 feet but varying in thickness. The stouter 
kind arc nine feet at the base, and these are placed at regular intervals of 
17 feet, so that, had it not been for the thinner walls intervening between 
( hem. it might reasonably have been inferred that they belonged to a range 
of long, narrow halls. As it is, these intervening walls leave sufficient space 
only for corridors between, the purpose of which cannot as yet be surmised. 
"The usual method of disposing of the dead in the latest cities of Mohenjo- 
and Harappa wag by cremation, a few fragments of the burnt bones 
bring subsequently collected and placed in a Urge earthenware jar along with 
a number of medium-sized and miniature vessels or in small brick structures 
resembling Hindu samSdhis (Plate XXIV (a)). An example of the former 



3 EXPLOBATION 

kind of "cinerary urn" is illustrated in Plate XXV (c). At Mohenjo-daro The pre 
it is true some complete skeletons in excellent preservation are now being historic 
unearthed* but these appear to have been interred at a much later age, pro- Jl .*5 f 
bably about the beginning of the Christian era. At a spot called Nal, however- ^ 
some 250 miles south of Quetta in the Jhalawan country of Baluchistan J\1r 
Uargreaves has just disco\prrd a burial ground of the same chalcohthic period, 
where the dead were buried cither in graves of sun-dried brick or directlv 
in the ground. In the former case, the skeleton was complete; m the latter 
only a fe\\ bones and the skull of each body were found instead of the whole 
skeleton and tliey were accompanied by numerous earthenware vases, copper 
implements, beads, grindstones and other small objects. All of these objects 
are analogous to those found at Mohenjo-daro and Jlarappa , but the painted 
potteries from tlus burial ground constitute an exceptionally iinc series, mbt 
of them bemg superior in fabric and design to those from the cits' sites.' 

That this great civilisation which IB now bem& revealed was no meje 
provincial offshoot of Mtsopotannan <ulture, but was developed for countlens 
generations on the banks o\ the Indus itself and its tributaries, is becoming more 
and more manifest at* our excavations advance. Who the people were who evolved 
it is Btill an open question, hut the most reasonable v*ew seems to be that 
they were the pre-Arvan probably Dratidian people of India known m the 
Vedas as the Dasyus or Asuras whose culture was largely destroyed in the 
second or third millennium B. C. by the invading Aryans from the north, 
just as the Aegean culture of the Mediterranean (which in some respects bears 
a striking resemblance to this culture of the Indus) was Jargelv overwhelmed 
by the invading Acheeans. Whatever their racial origin they seem, from such 
evidence as is available, to have borne as little resemblance to the modern 
Smdlu as the b'umenan did to the present inhabitants of Southern Mesopotamia. 
Thus, two statues of bearded men which have just been exhumed at Mohenjo- 
daro portray a very distinctive brachycephnlic type, with strikingly low fore- 
head, prominent nose, fleshy lips and narrow oblique eyes- and this is the type 
also which is seemingly portrayed m some of the rough terra<otta figurines 
found at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa The material, however, is as yet too 
scanty for inferences to be drawn from it on thin interesting question. One 
of the statues referred to, it may be mentioned, is of alabaster . the other 
of limestone with a veneer of fine white paste, the patterning on the robe 
being coloured in red ochre and the eyes inlaid with shell." 

" The third season's work at Mohenjo-daro ^vas commenced just after tlie Western 
recognition by scholars of the close affinity of the Indian antiquities from Circle 
Harappa and Mohenjo-daro with early Sumerian and Elamite antiquities. The^" 1 " 
mounds at Mohenjo-daro (Plate XVI) represent an extensive area which muslJJJJj N * 
have been abandoned somewhere about 2000 15. C 1 . after it had been occupied Mohenjo-daro 
for many centuries by people in the chalcolithic stage of development No 
attempt to rehabilitate the place seems to have been made in the succeeding 
millennia until about the beginning of the Christian era when a solid bruk 
atupa was erected upon the summit of the highest mound of the ruined city 

1 Thete dimoveritt will be farther reported apon in next year's report. Md, 



EXPLORATION 



64 



Western 
Circle 

Mr.K.N. 
Dlkshit 

Mokenjo^ro 



which probably marked the site of the principal shrine of the Indo-Su uerJan 
period. There are no other indications of later re-occupation of any part 
of the site and the entire area consisting of about 150 acres has remained in 
the same condition in which it was left by its original inhabitants. The ex- 
cellent state of preservation, in which the buildings brought to light by the 
recent excavations have survived, miut be attributed to the remoteness of the 
site from large towns and the peculiarly favourable climatic conditions of Sind. 
"The operations f the season were opened at a low mound (Site A) 
about 8 feet high overlooking the plain beyond the centre of the eastern ed*e 
of the main mound (Plate XVII (a) and (c)), the surface of which yielded a large 
number of chert flakes and scrapers. In tho latest, period of occupation the 
Kite flHeniH to have been occupied by a shrine, consisting of several rooms 
built with massive walls. One of these rooms i a fairly spacious hall (measur- 
ing 28 feet by 12 feet), and paved with burnt brick laid on edge. The ad- 
joining room to the north of this hall contains a well (!' n* in diameter) 
built with wedge-shaped bricks, with a kerb ring. The shaft of the well seems 
to bo too narrow to descend to the level of subsoil water which must be 
at least 25 feet below the top. It is not impossible therefore that the struc- 
ture was used as a store or treasure room for the shrine. The shrine was 
built on the remains of an older building of which a few walls were exposed 
b*low its floor, and a series of rooms on the east of it. Contemporarv with 
this earlier complex of buildings and close to the present ground level were 
other buildings further north, and separated from them by a passage paved 
with hunt, brick. Tho walls of this passage are still standing to a height 
of eight to ten feet. A covered drain running from went to cast in this 
passage, was connected with the channels for the passage of water from the 
shrines of the earlier period on the north and the later one on the south. 
The shrines in the northern area are two email rooms measuring 10' X 3' 
and 5' x 8' respectively with niches and unusually thick walls. The eastern 
room was approached from the open court below by two brick steps, while 
the other opened by u small doorway on to a narrow passage towards the 
north. The number of antiquities discovered here i 274, of which two deserve 
special mention. One is a complete terracotta female figure (Ht. 7") possibly 
used as u cult image in the worship of the 'mother' goddess and' another 
a perforated baked clay prism of triangular section (L. If) with impressions 
in relief of figures of wild animals and hunting scenes, A lion looking askance 
followed by a lioness, a rhinoceros and an elephant occur on one face with a 
ffurtiUbove (Plate XXHfr)): the other sides of the prism are occupied by a 
bison (?) deer and fore-parts of wild goats joined back to back along with 
some hunvan figures engaged in fighting or hunting. Other interesting finds 
here include a soapstone tablet with a pictographic inscription on either side 
.ind a number of cylindrical urns with pointed handles which were discovered 
in large numbers in the open area adjoining the shrines and seem to be con- 
nected with the funeral customs of the people, as their contents included ashes 
and in some cases bones. 



69 KXPUWATION 

The southern wall is preserved to a greater height than the rest and nwnySlikd 
small antiquities, potteries, terracottas, etc., were found in this area. 
interesting find in the dtbris over the eastern wall of the courtyard was that 
of human pelvic and thigh bones and ribs, which may possibly be connected 
with the custom of offering human victims. The entrance to the courtyard 
was possibly from the north. Altogether three periods of occupation are clear 
from the different levels of the walls and pavements in the shrine area. 

"In the portion of the trench intervening between the shrine and tho 
' jewellery block * several interesting structures were excavate*! though the 
width of the trench, which does not exceed 10'. did not permit of more than 
a superficial knowledge of them. It is clear, however, that this area was 
mainly occupied by dwelling houses and shops, as a narrow lane "2 r in width 
in front of a row of cells was uncovered in a portion of this trench. The 
destruction of the latest city in this quarter seems to have been caused by 
tire. This was evident from the existence of stratified layers of ashes, alter- 
nating with the dSbriit of the fallen structures. The paucity of good bricks 
felt by the builders of one of the houses in this area is exemplified in the 
use of successive courses of * headers ' in the construction of some walls. The 
use of beams or rafters is suggested by brick pilasters projecting from opposite 
walls of a room, and a brick pillar standing free in the middle, of another 
room shows that the roof needed a support at that point. 

"Tho most substantial buildings in trench K are the 'jewellery block* 
consisting of two or possibly three dwelling houses. The eastern house, sepa- 
rated from the western by a passage running north and south, is in a remark- 
able state of preservation (Plate XIX (6)). The building of the latest period 
here is very solidly built, the outer walls still standing to a height of 10 to 
15 feet, and in some places on earlier foundations. The arrangement of rooms 
is quite clear in this case, but the absence of any doorways in the lower 
part of the walls leads to the presumption that the existing masonry represents 
in most part merely the underground foundations of the building. The finds 
in this house were numerous and important. They comprised, besides a 
number of ivory dice and articles of furniture, several seals, including a round 
one with the device of six animal heads attached to a central boss (Plate 
XXIT (a)) and a circular tablet with a tree on the obverse and a curiously 
interwoven pictographies legend on the reverse. 

" The northern portion of the western house which contains a Well with 
connected drains and reservoirs is separated from the main building on the 
south by a passage running east to West. The well appears to have undergone 
repairs during the last period of occupation as the square masonry at the 
top is quite distinct from the circular rings of masonry below. 

" The southern house is not yet fully excavated, but from Uie rooms 
already exposed it seems clear that the floor level in the latest building on 
the site was only 3 feet below the top of the mound. In one of the rooms 
traces of a fireplace were discovered and an arrangement is discernible, whereby 
spill-water was conducted across a Wall to the mouth of a jar in another room. 



EXPLORATION 



70 



Western 
Circle 

Mr. K. N. 
Dlkshlt 

Mohenjo-daro 



The enclosing walls of the room in which the jewellery was discovered, are 
only 3 feet in height, while three detached brick pillars in it go down to a 
considerable depth (Plate XIX (6)). The floors of this room and the one 
adjoining it on the north were apparently laid on a filling of sun-dried brick, 
but it is not quite clear whether the jewellery find is to be regarded as 
part f a foundation 1 deposit prior to the occupation of the house or as an 
attempt to conceal valuable property before migration, 

k ' The copper jar which contained the jewellery had its mouth closed with 
a copper dish 1" thick which had stuck fast. Another empty copper vessel 
shaped like a modern flower vase was found by its side ( Plate XX (a)). Inside 
the bigger jar Were two smaller pots, two saucers with lids and a heavy-bot- 
fcomnd vase with ;i funnel-shaped mouth, and lotus-petal ornaments on the 
exterior (Plate XX (/)). The smaller of the two pots contained necklaces and 
the other gold and silver ear-rings, beads and other ornaments. The necklaces 
consisted of perforated cornelian pipes or tubes arranged in rows of 5 arid 
strands respectively and divided into compartments by perforated copper bars 
flanked by beads of copper, some of which are covered with gold. The thread 
passed through the strands and beads and was collected at either end through 
hollow HOI iii-circular copper medallions (Plate XX (6)). 

" The number of cornelian tubes and the copper dividers found sufficed 
to reconstruct two complete necklaces, one with 9 compartments of five corne- 
lians in each and the other with 7 compartments of six each (Plate XX (6)). 
The wonderful state in which such a perishable substance as cotton thread was 
recovered in pieces from the strands of the necklaces, is due to the air-tight 
condition in which the jar was preserved. The gold objects included a pair 
of circular flower-shaped ear-ornaments with serrated edges which were fixed 
against a littl silver button at the back of the ear-lobe (Plate XX (c)), three 
pointed cylindrical gold pendants, gold hair ornaments with hair-clasps at the 
back, three pairs of hollow gold end-piecos for similar ornaments, gold 
leaf or lamina, 25 barrel-shaped gold boads and 5 little golden hooks with 
eyeholes, besides a pair of ear-rings of coloured stones fastened together by 
gold and silver wire (Plate XX (d), (e)). The silver objects comprised a pair 
of hollow ear-rings of over 2|" diameter (Plate XX (c)), 67 silver beads and 
a number of other objects. A quantity of stone beads of various shapes, sizes 
and colours was also found along with the jewellery (Plate XX (e)). 

' : Another interesting area in trench E occurred near the eastern end, where 
a Well and covered drains were discovered. The narrow passage where the 
latest drain ends was the findspot of the largest quantity of small antiquities dis- 
covered in the course of the year's excavations. Here were found several hundreds 
of complete miniature pottery pieces and terracotta figures of men and animals 
some of which were evidently intended for children's toys. The peculiar green* 
ish earth .with which the objects were covered mast have been due to the 
action of water from the drain. The total number of finds registered in trench 
E was 2,550. 

> Cf. Uilpreoht : rplontion in Bible Zanda. p. 368. ~ 



71 EXPLORATION 

" Lastly reference must be made to the trial trench (F) dug in the highest mound, Sind 
crowned by the Buddhist Stupa. Older drains of the early period with cha- Mofonjo-daro 
racteristic fine-jointed masonry were traced from the centre of the courtyard 
of the 8tupa right up to the edge of the mound on the east. At least four 
levels of buildings were discovered on tho south-west and north-west of the 
mound below the lowest courses of walls exposed during the first season's clear- 
ance. Among the remains uncovered in the lowest part of tho mound in tho 
south-west trench close to the present ground level was a passage between 
substantially built walls, in which traces of a drain have survived. The dis- 
covery in this area of the usual types of antiquities including several seals, 
a beautiful paste parrot, a complete bangle of shell and ft large number of 
urns of the pointed bottom type confirms the conclusion that the whole of this 
mound, rising to a height of over 40 feet and on which the Buddhists erected 
their structures, was due to the accumulation of the debris of .successive, build- 
ing epochs of the earlier period as represented on other sites at Mohenjo-daro. 

" The only work done in site No. II the second highest mound at Mohenjo- 
daro, where the buildings in the topmost strata wens excavated in 1922-23, 
was the clearance, of the passage leading from the western shrine to the eastern 
area. Here two colossal jars (2' 0" in diameter) were unearthed and one of 
them contained a number of funerary pottery urns. 

" The quantitative results of tho operations were no less striking than the 
character of the remains disclosed. The total number of finds registered dur- 
ing the, season was 7,152, fur exceeding the number of antiquities recorded in 
a single season at any other ancient site in India. Of tho minor antiquities, 
besides the jewellery deposit referred to above, the most valuable are the stea- 
tite and paste seals and their impressions on burnt day, numbering 146 in 
all. Some of them are illustrated in Plate XX11 (), (b). The commonest 
animal motif noticed on them is the bull, with protruding horns but without 
the hump, in front of which are generally depicted two objects, the lower one 
of which resembles a tree and the upper one a modern Indian stool of cane 
or reed (Hindi mofha) with an arrangement for fixing it in the ground. The 
almost universal combination of the, bull with these symbols suggests that they 
Were connected with the religious symbolism or ritual of the people. These 
symbols are, however, absent in four of the seals in which the bull forms the 
central motif. In cases, where the central device is tho rhinoceros, the tiger 
or the elephant, as also in a rare example in which the humpless bull has 
double rounded horns, there is a trough or manger under the head of the 
animal, similar to the object found under the heads of the animals figured 
in a Proto-Elamite bone cylinder 1 . The reverse of the seals with animal de- 
vices Was provided with a knob perforated for passing a string through for 
binding to the wrist of the wearer. A few seals bearing only pictographic 
legends but no animal symbols Were also recovered. These have no knobs on 
the reverse and are pierced through the thickness of the seals themselves. The 
results of an analysis of the elements of the pictogiapbic script employed on 

* Babelon i Manual of Oriental anttqvitw, p. ItOfi. 



EXPLORATION 



72 



WesteffS 
Circle 

Mr. K. N. 
Dikahit 

Mohenjodaro 



the seals will be dealt with later on. It is only necessary to state here that 
the usual or glyphic forms of symbols known from the seals are almost always 
different from the graph ito forms employed on other materials wuch as ivory, 
terracotta and pottery. 

" The number of ivory objects discovered in the excavations was 244 of 
which a few typical examples are illustrated in Plate XXI (6). They include 
ivory dice of every description, cubes, toilet requisites such as combs and 
hair-pins, fishes apparently used as ornaments, a bull's leg which probably 
formed part of an article of decoration, and pointed pyramidal objects. Some 
of the ivory objects are inscribed with their owner's marks. 

"Over 150 objects of faience were found generally of green or yellow colour 
which must have been mostly used for ornamental or decorative purposes. In 
the illustrations (Plate XXI (c)) Will be noticed an assortment of paste and 
faience antiquities including wheel- shaped and circular ornaments some with 
serrated margins and others with notches on the surface and shallow, cup- 
shaped and rectangular corrugated lids of vessels or caskets. 

" By far the largest class of antiquities represented in the collection are 
pottery and terracotta objects. Different shapes and sizes of pottery for domes- 
tic use were found, the shape with the narrow mouth and broad bulging body 
being represented in a progressive series of specimens, the smallest of which is 
a tiny but perfect piece with the capacity of a few minims while the largest 
has a diameter of 13" in the middle. The number of fragments of painted 
pottery is large, the paints in use being generally red ochre, yellow ochre, 
kaoline white and lampblack, some of which were found in shells or pottery 
vessels. Except in a few instances where stylized animal forms or birds are 
found the poly-chrome patterns are generally of geometrical or vegetable shapes. 

" Over 200 human figurines in terracotta were recovered during the year, 
of which only a small fraction can be said to be more or less in good pre- 
servation, female figures far out-numbering the male. The preponderance of 
the former may be taken as indicating their use for cult purposes, the female 
energy or ' mother principle ' being one of the earliest forms of worship among 
several ancient races of the World. Considerable light is thrown by the figu- 
rines on the dress, ornaments, and physical characteristics of contemporary 
man, but in the absence of corroboration from drawings or paintings it is 
difficult to dogmatise at this stage on the prominent anatomical features, 
such as the high nose almost devoid of any bridge, the tendency to long heads 
pointing to dolichocephaly, and the absence of hair on the scalp and chin of 
a number of male figures. Some of the characteristics, for example the huge 
projecting lobe of the ear, which appear in certain figures, are certainly due 
to the crudity of the primitive artist's conception. Some of the figures are 
of a distinctly comic character and must be assumed to have been play- 
things for children, along with the majority of terracotta animals and birds, 

" 234 terracotta animal figures and 42 birds Were registered in the collec- 
tion of toys. Almost every form of animal life known in the period lA re- 
presented and prominent among them are lions and rhinoceroses, stags and 



65 EXPLORATION 

"In the next site called B which is situated to the north-west ot theSind 
-one described above three trenches were excavated, exposing an E -shaped area. MoHenjo-daro 
The two parallel trenches running east to west and forming the arms of the 
main trench showed traces of buildings only at the eastern end. These struc- 
tures rest on high foundations made up of sun-dried brick and sand and rise 
*from a lower level. A number of green coloured faience beads ; ornaments 
and miniature pottery were obtained from the centre of the southern trench. 
One of the rooms at the eastern end of the northern trench has three wallb 
built in a peculiar style of masonry m which bricks are laid in alternate coursew 
stretcher- wise and on-edge (Plate XVII (6)). The mam trench running north 
and south disclosed as many as four successive strata of buildings, of which 
the last but one is characterized by the style of masonry just referred to. 
The same kind of masonry is noticed occasionally in almost all of the sites 
so far excavated at Mohenjo-daro, but it is not yet clear whether it is to be 
taken as typical of a particular building epoch or a mere product of individual 
fancy. At the southern end of this trench, a passage 7 feet 6 inches wide 
was discovered with its walls running east to west and traceable to a depth 
of over 20 feet from the surface. The eastern end of the passage was closed 
at least twice by means of cross -walls at various depths, thus showing the 
long periods in which it was in use and disuse. To the north of this passage 
is a building in which occurs another constructional peculiarity in the shape 
of a narrow stairway with a 9* tread. Several such stairways have been found 
in the course of excavations and they generally lead to the top of small- 
sized cells (size varying from 1' 8|* X 2' 3|" to 3' 3* X 4' 6") with deep 
foundations and sometimes provided with entrances at a considerably lowei 
level than the top of the stairway. It is very likely that such rooms were 
attached to houses or temples for the storage of grain, etc. As several 
important antiquities discovered in this trench seem to be connected with the 
worship of the tree and the ' mother ' goddess, it is possible that the building 
-on this spot was of a religious character. A beautiful stair p seal with the 
representation of the sacred pipal tree (ficus religiosa) with two ibex headH 
found in this trench was the first important discovery of the season. Another 
evidence of tree worship is afforded by a terracotta tablet (I'sq) with, im- 
pressed on either side, a scene consisting of six or seven human figures standing 
in a row above and a goat-drawn vehicle driven by a man below. These 
persons are probably approaching a tree m the right-hand corner, in the 
bifurcated branches of which is to be seen a human figure probably the pre- 
siding deity of the tree (Plate XXII (a)). A paste stamp seal with tlie Ztbu 
or Brahmani bull (Bos Indicus) device in relief found in a room in the north- 
western corner of this site represents the high-water mark of artistic achieve- 
ment attained by the pre-historic craftsmen of Mohenjo-daro (Plate XXII 
(a)). The perfect modelling of the anatomical features and the delicate ivory - 
work finish entitle the seal to a very high place among the best small anti- 
q^uities of the ancient world. The pictographical legend begins with two signs, 
-the*' first -of which ia a wheel, associated with divinity in several systems of 

L 



EXPLORATION 



66 



Western 
Circle 
Mr. K. N. 
Dikshit 

Mohenjo-daro 



early writing and the second identical with the archaic Sumerian sign for 
mother. It IB thus possible that this seal is connected in some way with the 
' mother ' goddess. The total registered objects from this site were 734, 
including 13 seals, besides a number of other antiquities of which various 
forms of pottery and terracotta female figures (mostly broken and incomplete) 
deserve special mention 

<e The next site to be examined (C) was the area to the north of the 
shrine A. comprising the low and open ground between the spurs of moundfr 
on the eastern slope of the main city site. A general view of the site after 
excavation will show the large area covered by this season's operations. The 
first clue to the existence of important remains here was afforded by a few 
wedge-shaped bricks of an ancient well exposed by brick-diggers, who must 
have been at work shortly before the mounds were transferred to the care 
of the Archaeological Department. The well is a typical example of the well 
architecture of this early period (Plate XVIII (a)). The area around it proved 
to be one of the richest in minor antiquities and the structure remains in a 
remarkably good state of preservation. The well is built of wedge-shaped 
bricks with fine joints and must have been in us$ for a considerable period 
as attested by the existence of two levels of the cut-brick pavement around 
its mouth. The brick-work of the well was traced to a depth of 2 feet below 
the level of the subsoil water, but was found to continue no further. The 
elaborate arrangements for draining surplus water from the well are exempli- 
fied bv the slanting water shoots built of thin-jointed brick-work leading to- 
carefully constructed drains in the adjoining passage. The direction of the 
slope of the drains WJIH to the west in the earlier period of occupation and 
to the east in the later The great accumulation of ancient d&ms and other 
deposits m the passage referred to yielded a large number ol antiquities includ- 
ing 6 stamp seals, miniature pottery and terracotta toy figures. Two of the 
six seals found here are of a particularly large size and bear the bull device 
while a third contains the figure of a tiger. Another object of interest brought 
1,o light in the passage was a big jar with several pottery urns inside, some 
containing bones and ashes, probably an example of the jar-burial of the 
period. To the south of this passage are the remains of a substantial dwelling 
house, the floor level of which is 6 feet below the present ground level. Three 
rooms of this house, the western two of which opened into the eastern, yielded 
a number of antiquities including a copper saw with a concave cutting edge, 
several copper vessels and pipes, stone-ware tubes which must have been used 
in the strands of necklaces and several seals including one with the elephant 
device. An unburnt clay impression of a bull seal discovered outside the 
southernmost room here, bears on the reverse, marks of its having been fixed 
against a number of reeds fastened together by means of a string, and thus 
indicates the use of the stamp-seals to authenticate documents or the like. A 
Small paste squirrel, shown m the act of nibbling a nut, found in the eastern portion 
of this houe ia a pretty little example of the ingenuity of the primitive craftsman, 
who has caught the little thieving rodent in an undoubtedly picturesque attitude. 



67 EXPLORATION 

" A deep cutting down to the water level in the western part of this Sind 
building disclosed the existence of fragments of painted pottery at a very M ohwyo-faro 
low level. The general levels of occupation in this area are at least three 
And the foundations of dwelling houses of later periods are to be clearly seen 
resting on the unequally distributed debris of older buildings (Plate XVIII 

(&)). 

" The next house to the north in area C has only been partially exposed, 
but a Well with a reservoir of Water and a number of conduits and an elevated 
store-room of the type already described are some of the noteworthy features 
of the building. One of the important small antiquities from this house is 
an elaborate paste ornament inlaid with carnelian. The excavations disclosed 
other buildings in area C further north across the low ground around and 
between the spurs forming part of the eastern extremity of the main mound. 
Special mention may be made of two wells with the usual pavements and conduits, 
assignable to two different periods of construction, as also of a number of cells 
jn the intervening area. Altogether traces of three strata are clear in this 
area, the intermediate level of occupation corresponding very nearly to the 
present ground level. The foundations of the latest period of construction 
consisting of broken brick and concrete are still dear in the immediate vicinity 
of the western well. Two large earthen jars (height 1' 5j* and 2' 1" , diameter 
at top 8j" and 1' 2j" respectively) probably used ioi storage of grain, etc., 
were found in clearing the southern slope of the spur. The clearance of this 
building Was still in an initial stage when excavations were closed for the 
season. An interesting discovery in this area was that of a number of bones 
in a hollow cavity in the thickness of a wall, which may be connected with 
the custom of foundation-burialn or child-burials, widely prevalent among the 
ancients. The number of small antiquities discovered here was large and 
includes a gold bead, several pieces of ivory |for household use, some of them 
incised with pictographs, several seals, two of which contained as many as 
13 and 14 pictographs respectively and a copper pot in which seven or eight 
copper implements including a disc, spear-heads and knives were kept. The 
total number of objects registered in site C is well over 2,000 and includes 
47 seals. 

" The next two sites selected for trial excavation were on the main land 
of the town site at a distance of 2,000 and 1,000 feet respectively from the 
datum line forming the northern boundary of the mound area. The southern 
.area (D) was subjected to a superficial examination at its eastern and western 
extremities ; while the northern excavation (E), consisting of a trench running 
-Bast to west for a length of over 1,300 feet, serves to indicate the nature of 
the uppermost stratum throughout the breadth of the city. The excavations 
at the eastern end of trench D comprised two parallel trenches with a cross 
trench joining their eastern ends. Operations here could not be carried to a 
depth of more than 6 feet before the close of the season's work, but they 
were successful in bringing to light a number of brick structures of the dwelling 
house type, including another example of a store-room approached by narrow 

L2 



EXPLORATION 68 

Western steps. The number of objects recovered was 352 of which tie most important- 

Mr K N yra8 * fine com P lefce P ainted vase (height 2' 5") (Plate XXIII) which in beauty 

Dikfthit. " * * orm intensity of feeling and vigour of execution is unsurpassed by the 
MokeryoJwo painted pottery recovered in Trans-Caspia, Persia, Burner or Baluchistan, Other 
fragments of painted pottery from this .site are interesting inasmuch as some 
of them show figures of birds and domestic utensils in black paint, instead 
of the iiMial vegetable patterns. The total number of seals discovered here 
was 10, including a paste svastika. 

" The western end of the site D, where work was undertaken only during 
the lust fortnight of the excavation, is the low area on the Western slope 
of the main mound. On the top of the mound immediately to the south- 
east of this excavation is the site No. 4, the uppermost remains in which, 
were uncovered in March 1924. The difference in the floor level of these 
buildings and those now exhumed is at least 15 feet and undoubtedly two 
or more strata of occupation will reveal themselves between them as work 
progresses. The building at the north end of the excavation of this year 
stands almost at the present level of the plain and is designed after the 
immemorial oriental type, in which a series of rooms are grouped round a 
central courtyard (Plate XVIII (c)). A drain crosses the courtyard diagonally 
from south-west to north-east and traces of other contemporary and older 
drains are to be seen in the neighbourhood (Plate XVIII (rf)). The central 
part of the area must have belonged to a very substantially built house, with 
thick walls, the style of masonry being of a high order. Several bricks of 
exactly double the superficial dimensions of the bricks usually employed at 
Mohenjo-daro were discovered in this building, while a seal depicting a tiger 
being shot at by a man from an adjoining tree and another with the gavial 
device (Plate XXII (a)) were picked up in the open space to the south of 
this house. 

" The results obtained in trench E, the biggest undertaking of the season 
can only be very briefly summarized here. Of the numerous buildings brought 
to light in this long trench two have been more or less completely excavated. 
These are a shrine at the western end and a group of substantially built 
houses in the middle eastern section (Plate XIX (a)) which may be named 
* the jewellery block ' from the discovery here of a hoard of ancient jewellery. 
The iormer occupied an elevated position (Plate XIX (6)) its site having been 
raised by several feet of sundried brick filling before the commencement of 
the building, presumably to avoid the danger of inundation which was certain- 
ly responsible for the destruction of the earliest town. In plan, the shrine 
consists of rooms disposed round a large central court open to the sky and 
measuring 46' X 01'. The facing of the walls surrounding the courtyard is 
built of courses of bricks laid on-edge. A well-built drain with sloping 
water-channels from either side runs along the entire length of the shrine to 
the west of the western suite of rooms, where probably the principal sanctum 
was located. Three wells have been discovered in the area adjoining the 
shrine one of which lies just at the southern edge of the central courtyard.- 



73 EXPLORATION 

.boars, cattle and buffalo, sheep and goats, dogs and monkeys. The domes- Sind 

tic fowl is prominent among the birds. Some of the bulls and other Mohenjo-dam 

.animals are treated With particular skill and traces of malachite green paint 

are to be seen on some figures of ducks and geese (Plate XXII (d)). 

"Other classes of terracotta antiquities very frequently met with are the 
balls and rattles for children, the beads and pipes used for ornament, the cir- 
cular ring-stands and lids of vessels, the triangular tablets probably used as 
coverings for vessels, and the long conical pieces known as spindle- whorls. Men- 
tion must also be made here of the chess and chaupat pieces which con- 
tinue to be recovered in considerable quantities in a variety of material, such 
as ivory, shell and stone besides terracotta. 

" Of mineral products, quantities of galena, antimony and cinnabar were 
recovered. The commonest metal in use Was, however, copper of which over 
300 objects were recovered. Besides the jars, utensils, ornaments and imple- 
ments mentioned elsewhere, the copper collection includes a doubled-over dish, an 
antimony-holder, rings and bracelets, a duck and a fragment of a mother bird, chisels, 
nails, fish-hooks, arrow-heads, small double axes (possibly cult objects) and 
xegular semi-circular and rectangular pieces, the latter being the prototypes of 
,the earliest Indian currency (Plate XXI (a)). 

" Several hundreds of flint and chert implements, used and unused, re- 
icovered on the surface and in the excavations prove their universal employ- 
ment in a variety of ways, such as cutting, scraping, shaving, possibly even 
rude engraving. The large variety of stones employed for household or decora- 
tive purposes include the marble and yellow-stone of Jaisalmir and Tatta, the 
-sandstone and basalt of the Khirthar range and agate, cornelian, crystal 
and chalcedony from other less well-defined sources. The progress in the arts 
of cutting, perforating and polishing stones is illustrated by the large collec- 
tion of beads, which number over a hundred (Plate XXI (d)). A remarkable 
instance of a highly polished stone is a pointed shuttle shaped instrument 
probably used for finishing metal-work. 75 cubes of agate and sandstone of 
various sizes, more or less highly polished, which probably served the purpose 
,of weights were found last season. 40 marble objects were recovered mostly 
in a cracked and disintegrated state and include, among others, horns, casket 
lids, balls, rings, etc., some of which indicate a ceremonial or cult use. 

"As in other civilizations settled near the sea, an extensive use wa s 
made here of sea shells, for purposes of inlay and personal ornament. 177 
shell objects were registered, besides a number of broken and unused shells 
collected on the surface. Several species of mollusca are represented in the 
Collection of shell objects, the commonest being the Indian conch or sankha. 
Examples of exact imitations of shells in terracotta, probably indicate a cere- 
monial significance attached to the form of the shell." 

"During the season 1924-25 excavations were continued at the low mound Northern 
F in Ghmeral Cunningham's plan, which adjoins the bank of the old bed of Circle 
the river Ravi and the lofty mound A-B which rises abruptly to a height of Pun l 
480' immediately to the south of the above mentioned mound. I excavated Safa PP a 



EXPLOKATION 



74 



Northern 
Circle 

Rai Bahadur 
Daya Ram 
Sahni 

Ilarappa 



for four months from the 6th December 1924 to the 6th April 1925, the totar 
cost of the operations amounting to Rs. 13,000 against Rs. 3,000 spent in 
the preceding year. The buildings brought to light are somewhat better pre- 
served than those disclosed in the previous excavations and include what appears 
to have been a temple with stout brick Walls in mound B (Plate XXV, 6) 
and another large-sized structure (Plate XXIV, c), consisting of a double series 
of parallel walls without connecting walls of any kind, unearthed in mound 
F. The exact purpose and nature of the latter building are not yet ascertain- 
able. Like the highest mound at Mohenjo-daro the summit of the northern 
portion of mound B at Harappa would appear, in later times, to have been 
occupied by certain Buddhist structures, of which only small fragments with 
a few terracotta panels of the early (rupta period have survived. In the Annual 
Report for 1923-24, Sir John Marshall has called attention to several points 
of affinity between the antiquities of the Indo-Sumerian period of the Indus 
Valley and the contemporary antiquities of Mesopotamia. The recent excava- 
tions at Harappa have yielded a number of other objects similar to those 
found at Kish and other Sumerian sites in Mesopotamia. These include earthen 
jugs with carved handles representing heads of crocodiles Which recall similar 
vessels with handles bearing the head and breasts of the mother goddess. Simi- 
larly, several painted potsherds found at Harappa have patterns resembling 
those on tne pottery vessels found at Kish. The inhabitants of Harappa appear 
also to have been in the habit of offering in their temples terracotta cones 
with or without figures of animals, of which several specimens have been re- 
covered (Plate XXVI I,/). I am inclined to think that a large cone of dark 
stone, height 11", (Plate XXIV, e) resembling the Siva-linga of modern times 
which came to light in trench A(i), must have been used for worship. 

" The portable antiquities found during the recent excavations included 
as many as 50 new seals (Plate XX VI II) and cylinders which supply a large 
number of new pictographs. The cylinders, which according to Professor Lang- 
don, are found generally buned with bodies of males at Bash, bear figures of 
crocodiles and boars. A square seal of white plaster shows a tree, probably 
a pipal tree, enclosed by a railing (Plate XXVIII, fig. 5). Two or three others 
in the same material bear a symbol resembling the Roman numeral VIII on 
each face Mention should also be made here of a fragment of an inscribed 
slab of red stone which came to light in mound B. The bone objects included 
rods with pointed ends, which might have done duty for styluses for engraving 
pictographs. 

*' My excavations at Harappa have yielded overwhelming evidence of the 
fact that the ancient inhabitants, with whom we are here concerned, invari- 
ably cremated the dead and no traces of the several kinds of burial practised 
by the ancient Mesopotamians have yet been found anywhere on this site. 
What the ancient inhabitants of Harappa did was first to bum the dead body 
on a funeral pyre and then to deposit a part of the cremated bones in earthen 
vessels or brick structures (Plate XXIV, a and b and Plate XXV, d) re- 
sembling the samadhi* of modern times. In some cases the ashes were de- 



76 EXPLORATION 

posited in large vessles which were buried in the ground with their mouths Punjab 
turned downwards (Plate XXV, c), while in other cases they were left on the H 
spot as evidenced by a large heap of ashes mixed with small charred bones, 
which came to light in trench A(f). 

" In mound F which rises about 25' above the plain level, a large area 
<Ae) has been dug along the western edge of the site. The structural remains 
exposed range themselves in four distinct strata. The uppermost stratum yield- 
ed, besides a number of fragmentary walls, a well preserved sepulchre construct- 
ed with burnt bricks of the usual size and lying east to West (Plate XXIV, a) 
with probably another structure of the same kind adjoining it on the south 
side but placed at right angles to it. The former structure consists of a hori- 
zontal platform of a single course of bricks laid flat and protected on three 
sides by bricks standing upright on the narrow edge. The roof was composed 
of an inclined plane of a single course of bricks. Brick by brick the upper 
layer was removed to examine the contents of the structure which were found 
to consist of fine brick concrete and earth with a number of very small pieces 
of charred bone which, though too small to be identified, must undoubtedly 
have belonged to a cremated human body. 

" The fragmentary brick walls that came to light on the second stratum 
call for no special remarks. At the northern end of the trench, however, there 
was a stout concrete floor composed of nodules of hard over-burnt brick which 
was littered with burnt bones and ashes indicating that the platform was pro- 
bably used as a cremation floor. 

" On the next lower stratum special interest attaches to a solidly built 
corner of a dwelling house or other structure which is provided with an entrance 
doorway 2'5" in width. The rest of this building has been entirely dug away 
by brick hunters with the exception of three fragmentary walls meeting it 
from the south which must have belonged to later repairs. One of these walls 
is decorated with panels and pilasters. Close to this structure Were noticed 
two large earthen jars placed one over the other and filled as usual with frag- 
ments of earthenware vessels, terracotta objects and earth, while a still larger 
jar stood about 23' to the south with similar contents. To the north of this 
structure the excavations revealed another funeral structure (Plate XXIV, 6), 
in which a few cremated bones were found. The exact nature of the structural 
remains in this area cannot be determined with certainty. The existence of 
two samadkis and remains of cremations at several other spots on this mound, 
which will be noticed presently, appear to show that the whole of this area 
was at one time the crematorium of the ancient city which nourished on this 
site. This view receives some oorroboration from, the close proximity of the 
old bed of the river. The next or the lowest stratum reached in this area (Ae) 
lies at the depth of 8' below the surface, and is occupied by a very narrow 
Well with the inner diameter of 2'2", the steaning Wall being only 11* thick. 
It was cleared to a depth of 8' and though it has so far yielded no objecsa 
of interest, it is now evident that the brick reservoir with its drain which 
brought to light near this spot in 1923-24 must have belonged to this 



EXPLORATION 



76 



Northern 

Circle 

Rai Bahadur 

Daya Ram 

Sahni 

Harappa 



well and been used for the storage of water for ablutions, etc. The portable 
antiquities found in this trench included a conch spoon (Plate XXVII, e) which 
may have been used for pouring out libations to the manes, a tiny corroded 
copper disc (Ae. 330) which might have been a coin, a small headless figure 
(Ae. 6) seated on a chair in the fashion of a Sumerian king and a bone awl 
or needle (Ae. 253), 5j" long. 

'' The most important architectural discovery (Plate XXIV, r) of the year 
was made about the centre of this mound which, though only partially ex- 
posed, already embraces an area of 106' from east to west by 122' from north 
to south. The purpose and character of this building are shrouded in mysterv, 
but it may bo hoped that further exploration will supply the explanation. I 
was led to the examination of this portion of the site by the existence of 
two solidly built walls running parallel to each other without any party walls 
which had been brought to light here in the preceding year, but the exact mean- 
nig of which could not be ascertained. With these walls as a starting point, 
the excavation was taken in hand and great was my surprise when the opeia- 
tions continued to reveal, in quick succession at narrow intervals, wall after 
wall, until I had a series of 14 of them, all running parallel to each other 
and of the same length namely 51 9". All of them terminated on the west 
on an open corridor 24 feet wide beyond which stretched a similar set of walls 
in precise correlation with those in the opposite series. So far only six of the 
walls have been found on the west, but there seems no doubt that when the 
excavation is continued each of the walls in the eastern row will be found 
to have its counterpart on the other side. These walls exhibit two distinct 
types, namely, a stouter kind and a thinner type. The former type is 9' in 
width in the lower portion which is composed of clean indurated clay obtained 
from the bed of the river and secured on all sides with retaining walls of 
burnt brick. The upper portion is built solidly of burnt bricks, the total ex- 
tant height of the wall being eight feet. The thinner walls have no clay-core 
but are constructed throughout with burnt bricks. All these walls rise from 
an uniform level at the depth of 12' below the surface of the mound, and 
have finished ends towards the central aisle. At the other extremities, how- 
ever, they are somewhat broken, but it seems as though they will be found 
to extend further out but to what distance it cannot be ascertained in the 
present state of our knowledge. It is curious that the walls of the thicker 
type are ranged approximately at equal distances from each other, the inter- 
vals between them being 17 to 18 feet and had it not been for the thin walls 
which intervene between them, it might have been thought that they enclosed 
a series of spacious rooms. The whole of the passage that separates the eastern 
and western series of walls could not be cleared to its original floor level. The 
portion between walls numbers 4 and 17 is paved with brick laid on-edge 
but whether the rest of it is similarly paved is more than can at present be 
said. The portable objects found in this area were numerous. They include 
a double-headed terracotta bust of a lion (A.81 3 height 2", Plate XXVII, /) 
which must nave been mounted on a cone of the same material (as shown. 



77 EXPLORATION 

in the photograph) and presented as an offering at a temple. Not far from Punjab 
this was found a deposit of oval-shaped tablets of alabaster with cracked sur- Harappa 
faces. They measure about 4j*x 3J". The exact pnrpote of these tablets is 
not known, though it is not impossible that like the Sumenan literary tablets 
they were intended to bear similar inscriptions. At the same spot was found 
a broad copper chisel 3f" long by 2* wide which must have been used for 
planing wood. It is badly corroded on one side but has a figure resembling 
a bull ohased on the other side. Other objects found in this area were a cop- 
per nail extractor ; several seals with the usual device of a unicorn and a pic- 
tographic inscription ; a large copper chisel (Ae. 342) measuring 8}* long by 2" 
wide with a broad cutting edge and a potsherd showing a peacock and a hen 
facing each other, a part of a quadruped, and a snake (Ab. 207) ; a minia- 
ture earthen pan of a jeweller's weighing scale (Ab. 188) ; part of a steatite 
undulating ring (Ab. 193) coated with white faience ; a pierced vase-shaped 
earthen cage (Ab. 554) with a bird coming out of it, and another perched on 
the side. 

" In the area between the trench * Ae ' described above and the long 
trench A, a large rectangular cutting A(f), 89 'x 66', was made and excavated 
to the depth of about 6' below the surface Here, as elsewhere, no complete 
structural remains were found, but reference may be made to two little cir- 
cular structures* paved in brick on a thick substiatum of hard burnt nodules 
of brick* The structures are blackened with soot but it is difficult to say defi- 
nitely whether they were hearths or chimneyfi of some kind. Another little 
structure consists of a paved platform surrounded by a single course of brick 
laid on-edge which might have been a bathing platform as a large earthen 
jar was standing on one side of it. Underneath this platform was a mass of 
cremated human bones and about 16' from it, a large heap of ashes and char- 
coal with human bones, which undoubtedly represents the remains of several 
funeral pyres. This trench yielded a large number of ttone mortars and pestles 
which recall the practice of burying such objects with the dead in Mesopota- 
mian Bites, It is noteworthy that no hand mills for grinding corn were found 
anywhere on the site. Another building in this trench of which only a small 
fragment had survived, was provided with a spill jar which was photographed 
in position. Plate XXIV (d) shows the contents of a large funeral jar found 
in this trench. The portable antiquities recovered included several seals and 
faience ojbects (Plate XXVIII). 

" The trench Ai(100'x 31') excavated to the east of the one described 
above revealed at the depth of 5' a large mass of earthen bowls with pointed 
bases which contained ashy earth, potsherds and occasionally pieces of bones* 
A little lower down, i.e., at the depth of 6 '6* below the surface, was found an 
object of considerable interest, though its exact purpose is not yet apparent* 
It is a stone obelisk (height 11*, circumference I'll*, Plate XXIV, e) resembling 
.the Siva-linga. The lower portion of the cone hag been left rough, thus in- 
dicating tnat it was originally fixed in a pedestal of some kind. The excava- 
tion was, therefore, continued and at the depth of about 2' below the level 



EXPLORATION 



78 



Northern 

Circle 

Rai Bahadur 

Daya Ram 

Sahni 

Harappa 



of the cone I found the remains of a tiny brick structure with a very narrow 
entrance facing the south and with what might have been brick steps in front 
The pedestal of the cone was not recovered, but it is not impossible thai the 
atone obelisk was presented or installed for worship in thievery cell. 

" A large trench excavated in mound B (Plate XXV, a) behind the 
Naugaza tomb during my operations of 1920-21 and 1923-24 had revealed 
fragments of solidly built structures. The past year's excavations show 
that the upper portion of this mound was re-occupied in later times, i.e., in 
the early centuries of the Christian era. One of these later remains came to 
light about six feet below the highest point of the mound. It is an irregular wall 
composed of brick-bats obtained from the site and mixed with bricks measuring 
\' < 2'x$l"y 2|* which can be at once assigned to the Kushan or early Gupta period. 
Three feet lower down I found another structure composed of similar bricks 
and three fragmentary terracotta panels which must originally have belonged 
to it. There were also a number of bricks ornamented with lotus rosettes, 
foliage, etc. One of the three panels (B.404) represents a votary kneeling with 
the left palm resting on the projected base of the sculpture. The head of 
the figure is broken off and the feet are not indicated. Another panel (B.510) 
represents only the legs of a standing figure, while the third (B.1686) depicts 
a female figure rising from the ground after the fashion of the earth goddess 
in representations of the enlightenment of the Buddha. The above suggestion 
is not surprising as, at the same level, the excavations revealed fragments 
of at least three earthen jars (B.650, 980 and 982) with very narrow mouths 
resembling the Buddhist monks' bottles with which we are familiar at other 
sites, and one or two terracotta heads of the same period. To the same late 
period I am now disposed to assign the circular brick granary which had been 
brought to light in this area at a depth of about 14' below the summit of 
the mound in 1923-24. Had it delonged to the Indo-Sumerian period it would 
certainly have been more systematically constructed and in all probability with 
wedge-shaped dricks. 

" All the remains laid bare below this level are clearly assignable to the 
Indo-Sumerian period and the first monument of this kind was a square brick 
platform with a large earthen urn (B.I 486) resting upon it mouth downwards 
(Plate XXV, c). It was filled with ashes and charcoal, from which all bones 
had been extracted. On the next or third Stratum from the top special in- 
terest attaches to a double rectangular sepulchre (10' from north to south and 
4' from east to west, Plate XXV, d). It comprises two distinct compartments 
one of which had an irregularly shaped relic chamber 1'5'x l'4"x 1'2". The 
contents consisted of a number ot cremated bones one of which was eaatty 
identified as a collar bone. 

"The next lower stratum revealed a solidly built niche measuring 5'2*x 
8'4* externally and composed of bricks of the usual size of 11" X 5j*X 2^*, but 
repaired at a somewhat later date with larger bricks measuring 14*x7* X 3J* 
On the paved floor ot this niche I picked up an earthen urn (B.1&48) con- 
taining bones ud by the side of it a number of smaller veiaels with pointed 



79 EXPLOBATION 

bases which also contained pieces of bones and charcoal. About this level Punjab 
the excavations revealed a large number of fragments of undulating stone Harappa 
rings 1 of varying sizes which according to Sir John Marshall must have been 
used for worship. Human bones were found scattered all over the trench be- 
ing described but one large collection of animal bones (B.954) deserves special 
mention (Plate XXVI, a). I had these bones examined by a Professor of the 
Veterinary College at Lahore and they are stated to include besides many, 
which on account of their fragmentary condition are not identifiable, a skull 
with a few molars of a dog ; the upper jaw of a sheep , the lower jaw with 
two or three molars and hocks (Tibia Tarsals) of an ox , and a large number 
of bones of a horse or horses, wz.> the radius and ulna combined, scapula 
humerus, occipital, etc. How these bones came to be buried here remains 
inexplicable. They might be the remnants of a big animal sacrifice. Other 
noteworthy objects on this level were two blocks of sandstone carved in the 
shape of a tortoise 'a shell on one side, but with oval sockets cut on the other 
side (B. 1514-15). All I can say at present about them is that they might have 
been pedestals of some kind of images or banes of pillars. A metal bowl 
(B.958), which was also laid bare at the same spot, 18' below the summit of 
the mound, was kindly examined by Dr. 8. 8. Bhatnagar of Lahore and found 
to be bronze. 

"Stratum No. 5 was occupied by a brick building of considerable dimen- 
sions (Plate XXV, a) which came to light 24' below the highest point of the 
mound. Unfortunately it had been much damaged by the tunnels dug by the 
modern brick hunters with the result that only two large rooms to the west 
and fragments of several others on the east side have survived. There would 
appear to have been an open courtyard between the two portions of the build- 
ing with another open court at the back on the west side. One ot the two 
rooms in the western portion measures 14'x 12' internally, while the other 
which is separated from it by a passage or gallery is incomplete. The former 
was provided with an entrance, 3'10* wide on the east side, with a small rec- 
tangular drain and a masonry bench along one of the walls. Several strata 
of buildings came to light below this level, but they are too fragmentary to 
yield any plan of construction. 

" Four large pits, each 50' square, were sunk simultaneously in a line in 
the aouthern portion of mound B, which has an average elevation of 40' above 
the surrounding plain, and excavated to a depth of 12' below the surface. Here, 
too, the structural remains had been destroyed by brick contractors, but the 
excavation was rewarded by a number of interesting portable antiquities. The 
only structure* reclaimed in pit I were two cells occurring at the depths 
of 3' and 10' respectively, which might have been kitchens or baths, and 
a well preserved drain composed of brick with a gabled roof which was ex- 
posed for a length of 43' (Plate XXVI, 6). It is choked up with mud mixed 
with charcoal and ashes, apparently the washings of a kitchen. The minor 

Two complete Urge-rized xing$ o* this kind have been known since General Ctmningham'a Twit to Hamppa- 
I h*re now brought to Hght two other nogs of about the same size. On* of them i a illustrated in Plate XXVI. 



EXPLORATION 



80 



Northern 

Circle 

Rai Bahadur 

Daya Ram 

Sahni 

Harappa 



Western 
Circle 

Mr, G. G. 

Chandra 

Vaghli 



antiquities comprised four well preserved seals (P.I. 39-42) of an unusually large 
size and with deep cut pictographs (Plate XXVIII, figs. 21-24), 

"Pit II revealed at the depth of 3?/ a copper pot (P. 11,13, Plate XX VII, 
which was tightly closed with, a smaller copper vessel placed upside down 
upon it. The jars are similar to those containing jewellery deposits found at 
Mohenjo-daro, but the contents here were disappointing inasmuch as they con- 
sisted of broken copper dishes, common earth and two or three teeth of a 
wild beast. Another object of note which was found lj' below the copper 
vessel is a red stone ring (P. II, 20, Plate XXVII, h), plain at the base but 
having four projections at the top and a round hollow cut into it on 
one side which might have served the same purpose as the ring stones referred 
to above, or have been a fimal or the crown of an image. No structural re- 
mains were met with in this trench until the excavation reached the depth 
of 12', where a portion of a solidly built house was brought to light. One 
complete room in this structure has internal dimensions of 15' X 5'10" and is 
provided with one door on the south and presumably two on the north side. 
The room adjoining the one just described is also provided with doors on either 
side and contained a large number of bones and other objects. In the south- 
east corner of this trench was found a brick built grave of the same type 
as those brought to light in mound F, with this difference that here there was 
a layer of sand spread under the floor of the structure. The trench also re- 
vealed a large collection of earthen and faience bangles and other large-sized 
funerary urns. The third trench could not be excavated to any considerable 
depth but the fourth or the northernmost pit revealed the remains of seveial 
structures, the best preseived one of which is a rectangular cell measuring 
7'7*X6'8* internally (Plate XXVI, c). The walls which are only 11" in thick- 
ness have coarse mud joints and in the interior of the cell was revealed a covered 
brick drain but no other objects of any kind/' 

" Of the two protected monuments at Vaghli, a village 6 miles east of 
Chalisgaon in the East Khandesh District, the old temple of Siddhesvara is 
noteworthy as a peculiar example of the use of a single temple by two differ- 
ent sects of the Hindus. According to a Nagari inscription engraved on three 
slabs built in the north wall of the building, the temple was erected in 1069 
A.D. by Govmdaraja, the third Nikumbha Chief of Patan, who at the same 
time endowed it with the income of certain fields belonging to him and also 
induced his suzerain, the Yadava king Seunachandra II, to grant two villages 
for its maintenance. 1 The Nikumbhas were feudatories of the Yadava Kings 
of Devagiri (modern Daulatabad) and extensive remains of their buildings are 
utill visible around the temple of Mahadeva at Patan or Patna, very close 
to the well-known group of Buddhist caves at Pitalkhora. 

"Originally the temple of Siddhesvara consisted of a garbkagriha, an an- 
tarala, a martdapa and a porch but was subsequently divided into two parts 
by stone partition wall built in front of the antara/la by the Manbhavas, 

* Ep. Ind., Vol. II, p. 221, 



81 EXPLORATION 

a sect founded on the doctrine of the divine love ot Krishna which came into Western Circle 
prominence in the mediaeval Hindu, and early Muhammadan times (circa 13- VaghK 
14th century A.D.). The rear portion comprising the sanctum and the anta- 
rala, which remained in charge of the Saivaites, has disappeared excepting traces 
of its plinth on which a tiny cell has been erected in modern times fot the 
veneration of a small linga and a natndi. The front portion of the old temple 
measuring 33' X 22' was appropriated by the Manbhavas and a brass mask of 
the god Krishna is still worshipped in it. The structure must have suffered 
considerable damage, as the outer fabric of the front wails is completely en- 
cased with modern plain stone masonry. Fortunately the pristine simplicity 
of the original design remains undisturbed in the interior of the mandapa and 
the porch and the fourteen carved pillars, eight pilasters and two corner pillar 8 
with their bracket capitals surmounted with squatting figures of ganas continue 
as before to support the corbelled domes over the mandapa and the porch and 
the flat roof around them. Two sculptures m this temple deserve special notice- 
One of them, which adorns the soffit of the dome of the porch, represents 
Sri Krishna playing on a flute (venit) in the company of gopis. The other 
relief consists of three finely carved lotuses and occurs just in front of the 
one above mentioned. 1 

" The village of Deolana is situated at a distance of about 9 miles from 
Satana, the headquarters of Taluka Baglan in the Nasik District. Immediately 
to the north-West of the village, on the bank of a small rivulet, stands a three- 
ghrined temple locally known as the temple of Jagesvara. The structure is 
in a sound state of preservation, but the repairs to the roofs undertaken by 
the villagers some 18 years ago, apparently with a view to rendering them water- 
tight, do not harmonise with the ancient design and the new domes in parti- 
cular are very conspicuous and out of keeping with the surroundings. The 
construction of the walls of the shrines is made peculiar by the rustication 
of the masonry above the bands of geese at the basement, which imparts a 
feeling of strength combined with a decorative feature to the stone-work It 
is, however, somewhat doubtful whether this outer facing was not added during 
some later repairs. The principal shrine (garbhagriha) measuring 6 '6* square, 
has a linga in the centre and a standing image of Vishnu in a niche in the 
west wall. This grouping of the emblems of the gods Siva and Vishnu seems 
to be the result of a deliberate endeavour to combine their worship in a single 
shrine with a view to reconciling the votaries of the two deities. Kneeling 
devotees are seen on either side of Vishnu's legs and above the niche is a 
seated image of Lakshmi with two attendants holding fly- whisks (ckamaras) 
The jambs of the doorway leading to the main shrine are decorated with vari- 
ous miniature images including two female figures representing the goddesses 
Durga and Lakshmi holding identical objects, viz., a conch-shell (sanJcha) and 
& lotus (padma). The goddesses are, however, easily distinguished by their 
respective cognisances, viz., a couehant lion and a jar, marked on the pedestals. 

1 SuniUr aoulpture* occur in the temples of Aomteavara and Jagoarara at Ratanwadi and Deolana respectively 
in the Districts of Aamedaagar and Nasik. 



EXPLORATION 



82 



Western 
Circle 

Mr. G. C. 

Chandra 



Just above these goddesses are standing figures of dvarapalas, each holding a 
drum (damaru) and a water-jar (Icaniandalu) in his upper and lower left hands 
and the serpent and the mace (gada) in the upper and lower right hands res- 
pectively. The projecting cornice of the lintel is occupied by five seated images 
of gods separated fiom one another by small pilasters and standing elephants. 
Of the figures occupying the niches in the mandajM special mention may be 
made of an image of six-armed Durga standing on a lion of which she holds 
the tail in one of her left hands, while her upper right and left hands hold 
a sword and a shield. As in the temple of Siddhesvara at Vaghli, the intrados 
of the dome of the porch is adorned with a circular relief representing Sri 
Krishna and the gopis. The entiam-e to the temple is guarded by figures of 
Siva-ganas and Vishnu-ganas depicted on either side of the walls of the porch. 
The three gargoyles outside the shrines are beautifully carved makaras like 
those in the temples of Dharwar. The plinth of the temple is almost com- 
pletely covered with earth. Two broken n<wdu (bulls) are lying on the cir- 
cumambulatory path (pradakifampatha) in front of the temple. There are no 
dated recordn to supply evidence of the age of the monument but judging from 
the style of the sculptures and of the architectural affinities it may be as- 
signed approximately to the llth century A.D." 

Centra! Circle " The f&inous Buddhist University of Nalanda in Bihar has already been 

B'harand ' described in previous reports. It will suffice here to recall that a notable cha- 

Orissa racteristic of the remains so far exposed is the succession of structures erected 

Mr. J. A. Page on the ruins of a previous one, the earliest of which probably dates from the 

Nalmda 6-7th century A.D. ; and that the general layout of the site takes the form 

of a long central avenue running north to south, flanked on the east by a 

range of monasteries and on the wet,t by a similar range of stupas, or sacred 

mounds, contiguous monasteries bounding the area again on the south. The 

operations so far have been generally confined to the south end of the site, 

from which they are being carried systematically northward year by year as 

the work proceeds. 

'* The reduction of the allotment for excavations at Nalanda to a total 
of Rs. 2,200* in the year under review has necessarily been reflected in the 
results achieved. The bulk of the money was devoted to continuing the ex- 
cavation of Site No. 5, which is seemingly a kind of monastic annex or dha. 
ramsala arranged round the three sides of a central court contiguous to Mo- 
nastery No. 4. to the west. The features of this site have already been des- 
cribed in some detail in the last report. 

" The work here involved the removal of a great mass of earth from the 
southern half of the site to expose the internal face of the east and south 
walls enclosing it ; and until a depth of some eighteen feet had been reached 
no structural remains of any sort were recovered inside this area. The eastern 
boundary wall at this end has been disclosed for its full height, and it has 
proved to be a plain brick structure devoid of any openings. At its south 

*The original allotment wa* Kfl. 2,000, which wa subsequently increased to Ra 2,200 by reapproprialion. 



83 EXPLORATION 

end it turns west for some eight feet and then south again to meet the ex- Bihar and 

ternal wall of Monastery No. 1 adjoining. In this latter section of the wall^" 88 * 

towards the bottom were found ,2 drains, one immediately above the other N***** 

and seemingly indicative of successive levels o occupation ; and connecting 

the east wall at the bottom with the wall of the adjoining Monastery Site No. 

4 to the west were found the low remains of a wide wall bounding a range 

of cells, which presumably were entered from the north. To the immediate 

north again the ruins of a long wide stair (Plate XXX (d)) were exposed, 

projecting from the east external wall of Monastery No. 4, to the upper levels 

of which it seemingly gave access from the low external court below. Only 

the lower portion of this stair now exists, and its precise purpose is not at 

present apparent. Indeed, the plan of this end of the site is by no means 

clear as yet ; though it is evident that, here again, the remains are complL 

cated by the presence of subsequent structures erected on the ruins of earlier 

ones. A further large quantity of earth here must first be removed before 

any definite idea of the building can be gained ; and it is hoped to 

continue the clearance of the site next year, if the needful funds are 

forthcoming. 

" Between this site and Monastery No. 1 adjacent to it, at the uppermost 
level of occupation, the fragmentary remains of a small entrance gateway were 
found (vide plan in Plate XXIX). This gave access to a passage that ran 
between the adjacent monasteries for their full length, east to west, and termi- 
nated at the other end in a similar gateway. 

" In Monastery site No. 1 an attempt was made to explore further the 
earliest levels of occupation ; and to this end the square chatiya in the appro- 
ximate centre of the courtyard was cut into, and one quarter (the N.E.) of 
its plan removed. This expedient, while leaving the structure intact on its 
west and south sides, has afforded a sectional view of the interior, with it 
solid hearting of brick-in-nrad and its sequence of concrete layers (Plate XXX 
(a) and (6)), the explanation of which last feature is not apparent. These 
layers of concrete, four in number, were simply spread over the centre portion 
of the hearting as it was being erected. They have no definite or regular 
termination at the sides ; nor is there any indication whatever of an inner 
wall face that might point to their being the pavements of an interior chamber 
subsequently filled up. And, again, there is no indication of any relic casket 
bhough 2 pieces of stone, one seemingly a re-used column-base, were found some- 
what out of the centre, which could possibly have served to cover a small 
relic chamber. So 1 am led to the view that these curious concrete layers 
were merely intended to strengthen the interior of the solid chatiya, as a kind 
of bonding course ; though the necessity for them is not apparent. 

" Another feature of interest revealed in this sectional view of the chatty a 
is the three outer facings of the three chctityas that were erected on the same 
spot, one over and outside the other, within a height of some two feet. Pre- 
viously only two such integuments had been apparent ; this latest cutting re 
reals that there are three. 

N2 



EXPLORATION 84 

Central Circle " Of interest too \vere the remains of a further chabutra with a halfc- 

Mr. J. A. Page moon .shaped pavement of brick that were revealed some five feet below the 
Natonda earliest foundations of this cJiaitya and contiguous to the colonnaded chabutra 

of the 8th level down, previously excavated and referred to in earlier reports 
(1'late XXX (&)). This somi-circular pavement was traced for half its extent 
beneath the super-imposed cliaitya of later date, and it clearly belongs to the 
8th level, and earliest but one, of occupation. The north side of the colon- 
naded chabutra mentioned above has been cleared of its abutting earth down to 
tlio earliest pavement ; and steps have been taken to expose this pavement 
over the whole of the N. E. quarter of the courtyard, together with the para- 
pot walls of the earliest colonnades erected round it. These parapet walls 
were found in a very dilapidated condition and badly bulged, and as 
they carried the whole weight of the later solid brick wall built over them, 
underpinning for a height of some 6 feet has had to be done pari passu with 
the removal of the earth that concealed and supported them (Plate XXX (c)). 
Further reference to this will bo found in the account under Conservation ; 
but it is mentioned hore because the operation of underpinning, which entailed 
as a preliminary tho careful removal of the old ruined walls, has been instru- 
mental in disclosing the positions of the old stone column bases, till then hid- 
den in the mass of brick that Was subsequently built over them. 

" Tho positions of these column bases were marked on the face of the 
wall as the work proceeded, and from these several indications it will be pos- 
sible to reconstruct in a drawing the whole of tho old colonnade. 

" A disclosure of interest and importance afforded by tho clearance in 
this corner of the courtyard is the existence of a still earlier parapet beneath 
the parapet of the earliest colonnade previously revealed. It is now apparent 
that the earliest parapet around the courtyard rose some 2'-10" above the first 
brick paving to be laid here, and that what was formerly thought to be the 
earliest colonnade is really a second one, erected on the ruins of the first para- 
pet when the level of the courtyard and its enclosing verandah had risen some 
three feet on th<> debris of the earlier structure. The second parapet is about 
0' (>" ttbove the earliest brick paving of the courtyard, and this unusual and 
unnecessary height was unezplainable while the indications pointed to their 
being contemporary ; which the most recent discovery proves they are not. 

" A cutting was made in the S. K. corner of tho court through the brick 
wivll of the second parapet down to the level of the first, with a view to the 
possible discovery of a stono column ba.se left in situ in the earliest level when 
the second parapet was raised ; but without Miceess. Neither was any such 
stone disclosed in position on this earliest parapet during the underpinning of 
the northern half of the east courtyard wall under reference above. In the 
N. E. corner, however, a stone column base was discovered in situ on this 
parapet, and another similar stone was found lying among the debris immedia- 
tely m front of the court-yard wall and belaiv the parapet level. So it seems 
certain that such column bases did originally exist along the earliest parapet ; 
and that the colonnade of the second parapet to be constructed merely repeated 



85 EXPLORATION 

a feature that its builders had found in the first, most of the old column Bihar an* 
bases of which they removed and re-used. Orissa 

"A curious brick structure encasing a drain raised on the earliest pavemen 
in this corner of the courtyard appeared during the clearance of the earth lie re. 
Slightly curved in plan' it extends diagonally some fifteen feet into th corner 
of the court, from which it carried away the surface water through an out- 
let in the north wall (Plate XXX (c)). 

" This outlet had been subsequently blocked up with laid brick-bats ; but 
it is hoped that its clearance and re-use will be found possible, since this would 
facilitate the drainage of the excavation at this corner of the court, which is 
so deep here as to be liable to inundation in the rains. 

" A minor feature of interest revealed in the low chabutm fronting the 
vaulted " caves " in the north wall of the court- (described in previous reports) 
is a number of chulhas or fireplaces, in which the horizonal air Hues and frag- 
ments of perforated tile bottom were visible. So perhaps these brick oave- 
chambers, with their unique Hindu-constructed vaults, served as a kitchen for 
the monastery. 

" In Monastery site No. 4 the excavation of which AVas commenced two 
years ago, further clearance of d&briit was done in the shrine in the oast side, 
with a view to exposing the earlier structures below. Though in general the 
uppermost level of occupation of this monastery was found in unusually good 
preservation, scarcely any remains of its sanctum survived a chance circumstance 
due largely to tho particular configuration of the mound before its excavation. 

44 Merely a few fragments of concrete pavement in four closely occurring 
levels existed (all within a height of S'-li") indicative of the floors of the later 
shrines, and practically nothing remained of their enclosing walls. These frag- 
mentary pavements have TIOW been cut through to get down to thu earlier 
structures below, but, in tho cutting, portions of them have been left intact 
to preserve the evidence they afford. 

*' The general arrangement of the earlier .Nam-turn revealed in the course of 
excavation is peculiar to this monastery. The innermost sanctum itself takes 
the shape of a simple rectangular chamber 17 feet wide N.-S. by 11 feet deep 
E -W., with an image pedestal, now very fragmentary, along the back wall ; 
and its floor is some !> feet below the bottommost of the four later pavements 
above. But what is unusual about this sanctum is the high narrow passage 
corbelled over at the top, that occur? around and behind it on three sides, 
north, east and south. The floor of this passage is some 4 feet lower than 
the sanctum it encloses. The passage was entered through an opening in the 
south wall of the adjoining cell to the north ; no direct communication between 
it and the sanctum existed. This passage arrangement does not appear in 
any other monastery so far excavated at Nalauda (vide plan in Plate XXTX). 

" On the ruins of this passage, when the monastery of which it formed 
part was destroyed, was laid a solid core of brickwork carried up to the floor 
level of the next later structure, a distance of over feet. This solid hearting 
of laid brick, some 30 feet and more across, seemed a most inexplicable anj 



EXPLORATION 



86 



Central Circle purposeless feature while it was being cut through ; and it was only when the 
Mr. J. A. Pafte ruined remains of the corbelling over the earlier passage below appeared in the 
Naknda narrow exploratory cross-trench cut through it that a hint for its elucidation 

was forthcoming. 

" A pit was carried down in the passage to the bottommost foundations, 
which occur some 32 feet below 1 the topmost and latest pavement of the 
shrine- In the descent a further floor of concrete was cut through 9'-3* below 
the floor of the sanctum above. Thus, no fewer than 6 different levels and 
periods of occupation (accepting the second earliest sanctum floor and its lower 
enclosing passage as contemporaneous) occur in this monastery ; and while some 
of the upper closely occurring pavements were probably laid in the same actual 
building, the three earlier pavements below represent each a separate and 
subsequent building erected on the one site. It is hoped to continue the 
excavation of this monastery next year. 

"During the removal of the surface earth from which the bricks for the 
conservation of the remains are being made, a group of little votive stupas 
and stupa-pedestals was exposed, some of them of stone and decorated with 
little figures of Buddha cut in rows one above the other ; one row would 
represent the Buddha in Bhumisparsamudra, the next in Dhyana, the third 
in Abhaya, and the fourth and last in Dharmachakramudra. In other little 
stupas the 8 conventional life-scenes of the Buddha are represented in a suc- 
cession of panels, from the birth in the Lumbini Garden at Rummindei to the 
Nirvana at Kusinagara ; both of which places have been located in the Nepalese 
Tarai. On four of these little stupas are engraved dedicatory inscriptions in 
characters assignable to the 8-9th centuries A, D., and one of them contains 
a reference to the reign of Mahindrapaladeva, presumably the Gurjara-Pratihara 
king of that name at Kanauj, who is assigned to c. 850 A.D. and is believed 
to have annexed Magadha for a few years (vide V. A. Smith's Early History of 
India, p. 402). I am indebted to Mr. Hirananda Sastri for the reading of this 
name. 

" A brief account of the few minor antiquities recovered in the course of 
the excavations is given under * Museums ' (Nalanda). 

" In the Central Circle the only monument inspected that had not pre- 
viously been visited by an archaeological officer and that proved on ins- 
pection to be worthy of record was the old slate quarry recently dis- 
covered in the Kharagpur HUls near Paharpur in the Monghyr Dis- 
trict, a brief account of which is given in this report under * Miscellaneous 
Notes.' " 

*' The ruins in north-eastern Bengal, in the districts of Bogra and Rangpur, 
have remained unexplored throughout the nineteenth century. Some attention was 
paid to the antiquities in this area during the early days of the Honourable 
Bast India Company. Subsequently with the increase in our knowledge of the 
^ s ^ T y o f Bengal, adequate attention could not be paid to the antiquities in 
this area on account of the distance of some of these sites from the railway. 
The ruins of a vast city called Mahasthan, supposed to be the remains of the 



Kharagpw 
Hills near 
Paharpur 



Eastern Circle 
Bengal 

Mr. R. D. 
Banerji 



87 EXPLORATION 

ancient city of Pundravardhana, are situated a few miles to the north, of the Bengal 

town of Bogra. Our knowledge of the extension of the Muaalman conquest Rangpwr ZKrttta 

to the east and north-east of Lakhnauti or Gaur is still very imperfect and 

there is very little hope of our discovering in the near future new records 

which will supply all the information required. 

"The only chance of success lies in an accurate and up-to-date survey 
north-eastern Bengal, many ancient sites in which are still difficult of access. 4 
The area surveyed during the year under review consisted of the southern part 
of the district of Kangpur, enclosed by three railway lines, from Santahar to 
Parbatipur, Parbatipur to Kaunia and Kaunia to Santahar. During the latter 
part of the seventeenth and in the eighteenth century the last post on the eastern 
frontier of the Mughal empire was Ghoraghat on the western bank of the 
Karatoya and now included in the district of Dmajpur. At times, the north- 
eastern frontier post of the Musalman kingdom or empire had been pushed 
torward as far as Gauhati, where an inscription of Sultan Ghiyathu-d-din Azam 
Shah has been discovered recently, or to Rangamati in the northern part of 
the Goalpara district. After the death of Mir Jumla, Musalman posts were 
gradually thrust back to the centre of northern Bengal by the Koch kings of 
Cooch Bihar and the Ahonis of Assam. The survey undertaken during the 
year under review disclosed an elaborate system of defences constructed 
during the early mediseval period by the Hindu kings of north-eastern India. 
To the east of the Kuratoya river lies the huge Walled city called Dariyaon, 
within the jurisdiction of the village of Kantaduar in the Gaibandha sub- 
division of the Eangpui district. The ruins of Kantaduar (Plate XXXI (a) ) 
were brought to notice for the first time by Mr. G. H. Damant of the Bengal 
Civil Service more than half a century ago. 1 Mr. Damant obtained a semi- 
historical work called the Risalatu-sh-Shuhada, which recited the adventures of 
a Musalman saint named Shah Ismail Ghazi during the wars with the Hindu 
kings on the north-eastern and south-western frontiers of Bengal. Ismail Ghazi 
is said to have fought with the Hindus at Madaran in the Arambagh sub- 
division of the Hooghly district of Bengal and at Kantaduar in the Gaibandha 
sub-division of the Rangpur district. His head Was severed from his body 
which Was interred at Bara Dargah on the road from Rangpur to Ghoraghat, 
While the head was buried at Madaran. Many are the miracles related about 
Shah Ismail G-hazi, some of whioh have been carefully recorded by Mr. Damant 
in his article. The actual ruins at Kantaduar do not appear to have been 
visited previously by anybody connected with the Archaeological Department. 
With the help of Rai Bahadur Mritunjaya Ray Chaudhuri of Sadyapushkanni, 
who had acquired a very accurate and intimate knowledge of the district of 
Rangpur several years ago while working as the Vice-Chairman of the District 
Board, I started investigation of the historic sites and ancient fortifications 
on the north-eastern frontier of Bengal in December 1924. In the districts 
of Rangpur and Jalpaiguri and the neighbouring state of Cooch Bihar there 

1 J. A. J3. A, 1874, Pt, f 1. p. 216. 



EXPLORATION 88 

Eastern Circle are a number of places called duars, which are really passable fords in the 

Mr.R.D. country which was and is still intersected by very broad and fast-running 

Banerjl ^ nve rs. In the district of Rangpur, three of these Amirs existed in the southern 

Bangpw Duitrwt ^^ ^ ^ investigations proved that all of them were really entrances to the 

country lying to the north-east of Bengal proper. In the area enclosed by 

the three railway lines mentioned above, three of these duwrs were found on 

old river beds which are evidently the older beds of the Karatoya. The 

imns of Mabasthanparh indicate very clearly the existence of an ancient Bengali 

city of the same type as those to be seen in different parts of northern Bengal 

and which was inhabited from the eighth century to the twelfth century A. D. 

The fall of this city was perhaps contemporaneous with the conquest of Bardhankot 

and Nudiah, which were conquered by Sultan Mughithu-d-dm Yuzbak of Bengal 

in 1225 A. D. and in commemoration of which a special coin or medal Was 

struck. 1 After the fall of Mahasthan the frontier of the Musalman kingdom 

of Bengal was extended as far as the Karatoya. The southern frontier 

of the Ibrdu kingdoms of north-eastern Bengal and Assam was defended by 

four different lines of defences all of which are still in an excellent state of 

preservation. The first line of defence was the river Karatoya, which appears 

to have been a large river at one time. The defences along the eastern 

bank of this river can be found at three different places. Like the Ganges 

and the Brahmaputra, the Karatoya has shifted its bed many times 

during the last seven centuries The old beds have become marshy areas, 

which still separate the comparatively ancient red soil of northern Bengal 

or Barind from the loose sandy alluvium of the districts of Rangpur and 

Jalpaiguri. 

Dariyaon " On the eastern bank of the Karatoya, on an ancient bed of this river, 

$tands the ruined city called Dariyaon within the limits of the village of 
Kantaduar. It appears that the Musalman inhabitants of the surrounding 
villages have forgotten the very name of the city of the fort. The name 
Kantaduar means " the gate of the thorn " and the Word '' Dariyaon " means 
"the sea." The fortifications of this ruined city consist of three different 
ramparts with brick cores which are still formidable in size and height, and 
are separated one from the other by four broad moats, most of which contain 
water even during the driest season. The local people aver that originally 
there were seven circumvallations separated by seven broad moats the exterior 
ones of Which have gradually dried up. This belief is suggested by the con- 
tour of the ground. A distinctive characteristic of this class of fortifications 
is the projection of screen walls, resembling modern barbicans, which project 
at right angles from the concentric circumvallations of the regular fortifications. 
In the interior of the ring of ramparts there is a flat plain, now given up 
to cultivation, which contains several mounds covering the ruins of structures 
01 temples. After crossing the dry beds of the outer moats which have now 
been converted into cultivated fields, we had to cross the last three in rafts. 
The core of the present exterior wall shows the existence of burnt brick 

~~~ * j. <fc f . A. 8. B.> Vol. 1X7 p 288, 



89 EXPLORATION 

masonry 7' in thickness and at places 15' to 16' in height. There are gaps at Bengal 
certain places in this rampart indicating the position of gateways and other 
openings through which* the waters of the different moats were connected. 
It is difficult to imagine at the present day how these connected water-ways 
were defended during a siege. It will be necessary to survey the entire area 
carefully and to acquire the cultivated fields in the interior of the ring of 
walls for future excavations. 

"At a distance of nearly one mile from the dried up moats there is a large 
mound about 30' in height above the surrounding ground level (Plate XXXI(a)) 
on which stands a little dargah or Idgah built during the reign of Sultan 
Alauddin Hussain Shah of Bengal (J 489-1526 A. D.)- The mound appears to 
contain the ruins of an ancient temple destroyed by the Musalmans and con- 
verted into a mosque and a, dargah. The mosque has collapsed long ago and 
nothing can be seen of it at the present day, except the site which is pointed 
9ut by local villagers. The dargah, however, still stands roofless and in an 
excellent specimen of the early Musalman type of architecture of the fifteenth 
century A. D. At one tune this dargah possessed an inscription engraved on 
two different slabs ot stone, carved out of two separate Hindu images, which 
were placed side by side over the principal entrance of the structure. Rai 
Bahadur Mritunjaya Kay Chaudhury informs me that one of these has been 
missing for some time but that the second slab was seen by him in 1915 when 
he took impressions. This latter slab had also disappeared at the tune of my 
visit to Kantaduar in December 1924. The name of Sultan Alauddin Hussam 
Shah can be read clearly from an impression of the inscription supplied to me 
by the Rai Bahadur. The structure was severely shaken during the violent 
earthquake of 1897 and the poverty of the attendants of the shrine, who still 
possess the village of Kantaduar as a wakf estate, has fortunately prevented 
its rebuilding in the modern style. There are two pierced brickwork Inttict**: 
in the side walls but the back wall IB under-orated. The dargah was built 
of small carved bricks in the style of the tomb of Fatli Khan and the Qadam 
Rasul at Gaur. The fortifications of the ancient city and the mound with 
the dargah have been declared protected monuments and then conservation 
will be undertaken as soon as funds permit. 

"Due north of Kantaduar is the village of Debipur in the zimiindati 
Babu Asutosh Lahiri. The existence of old river beds in the vicinity shows 
that at one time the village was an important post on the eastern bank of 
the Karatoya or one of its tributaries. One high and two low mounds in the 
village still indicate the position of important structures. The village is now 
inhabited entirely by aboriginals from Chota Nagpur and a few Musahmms. 
The latter informed me that an image of the ten-armed Dnrga was recovered 
From the top of the highest mound some years ago. This mound is still more 
than 20' in height above the surrounding area and certain depressions 
in the cultivated fields in front of it indicate that it was enclosed by moats. 
The District Board road, which passes in front of the mound, has revealed 
ndications of walls built of burnt bricks over which the road was laid. To 



EXPLORATION 90 

Eastern Circle the north-cast ol these mounds there are several others, but not so high as 

B**!!! D * t i ie On<? whicl1 * les cl 8< * to tho wtchery oi the Zamindar. Between Debipur 

tianavw District *^ ^ ajlt ' a ^ uar there Jiro several fortifications along tie old beds of the river 
Karatoya, the most important of which is the big marsh or beel known as 

Bora Beel Bara-beel close to tin 1 Police Station of Virganj In the maps the river which 

passes in and out of this marsh is now called Akhira. But. the nature and 
extent of tlije Baia-beel HJIOWS that it must have been a rivei of great width 

Baira^vrgDth and velocity at one time The village of Bara-dargali lies due north of the 
tort m Bara-beel on the load from Bogr<i to Rangpur Shah Ismail Ghazi 
is said to have been bimedin u brick tomb in this village 

Baydtatr "To the west of Debipur lies the village of Bagduar which contains, an 

ancient shrine of the goddess Kali, worshipped here under the title of Bag-devi. 
The temple of Bag-devi once stood on the bank of A large tank and remains 
of several structures (an be distinguished, one above the other, showing that 
the temple had been rebuilt at different times The present temple cannot be 
more than a century old, but as the roof has collapsed and there are no 
worshippers to look aftt'i it the shrine presents an appearance of complete 
desolation Outside the masonry temple, however, there is a roofless hut, 
containing a broken stone image of the goddess Kali and another fragment 
of a stone sculpture which my guide Rai Bahadur Mntunjaya Kay Chaudhury 
. reverently pointed out as being the image of Bag-devi. Local people believe that 
this stone figure is decreasing m uze every year It is kept wrapped up m 
a piece of red cloth but I was surprised when on removing the cloth to find 
the so-called goddess to be only the upper part of an image of Buddha of 
the type which usual]) represents the eight principal scenes of Gautama's 
life. The existing fragment, in fact, represents the death of Buddhu between 
the two xaU trees of Kusmara which scene is usually delineated at the top 
of this particular class of images. 

Mahettyur " Close to Bugduar IB the village of Maheshpur where there is a Muham- 

niadan tomb built exactly in the style of the tomb of Fath Khan at Gaur and 
the tomb attached to the mosque of Kartalab Khan at Dacca. It was built 
in 1732 A. D. The rums of Bagduar lie close to an old bed of the Kara- 
toya now called the Sarvamangala. The fort at this site is small. The Bengal 
District Gazetteer wrongly describes this chain of forts as being on the great 
road from Ghoraghat to Kamatapur. On the other hand the chain of forts 
beginning from Kantaduar and ending with Bagduar clearly indicates that 
this was the first line of defence of the Hindu kingdoms of north-eastern India. 

The Great W aU "Between the Kaiatoyu and the Teesta lies a big rampart with a fosse 

in front It has been pierced in several places for the passage of District 
Board roads hut still exists to the south-west of the modern town of Kangpur. 
According to local information, this rampart now ioruit) the boundary between 
the Varganas of Sadyupushkaruu and Bata&an of the Uangpur District. On 
examination it was found to be a high mud wall a hundred feet in thickness, 
generally twenty to foity feet in height above the cultivated fields at the back 
and forty to sixty feet from the bed of the fosse or moat in front of it. The. 



91 EXPLORATION 

'existence of the fosse towards the south and south-east indicates that the wall Bengal 
was built by the people of north-eastern India against aggressions from Bengal Rangf** 
or the south-west. The fosse or moat is cultivated in many placet* and does 
not contain water during the winter but the top of the rampart is always 
covered with jungle and being high land is not much in demand for cultiva- 
tion. The Gazetteer wrongly describes this rampart, us extending from the 
Karatoya to the river Brahmaputra It is well Known that before 1787 the 
Teesta followed a different course and joined the Atrai instead of joining the 
Brahmaputra. The wall belong* to an dge when the Teesta did not flow along its 
present bed. So far as it lias been surveyed it seems to have extended from the 
old bed of the river Manas, marked Mara-mauati in survey mapn, to the Karatoya. 

"The valley of the Teesta and the country lying between this river y, aft Coock Bihar 
the Dharla still remains to be surveyed and information has been received about* 
the existence of similar fortifications in this area. To the east of the Dharla 
lies another fortified city, the ruins of which are known as Gosammari 
Gosammarai in the southern pu,rt of the Cooch Bihar State. The>e rums lie 
on the bank of the river Torsba which IB a tributary of the Dharla. The 
river now passes right through the centre of the ancient city and has exposed 
the nature of the construction of its rampart The rums of Gosanimari can 
be reached from the station ol Dmliuta on the Cooch Bihar section of the 
Eastern Bengal Railway and there is a good road from the station right up 
to the rums Similarity between the fortifications at Kunladuar and (Joaaiiunan 
is so marked that there cannot be any doubt that both of them were built 
by the same people and most, probably ut the same period. The history ol 
Shah Ismail Ghazi and the existence of an inscription of Sultan Alauddin 
Huasam Shah on the mound at Kantaduar prove that none of these forti- 
fications were the works of the Koch kings. The compiler of the Gazetteer 
ascribes the rampart on the second line of fortifications to the Koch kings, 
but it is extremely doubtful whether it was necessary for these kings to 
build fortifications on such a large scale. Tradition ascribes the building ol 
Gosammari to the Hindu kings of the Mongoloid Khyen tribe. The last king 
of this dynasty, Nilambar. was defeated and killed by Shah^ada Daniyal. the 
eldest son of Sultan Alauddin Husain Shah of Bengal. 

" Nothing is known of the history of the Khyens except that they existed 
as a buffer kingdom between the Ahomw of Assam and the Musalman kingdom 
of Bengal in the fifteenth century. It IB quite possible that the Khyens built 
Gosammari, but it IB also possibk that these Mongoloid people only utilised 
the ruina of fortifications which had been built several centuries before. The 
fortifications of Gosaniman originally consisted of several concentric walls 01 
ramparts and moats, with projections of the nature of barbicans or screen 
walte. The officers of the Cooch Bihar State have surveyed the entire ruins and 
the incursions of the river Torsha right through the fortifications have revealed 
-the fact that the nature of construction of the ramparts is exactly similar to 
of th walls at Dariyaon. These fortifications are quite unlike the square 

forts to beeen near tfe stations ol Domar and Nilphamari on the northern 



EXPLORATION 



92 



Eastern Circle 
Mr. R. D. 
Bajttfji 

Gooch Bihar 

State 

Dacca D%*tr%ct 



Mcqueqf 
Kartalab Kkan 



The Katra 
Matjidof 
Murshifahad 



section of the Eastern Bengal Railway. The country lying in the northern part 
ol the Jalpaiguri district and the Cooch Bihar State has not been properly 
surveyed a yet and therefore it IH premature to compare the nature of the 
remains m these two districts. 

" The last two capitals of the Mughal Subah of Bengal contain a very 
large number of inosqueh in the Deccani style of the later Muhammadan, 
architecture. In Dacca the local people have given the name Sfiaista-Khawi 
to thin particular style A careful examination of this style leads me to believe 
that the long residence of Jafar Kuli alias Kartalab Khan alias Murshid Quh 
Khan in the districts of the Deccan especially at Bijapur, Ahmednagar and 
Aurangabad influenced him and caused him to copy the early and later styles 
of the Deccaiu architecture in the mosques which he built in the last two 
capitals of Bengal. Dacca arid Murshidabad. This style is also evident in the 
mosque of Hhaista Khan at Dacca. The low broad arch with its cramped 
voussoirs is distinctly characteristic of the southern Deccani Musalrnan style, 
which we find in the Jumu masjid at Bijapur, the Kali maejid at Ahmed- 
nagar and the ruined mosque at Daulatabad. This style is even more evident 
in the mosque of Kartalab Khan in the Dacca city and the Deccan is stamped on 
it by the existence of a rar or stepped well of the Deccani type, which some 
wild freak of imagination caused Kartalab Khan to dig near his new mosque 
in the ram-sodden city of Dacca. Choked with refuse, neglected and almost 
enveloped by a crowd of dirty huts, this relic of the long residence of Murshid 
tjuli Khan in the Deccan Btill remains as a freak in the city of Dacca. The 
stepped well belong* to the Deccani and not to the Gujarati type The vav of 
Adalaj and that of Bai Hanr at Asawal near Ahmedabad are typical specimens 
oi the Gujarati style, while the stepped well discovered inside the old 
IShanwar Wada palace at Poona and those in the city of Bijapur may be 
regarded as specimens of the Deccani type. The vav of Kartalab Khan or 
iMurshid Quli Khan at Dacca IN almost an exact copy of the one at Ibrahim- 
pur near Bijapur or that in the Shanwar Wada. 

" The interior of the mosque of Kartalab Khan bears a striking resembl- 
ance to the interior of the mosque attached to the Ibrahim Hauza or the tomb 
ot Ibrahim Adil Shah II at Bijapur. Subsequently when Kartalab Khan be- 
came Murshid Quh Khun and the subactar of Bengal, Bihar and Onssa, he 
attempted the building ol a mosque on a gigantic scale at Murshidabad. The 
Katru imisjid, the ruins of which stand two miles to the east of Murshidabad 
Kaiiway Station is built on a peculiar plan. It stands on a high platform 
m the centre of a huge courtyard which latter is surrounded by a double- 
storied row of room*. Four immense ininars, resembling Egyptian pylons 
in stolidity, were built at the four corners of the quadrangle, instead of 
being attached to the luosque proper. The Katra masjid was severely 
shaken -during the earthquake of 1897 and most of its massive domes have 
collapsed but the construction of the arches in the interior which supported 
these domes shows at once the close resemblance between the Deccani style 
and the later Mughal style of Bengal. These gigantic archts spring almost 



93 JEXPLORATIOK 

at n right angle from the sides arid have the game style of construction UK Bengal 

those in JShaista Khan's mosque and Kartalab Khan's mowque at Dacca. The Ratra 

In this respect, these three mosques differ from the majority of Bengal 

and the arched buildings of Northern India. How far this particular stylo 

adopted by Murwhid Quh Khan wan perpetuated by the later Musalmau Nawabb 

or Governors of Bengal can be seen in the mosque attached to the tomb oi 

Nawab Khujauddm in the Koshmbagh on the other side of the river Bhagirathi. 

The low clinging vouHSoirs are still . apparent in the arches inside the mosque 

but the arches of the exterior are of the decadent and later Musalmau type 

which we see in the immense number of later Musalman mosques in the 

United Province**, Bengal and Bihar. A curious survival of the hut-shaped 

Bengali tombs of the early Musalman period is noticeable in the case of 

Kartalab Khan's mosque at Dacca. Attached to the northern fa9ade of the 

hall of the mosque and on the top ot the great platform on which it has been 

built, is a small hut-nhaped tomb exactly similar in Htyle to the tomb of Fath 

Khan near the Qadam Kasul at (Jaur. The local Muhammadans did not allow 

me to examine the interior of the building but it. is supposed to contain 

the tomb of some Musalman saint. 

" The district of Dacca possesses three small water forts of the type so Mughal 
common along the creeks of Hassein and Salsette in the Bombay Presidency. 
Tn and around Narayanganj there are three similar towers or forts erected 
the Muglmls to keep the Portuguese and Arakanese pirates of Eastern Bengal 
in check The best preserved of them is that at Idrakpur or Munshigunj (Plate 
XXXI (<)) on the right bank of the Dhaleswan. The enclosure is now used as 
the residence of the Sub-divisional Officer of Munshigunj and the fort is fast losing 
the character of an ancient monument. Two others are to be found close to 
Narayangunj on either bank of the Sital Laksha. That on the left bank of 
the Sital LaUha IK called the fort of Sonakanda. According to tradition, Sona, j 
the widowed daughter of Kodar Kai, is said to have cried at this place when 
she was being abducted by the Afghan chief (?), isa Khan Masnad Ali. The 
fort was built at the junction of a small river called the Tnbeni Khal with 
the Sital Lakbha and commanded the approaches to both the rivers. The present 
owners of this fort have definitely refused to enter into agreement with 
the Government regarding its conservation and therefore it will have to be 
removed from the list of protected monuments. As soon as it is removed from 
the list, the masonry will without doubt vanish and no trace will remain of 
this interesting monument after a few years. The principal feature of the fort 
at Sonakanda is a big tower intended for mounting artillery of a heavy calibre, 
for the reception of which a strong masonry platform was erected in the centre 
of the tower, and the side walls were pierced with gun-embrasures surrounded 
by loop-holes for musketry. There is a small postern below high water level 
for the escape of the garrison in case of a surprise, but the mam entrance 
lies on the river side and has to be reached by a flight of steps. This entrance 
was protected by a double series of doorways, the mortice holes for the reception 
of the tenons of which were made of atone. A similar bastion is to be seen 



EXPLORATION 94 

Eastern Citck in. the fort of Tdrakpur on the top of which the bungalow of the Sub -divisional 
Mr. R. D. (Mcer lias been built. 

anerji < v ^^ third fort was built to the east of Narayanganj, right on the Sitai 

^^^Laksha. At one time it was enclosed within a garden of the Nawab of Dacca 
who was allowed to acquire it. Subsequently this garden was acquired for 
the extension of the Dacca Section of the Eastern Bengal Railway by the 
Government It has been proposed that the plot of land on which the fort 
stands should be handed over to the Archaeological Department, so that the 
monument may be preserved in a deserving style. This fort is called the fort of 
Kedderpore (Khizrpur) (Plate XXXI (fe) ). The walls and the ramparts are 
still m good preservation and it can be reached easily from one of the 
mam roads of Narayanganj town As in the case of the Sonakanda fort the mam 
entrance is placed above a flight of steps. A portion of the rampart was dis- 
mantled by the Nawabs of Dacca and a corner of their garden palace intrudes 
into the fort enclosure, but the rest of the bastion and the circular walls are 
m an excellent state of preservation. Similarly to the other two, this fort, 
like all other Mughal forts, was also surmounted by high ka/ngara battlements which 
were pierced with loop-holes for musketry. There is a very large round tower on 
the river side similar to those attached to the forts at Sonakanda and Idrakpur. 
Here also we tind that a gun of large calibre was mounted for the protec- 
tion of the river craft from the inroads of the Portuguese and Arakanese pirates. 
Aggam ''Assam is the only province of India, the history of the architecture and 

Pre-Ahont Art sculpture of which is still practically unknown While the history of Assam 
and Architcc^wi begins with the Conquest of the lower part of the valley by the Ahoms in 
the fourteenth century, the history of its architecture begms with the intro- 
duction of Bengali masonh and architects in the sixteenth. Like other pro- 
vinces of northern India, Assam was ruled in the mediaeval period of Indian 
historv by a number of dynasties whose names indicate that they were Hindus, 
though in many cases the inscriptions testify to their non-Indian or non- 
Aryan origin. The majority of the kings of Assam claim to be descended 
trom Bhagadatta, the son of Naraka, a mythical king named in the Puranas. The 
earliest known kings of Assam are Susthitavarman, the contemporary of 
king Mahasenagupta of Magadha and his son Bhaskaravarman, the con- 
temporary of Harshavardhana and the Chinese pilgrim Yuan-Chwang. The 
chronology of the Assamese dynasties from the middle of the seventh century 
to the end of the twelfth is still full of confusion, but the architecture of this period 
and the history of the plastic art of the country are absolutely unknown. Yet, at 
times, stone sculptures and rock carvings have been discovered at different 
places which prove that the mediaeval architecture and plastic art of Assam 
were closely related to the general architecture and art of northern India. 
Darrang District " The most important series of sculptures belonging to the period of history, 
Teqwr which ended with the Ahom conquest of tlie valley, have been found in the 

districts; of Kamrup and Darrang. In 1906, the late Dr. Th. Bloeh said that 
the c * modern civil stations of Tezpnr and Oauhati stand on large mounds which 
contain the remains of tiro ancient cities." In the same year white foundations 



95 EXPLORATION 

were being dug for certain additions to the Deputy Commissioner's office at Assam 
Tezpur, the excavators came upon the remains of a stone built temple. The Tcqmtr 
majority of the stones were transferred to the Planters' Club on the river 
Brahmaputra, the Deputy Commissioner's bungalow and the public park, where 
many of them can still be seen. The discovery of these remains in the town 
of Tezpur was reported to the then Chief Commissioner of Assam by the late 
Mr. F. J. Monahan, I.C.S., whose name is now well-known amongst scholars 
ior his devotion to the cause of Indology. Mr. Monahan writes in his report 
to the Chief Secretary to the (Government of Assam, ' Some of the blocks which 
have been dug up are elaborately sculptured as cornices, bases or capitals of 
columns, etc;., like the pieces which one sees lying, here and there on and 
around Tezpur maidan There seems to be every probability that the extent 
of the underground layei oi hewn stones may be not less than that of the 
Cutchery site, it may of course be much greater. The layer of stones is also, 
apparently, of considerable depth I saw a hole about 4' deep, opened by 
removal of some of the granite blocks, below which there were more stones, 
apparently of the same kind. These remains point to the existence of a great 
building; of massive and ornate architecture on the Tezpur maidan site/ On 
receiving this report the late Dr. Th Bloch, reported that ' from Mr 
Monaban's desciiption I infer that the remains struck upon in digging for 
the foundations of the Deputy Commissioner's Office at Tezpur, form part of 
the wall of an ancient temple and it would not be difficult to follow up 
these walls as far as the upper structures permit, down to the bottom of the 
ancient walls On having reached the bottom of the walls, detailed photo- 
graphs should be taken of the ancient walls, and the earth hereafter may be 
rilled up again. All loose and broken carvings, of course, should be taken out 
and put up in some convenient place above ground close to their find place. 
As far as I remember, there is already now a good deal of sculpture coming 
from the remains of the ancient city of Tezpur, lying about close to the Cut- 
chenes. 1 Would suggest to have this small excavation done at once while 
the digging for foundations is "going on.' The lack of records prevents me 
from finding out what Was actually done. Mr. Monahan suggested in his letter, 
dated the I8th June 1906, ' What seems to be required at Tezpur is an exa- 
mination of the ruins for the purpose of determining the period, the plan and 
the purpose of the buildings and obtaining some light on the ancient civilisa- 
tion which they represent,' We have no means to determine how far this 
work was done and so we must depend solely upon hear-say evidence to find 
out what became of the remains discovered. Rai Sahib Sobharam Das, Archaeo- 
logical Overseer in Assam, informs me that the movable pieces of stones were 
removed to the public park close to the Cutchery buildings at Tezpur. 

"On examination of the remains in the park at Tezpur and those pre- j Saiva temple 
served in the Planters' Association or Club at the same place I find that the of the tenth 
carvings belong to three different periods of liistory and therefore must have c 
belonged at least to three separate buildings. The most remarkable sculptures 
of the first group are two shafts of pillars at the entrance to the Planters' 



EXPLORATION 96 

Eastern Circle plub and a heavy lintel of a Btone door-frame now lying in the public park. 

Mr. R. D. The shaft of one of these pillars (Plate XXXII (d)) is sixteen-sided, the upper 
end being ornamented with a broad band having kirtintukhas at the top and 
the lower with dentils. Over this band the shaft is round and appears 
to be lathe-turned like the upper parts of the Western Chalukyan columns of 
the Bombay Presidency. In the second pillar the upper part of the shaft is 
dodecagonal and near the top is divided into three raised horizontal bands 
two of which contain kirtimukhas and the third a series of diamond-shaped 
rosettes. In style, both of them belong to the same period and appear to have 
come from one and the same building. The lintel of the stone door-frame in 
the public park also belongs to the same period and most probably to the 
same building. It is divided into two different parts. The upper part repre- 
sents five miniature temples with the phallic emblem of Biva in each of them. 
In the lower part we see a continuation of the ornamentation on the jambs, 
viz., two vertical bands containing meandering creepers and two others consist- 
ing entirely of rosettes which turn an angle and are continued on the soffit 
of the lintel. In the centre of the lower part of the lintel is a small niche 
containing a miniature image of Ganesa. It appears from the nature of the 
carvings that the temple to which these three architectural specimens belong 
was erected late in the tenth century A. D. The length of the lintel is 6' 
10" and the breadth 1' 5j". 

A temple of the " The second group of sculptures at Tezpur consists of specimens from a 

wt " massive temple on the ruins of which the office of the Deputy Commissioner 

has been built. On each side of the entrance of the Planters' Club at Tezpur 
lie the door-sill and the lintel of the principal entrance to this enormous tem- 
ple. The size of the lintel enables us to determine the size of the door-frame 
and consequently of the principal entrance to the sanctum. The enormous 
lintel is 10' 3" in length and 1' 8" in breadth There are three raised panels 
on it, one in the centre and one on each side and each of them is divided into 
a large niche in the centre with a smaller one on either side. The panel on 
the left contains a standing figure of Brahma in the central niche with an 
attendant on each side. The central panel is occupied by a figure of Surya 
with two attendants while the panel on the extreme right contains a standing 
figure of Siva with an attendant in each of the side niches. The space between 
these raised panels is divided into six niches, three to the left of the central 
panel and three to the right. They contain six divine figures which cannot be 
identified. All the niches are separated from each other by a round pilaster 
2' in height, the height of the lintel itself being 2' 7j". According to the 
general practice in Hindu temples, the central niche or panel of the lintel 
of the stone door-frame of the sanctum is generally occupied by the presiding 
deity of the temple. It appears certain, therefore, that this gigantic temple 
was dedicated to Surya or the Sun god. The sill of this door-frame is also 
of gigantic dimensions and shows a vase in the centre flanked by two lions 
eatatant. Each end is occupied by a niche containing a male and a female 
and flanked by a smaller a,nd narrower niche on a recessed corner, containing 



97 EXPLORATION 

a single human figure. It is a pity that the jambs of this enormous door- Assam 
frame have not been discovered as yet. The large jamb in the public park ?*&* 
appears to belong to a much later period. It is impossible therefore to deduce 
the height of the door-frame correctly, but it is obvious from the length of the 
lintel and the sill that the height of this door-frame could not have been less 
than 15'. If the height of the stone door-frame of the main entrance to the 
sanctum was 15' then the height of the interior of the chamber nwt have 
been 20' to 25', leaving us to imagine the total height of th3 spire, or sikhxra 
of the original temple, which must have been considerably over 100.' The 
majority of the carved stones in the public park at Tezpur are takeu from the 
plinth mouldings and string-courses of the gigantic temple, the door-fraoaas of 
Which have been described above. The string-courses were ornamantod with 
kirtimukhas of various shapes and sizes and sunken panels containing orna- 
mental rosettes and meandering creepers. Some of them are evidently portions 
of enormous capitals which wore held together by m^tal clamps or dowels. 
In the centre of some of those pieces there is a projecting niche flanked by 
round pilasters containing divine figures. In one of these niches wo find a 
fat female squatting on the ground, holding a piece of cloth over her head, 
while a female stands to her left with her hands clapped in adoration. The 
second specimen of the same type contains the figure of a goddess holding 
a lyre in her hands, evidently Sarasvati, the goddess of learning. A third 
specimen contains the well-known group of Kamatotmika or Gajalakshmi, more 
commonly known in Bengal and Assam as Kamale-Kamini in which two 
elephants pour water over the head of a goddess from vase* held in their trunks. 
A fourth specimen containa figures of Siva and Durga seated in the Well-knoWn 
conventional posture so common in images of thi^ particular type in northern 
India. The outlines of the plinth mouldings show that the mediaeval architects 
of Assam employed the same motifs and figures as those in other provinces 
of northern India. Some of these ornaments appear in relief as diamond-shaped 
and circular rosettes, set in between arabasque work of a type known to us 
from the temples of Orissa. The most remarkable specimen in the collection 
in the public park at Tezpur, however, is a slab taken from the upper part 
of the plinth mouldings. It is divided into a number of sunken panels by 
means of circular pilasters, each containing a male or female, two females or 
two males. Beginning from the right we find a man fighting with a lion, a 
male playing on a flute and a female dancing by his side, two males playing 
on conch shells, a male playing on a dram and a female dancing by his side, 
a female playing on a lyre and another dancing to her right, a male playing 
on a drum and another dancijig to his left. This slab apparently formed part 
of a series of similar panels all round the lower edge of the walls of the sanc- 
tum. Another slab bears on it a conventional representation of the Cbaitya- 
window pattern, so common in the temples of Central India, especially those 
in the Bewa State and at Kbajuraho. The interior of the sunken panels 
is entirely covered with geometrical patterns with a half rosette in the 
oentre. The second group of sculptures at Tezpur belongs to a temple erected 



EXPLORATION 98 

Eastern Circle in the twelfth century A.D. if not later. The size of the stones indicates 

&unJri| D * ***** *^ e tem Pk Was ver y ^ ar S e * n s * ze an( * P rov id e d with a very tall spire* 
_ 'IThere are two specimens in the public park at Tezpur which appear to belong 

to another temple of some later date. One of these is a high door jamb and 
the second a slab bearing three sunken panels occupied by very crude human 
or divine figures. The entire collection contains only a single specimen carved 
in the round, a lion, presumably on an elephant. The conventional representa- 
tion of the lion shows that the inhabitants of the Assam valley were not 
very familiar With the king of beasts. 

AA Parbatiya " Close to the modern civil station of Tezpur is the small village of Dah 

Parbatiya which possesses the unique distinction of having within its limits the 
ruins of the oldest temple in Assam. The ruins consist of the remains of 
a brick-built temple of Siva of the Ahom period erected upon the ruins of 
a stone temple of the later Gupta period, circa sixth century A.D. The 
former collapsed during the earthquake of 1897 revealing the stone door-frame 
(Plate XXXI 1 (c) ) of the older structure. At some subsequent date the local 
villagers built a crude hut on the mound, which had collapsed at the time 
of my visit. The mound is nearly 20' above the surrounding ground and is 
entirely covered with large rubber trees and small undergrowth. The door- 
frame stands in front of a large block of stone with a square cavity in its 
centre. Most probably the older ling a was fixed in this hole. The carving on 
the door frame is characteristic of the style of the early Gupta schools of 
sculpture, oi which so many examples have been discovered at various sites 
excavated by Sir John Marshall in northern India. The carving on the jambs 
consists of high reliefs in the lower part and four different vertical bands of 
carving in the upper. In the lower part of each of the jambs is the figure 
of a female deity whoso divine nature is indicated by the halo behind her 
head. Each of the goddesses stands with a garland in her hands in an elegant 
posture and these two figures appear to represent Ganga and Yamuna so common 
in door jambs of ancient Gupta and mediaeval temples (Plate XXXII (a) & (6)). 
These two larger figures are attended, in each of the jambs, by a number 
of smaller ones. At the bottom of the ]amb on the right are two female figures, 
one standing w ; th a chamara and the other kneeling in front, with a flat recep- 
tacle containing flowers. A third female figure is seen with a chamara behind 
or to the right of the main figure. To the left of the halo we find a nagi 
kneeling and to the right two geese flying towards the main figure. The lower 
part of the jamb on the left is not so well preserved as that on the right. 
Here we find a female standing with an indistinct object to the left and another 
to the right or in front of the main figure, the lower part of which is damaged* 
On this jamb also is the figure of a naga kneeling to the right of the halo 
of the mam figure and two geese flying to the left of it. The upper part of 
each of these jambs IH separated into four long narrow vertical bands two of 
which are continued on the lintel. The first of these begins from the head 
of the naga or of the nagi and consists of a meandering creeper with extremely 
beautiful oinamental foliage m the interspaces and the aerond of a- 



90 EXPLORATION 

-straight vertical stem from which issue a number of lotus leaves and other Assam 
conventional flowers. Two dwarfish figures are observed at the bottom holding Dah Porfafiya 
on to the stem. The third band is made up of four super-imposed panels con- 
taining human figures standing on oblong bosses bearing ornamental foliage on 
their surfaces. At the top, each of these bands ends in a vase with ornamental 
foliage hanging from its corneu A pilaster, square in section, rises from the 
vase and ends in a cruciform capital, with a sprawling gana on each of its 
arms. The fourth baud consists of * vertical row of ornamental rosettes. As 
in the case of the Gupta temples at Bhumara in the Nagod Satte, Nachna- 
Kuthara in the Ajaigadh State and at Deogarh in the Jhansi district, the 
lintel is larger in size than the door-frame, extending a little on each side of 
the jambs. Two of the nner bands of carving on the jambs are continued as 
horizontal bands at the bottom of the lintel and exhibit in the centre in high 
relief a beautiful flying male figure holding a garlend in its hands. Above 
these two ornamental bands is another band in higher relief containing a 
number of Chaitya -windows so common in the Gupta temples at Bhumara 
and Deogarh. In this case there are five Chaitya-windows in all, arranged 
m a row on the surface of the lintel. Three of these windows are large 
while two are comparatively smaller in size. The one on the extreme right 
contains the figure of a male seated on a throne, with four hands, two of 
which are broken. One of the left hands holds a damaru, the peculiar small 
drum of Siva while the space below the throne shows the waves of the sea. 
The window between this one and the central one contains a horse-headed 
male figure, with two hands, kneeling. The central Chaitya- window 
is the largest of all and has a suparna, the mythical deity half man and 
half bird, on either side. The Ohaitya-window itself is occupied by a 
figure of Siva, in the form of Lakulisa, seated with a rope tied round his leg. 
A female is holding a cup to his left while another stands to the right. The 
window between the central one and that on the extreme left contains the 
figure of a man seated and playing on a flute while over his head is seen 
the hood of a snake. That on the extreme left contains in its medal- 
lion a beautiful image of Surya seated cross-legged holding lotus flowers in 
both of his hands. The attendant to the left holds a pen and an ink-pot 
while that on the right holds a staff of the orthodox description. The door 
jambs are 5' 3" in height and 1' 4* in breadth while the lintel measures 3' 
0" in length and 1' 3* in breadth. The artist's sense of proportion, the 
beautiful symmetry of the figures and ornamental devices and the excel- 
lence of execution tend to prove that this door lintel belongs to the same 
period as the great schools of sculpture which existed at Pataliputra and 
Benares in the fifth and sixth centuries A.D. The remains of the Ahorn 
temple consist of the floor of the garbhagriha in the centre of which stands 
the stone kunda, measuring 2' 5" X 2' 3* and 5* deep, and the sanctum of the 
temple which measures 8' 11*X8' 4V 

i The door-frame vn* wn by my pxedeoesior Mr. K. N. Dikihit a4 partly described by him in the Annual 
Import for 1922-28, pp. 119-90. 

P2 



EXPLORATION 100 

Eastern Circle " That the ruins of a gigantic stone built temple stood on the top of the 
Mr. R. D. ^armini Hill is known to almost everybody in Aasara. But these ruins do not 
Baneijl a pp ear to have been explored as yet, though one of my predecessors, the late 

Bawum Bid ^ ^ j^j^ v i s ited them in 1903. Nothing, however, was done to conserve 
them though the site was duly protected. On the 23rd October 1924 I attempt- 
ed to inspect these ruins but was debarred from doing so on account of a 
thick growth of jungle which now covers them. The ruins of this temple are, 
besides thf remains at Dah Parbatiya referred to above, the only specimens of 
pre-Ahom architecture in Assam which still remain in situ. Funds have 
been allotted for clearing the jungle, so that the ruins may be more accurate- 
ly surveyed. 

Bishnatli " Displaced remnants of pre-Ahom temples are, however, met with at several 

places in Assam. The ruins of one such edifice now lie in the bed of the 
river Brahmaputra, close to the small village of Bishnath. It seems to me 
that this temple was thrown into the river by the erosion of the bank, but 
the ruins can still be seen during the summer and the winter. The hnga 
which was once enshrined inside this temple continues to be worshipped 
and a thatched hut is raised over it when the water-level is low. I came 
across the remains of another temple of the same epoch in the causeway built 
Stisagar District during the Ahom period on a small hill at Nigriting near Jorhat in the Sibsagar 
Nigriting ' district. During the latter period a temple was built on the top of the mound 
when the remains of a stone built temple were utilised by the architects of 
the Ahom rajas for the erection of the steps which lead from the bottom to 
the top of the mound. With the consent of the priests of this temple, the 
carved stones are being taken out from these steps of the causeway and 
stacked along the sides. When this Work is completed it will be possible to 
give a more complete account of the ancient temple which stood on the top 
of the Nigriting hill. 

Kawrup District " The remains of the pre-Ahom period are more numerous at Gauhati and 
KamaMya on the top of the Kamakhya hill in the Kamrup district. The steps which 

lead from the landing stage on the river to the top of Nilachala hill at 
Kamakhya are composed of immense blocks of stone some of which were 
evidently taken from a temple of great antiquity. The carvings on these 
slabs indicate that they must belong to the seventh or eighth century A.D., 
being slightly later than the carving on the stone door-frame at Dah Par- 
fcatiya. Some of the capitals of pillars are of such immense size that they 
indicate that the structure to which they belonged must^ have been as 
gigantic as the temple of the Sun god at Tezpur, the remains of which 
have been described above. The temple of the goddess Kali or Kama- 
khya on the top of the hill was built during the domination of the Ahoms. 
Its siklma is of the shape of the bee-hive, which is a characteristic of many 
ot the temples in lower Assam. This temple was built on the ruins of another 
structure erected by king Sukladhvaja or Naranarayana, the first king and 
founder of the KocL dynasty of Cooch Bihar, whose inscription is stall 
carefully preserved inside the mavdapa. The lower part of the sanctum 



101 EXPLORATION 

of the temple is in good preservation (Plate XXXI (d)) and was utilised by Assam 
the Ahom builders. Here we find dados of the Khajuraho or the Central Kamrup District 
Indian type, consisting of sunken panels alternating with pilasters, and below Kamakkya 
them the plinth mouldings ol an older temple of the same type as that dis- 
covered at Tezpur. The images and architectural fragments belonging to the 
Koch temple lie scattered on all sides of the main temple at Kamakhya and 
can be recognised at once by the crude outline of the human figures. Among 
them may be mentioned a double-faced human figure and numerous attendants. 
While the plinth of the vnandapa ot the main temple at Kamakhya has be- 
come covered by the levelling \ip of the court-yard, the plinth mouldings of 
the sanctum can be seen inside a shallow pit lined with stones. We can thus 
see three successive stages of building on this site. On one side of the pit 
there is a slab taken from a medieval temple the carvings on which consist 
of a meandering creeper issuing from the handfi of a dwarf seated on the 
extreme left. This slab is much earlier than the Koch period (16th century) 
and evidently co-eval with the plinth mouldings. Whether the lower part of 
the main shrine belongs to the same period as the massive temple, the 
remains of which are to be seen in the steps leading to it, cannot be 
determined as yet, but it is certain that in the pit at the back of the main 
shrine of the temple of Kamakhya we can see the remains of at least three 
different periods of construction, ranging in date from the eighth to the seven- 
teenth century A.D. 

" The remains of pre-Ahom structures can be seen close to most ol the Umananda 
modern temples built on the islands in the bed of the Brahmaputra near 
Gauhati. On the island of Umananda were discovered the remains of another 
pre-Ahom temple consisting of stone pillars, bricks and carvings. On the same 
island there are a number of rock-cut sculptures, generally images of Ganesa, 
which also belong to the mediaeval period. Similar remains are to be noticed 
on the Asvakranta as well as on the ITrbasi island, all of which remain to be 
surveyed. 

"On the northern bank of the Brahmaputra at the foot of the Hima-#. B. 
layas, lies the frontier post of Sadiya. There is evidence to show that faf**to Tr** 
Ahoms fortified Sadiya with some of the guns captured by them from the 
Musalmans. In the bungalow of the Political Officer at Sadiya are three 
guns, one of which is inscribed. The latter belonged to the artillery of the 
Emperor Sher Shah and was cast by the famous general Saiyid Ahmad 
Bumi in 949 A.H.*=1542 A.D. Similar guns have been found at Rewa 1 in 
Central India and at various places in Bengal. The inscriptions on these guns 
were deciphered by Mr. H. E. A. Stepleton of the Indian Educational Service and 
published in the Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 2 
The inscribed gun at Sadiya is exactly of the same type as those in the Dacca 
Museum and in the collections at Gauripur in Assam and at Rewa. The 
muzzle is shaped like the head of a lion and the gun is 4' * in length. 

1 A. P. R. of the ArohL Surrey, W, C., for the yww ending 31st Vvroh 19X1, p. W, pw* 8. 
Vol. V, pp. 887-76. 



EXPLORATION 



102 



Eastern Circle 
Mr. R. D. 



Neolithicimple- 
tn*nh from the 
Abor country 



Southern 
Circle B 
Madras 

Mr* A*!^ 
Longhurst 



The two other guns are of swivel variety and belonged to the Mughal river flotilla 
or nawmrd. One of them measures 3' 9" in length and its pivot is broken, 
^" le tlle second measures 3' 6J" in length including the spike at the end, tha 
height of the pivot being 1'. They are very curious specimens of Mughal 
artillery and are very rare even in Eastern Bengal. 

"From time to time neolithic stone implements are discovered in the 
surrounding hills. At my request Mr. T. P. M. O'Callaghan, Political Agent 
for ^ ^^ Frontier Tract, started enquiries about neolithic implements and 
discovered one stone adze in the Abor country. The specimen was examined 
by Prof. II. C. Das-Gupta of the Presidency College, Calcutta, who pronounced 
it to be made of Abor trap of the type described by Dr. J. Coggin Brown of 
the Geological Survey of India. 1 The specific gravity of this specimen varies from 
2-92 to 3-01. Mr. O'Callaghan writes that it was discovered in a Padam Abor 
village. The local people say that it fell from the sky and struck the moshup 
(bachelors' quarter) in the village of Mebo, on the left bank of the Dihong 
river, where it enters the plains. These neolithic implements are regarded 
with great veneration by the Abors, by whom they are looked upon as a 
gift of the gods and used for application to sores, ulcers, etc. Such objects 
are not used as axes now." 

" Of all the many fascinating rock-cut Pallava monuments at Mahabah- 
puram, popularly known as the Seven Pagodas, few attract more attention and 
admiration than the huge rock sculpture known as Arjuna's Penance. In 
kis IconogMphiwl Notes on The Seven Pagodas published in the Annual Report 
of this department for 1910-11, Dr. Vogel states with reference to this monu- 
ment ... * There is some reason to assume that this designation has as little con- 
nection with the original meaning of this gigantic sculpture as the popular 
names of the so-called Rathas. It is true that among the numerous figures 
rather a prominent place is taken by an ascetic standing on one leg and 
stretching his two arms upwards (ttrdhva-baku) in the position so often des- 
cribed in old Indian Epics. But there is nothing to indicate that this figure 
represents Arjuna. At his right side we notice a four-armed god, whose attri- 
butes are by no means clear, but from the presence of goblins, probably meant 
for ganas, we may perhaps infer that it is Siva. It should, however, be noted 
that in Pallava art we find similar figures attending other deities also. Feats 
of asceticism rewarded by some boon granted by one of the gods are so 
frequent in epic literature that there is very slight justification indeed for 
identifying this sculpture with the particular scene of Arjuna's tapas. On the 
contrary, all that is typical in that episode is absent here. The story is that 
Siva appeared to Arjuna in the shape of a wild Kirata hunter pursuing a 
boar which became the object of an altercation and personal combat between 
the two. It is an undoubted fact which has drawn the attention of previous 
explorers that the supposed group of Arjuna and Siva does not really form 
the centre of the whole sculptural picture. From both sides the numerours 
figures of demi-gods, men and beasts mostly in couples and most of them 

* Reoord* of the Geological Survey of India, Vol. XLH. p. 344. 



103 EXPLORATION 

folding hands in the attitude of adoration are turned towards the large vertical Madras 
cleft or fissure which separates the two halves of the rock. The so-called Presidency 
Arjuna and Siva are placed a little to the proper right of this cleft, &n d MahahaK P watn 
it will be noticed that some of the adoring figures are turned away from 
them and, like the others, are flying towards the cleft. This cleft, therefore 
i the real centre of the whole sculpture.' 

** When Dr. Vogel wrote the above remarks in 1910, he had not seen the 
photograph reproduced in Plate XXXIII (a), which was taken many years 
ago before the monument was repaired by the Public Works Department. If 
the visitor will take the trouble of climbing to the top of the rock, he will 
notice a number of small channels cut in the surface of the rock to collect 
and guide rain water into this cleft. During the rains there must have been 
a considerable stream of water flowing down the cleft into a small tank or 
pond below and as Dr. Vogel remarks, it is this cleft that is the centre of 
attraction of the whole sculpture. Not only are there water channels cut in 
the rock to direct the surface water into the cleft, but there are traces here 
and there indicating that there was once a masonry or brick cistern situated 
on the top of the rock above the cleft. It is related in the old Manual of 
the Chingleput District, dated 1879, that while Lord Napier was Governor of 
Madras, he visited the Seven Pagodas and had the ground in front of this 
cleft excavated to a depth of 7 or 8 feet, which exposed the now familiar 
figures of the deer scratching its muzzle, the cat and rats and the baby ele- 
phants, which until then had been hidden from view owing to the ground 
in front having become silted up with a thick deposit of broken bricks and 
earth. The broken tusk of the larger elephant and the upper portion of the 
male na>ga figure (now re-fixed in their original positions) and a few dressed 
stones were also found during these excavations. In all probability, the 
masonry cistern that seems to have once stood on the top of the rock, 
decayed and collapsed, and the debris being washed down the cleft during the 
rains smashed the naga figure and the elephant's left tusk in transit and 
silted up the tank below. 

" The photograph reproduced in Plate XXXIII (a), shows the state of 
the cleft soon after Lord Napier's excavations. It will bo noticed that the 
elephant's tusk and the upper portion of the naga figure are missing. It 
was then decided to refix these broken portions of the two sculptures and 
in order to protect them and the adjacent figures from further injury by 
falling debris during the rains and to prevent the tank below from again 
silting up, the Public Works Department closed the mouth of the cleft with 
a dwarf masonry parapet and directed the surface water in the other direc- 
tion in order to preserve the face of the rock (Plate XXXIII (6)). 

" The cleft down the centre of the rock is natural and in order to get 
a smooth surface for the water to flow freely down the centre, the Pallavas 
closed up the deep recess at the back with brickwork and plaster and then 
inserted the free-standing figures of the naga and nagi. These two figures 
ate carved in the round and were fixed after the main work was finished 



EXPLORATION 104 

Southern and are not hewn out of the natural rock like the other figures adorning 

Circle {.^is wonderful sculptural scene. Altogether, there are seven naga figures at 

Longhurst ft ^ e * oot * *ke c ^ e ^ * >0 *k ma ^ e anc * f emft le and most of them are depicted 
MahabaUputam with folded hands m the attitude of adoration and rising out of the water 
below, The nagas are sacred water-spirits that reside in rivers and lakes 
and their presence here is obviously to denote the importance and sanctity 
of the stream that once flowed over them from the rock above. When 
the Pal lava sculptor wanted to indicate the presence of wafcer he usually intro- 
duced the upper portion of a nuga figure rising out of the fore-ground of 
his subject. A good example of this will be found in the beautiful panel 
representing the Boar Incarnation of Vishnu depicted in the Varaha Temple. 
Fergusson assumed that the free standing figures of the naga and nagi fixed 
in the cleft, were the real objects of adoration and that, therefore, the whole 
scene related to Serpent Worship, But it has been rightly pointed out that 
this interpretation is impossible as the naga figures themselves assume the 
same attitude of namaskara as the other demi-gods Gandharvas and Apsaras, 
Kinnaras and Kinnans portrayed in this scene. 

" Ur. Vogel remarks ' Can it be that once there existed here a sacred 
spring and that the water gushing forth from the cleft was the real aim and 
object of all the adoring figures. The presence of the nagas would then be 
most easily accounted for, as they are the water-spirits dwelling in lakes and 
springs.' He also draws attention to the splendid group of ascetics, some 
carved in the round, which are engaged in the various occupations of the 
hermitage in front of a little shrine and says ' Such a scene is usually laid 
on the banks of some sacred river, and we find indeed among these figures, 
nearest the cleft, a young ascetic carrying a Water-jar on his shoulder. He reminds 
us of the famous episode of the Kamayana in which Dasaratha shoots by 
mistake the son of a blind hermit, while he was filling his water- jar in the 
dark/ 

" The figure of the ascetic carrying the pitcher on his shoulder and his 
companion holding a cornucopia are particularly interesting (Plate XXXIII (c)). 
Both figures have a semi-classical style about them which corroborates Dr. 
Hultzsch's suggestion that some of the masons who executed these works came 
from northern India. The presence of the ' Horn of plenty ' next to the 
cleft is obviously meant to denote the productive powers of the stream that 
once flowed down this water channel. 

" On the opposite side of the cleft, facing the two ascetics just described, 
we have that quaint figure of the penitent cat standing, like Arjuna, on one 
leg with his forepaws stretched out above his head (Plate XXXIII (d)). Con- 
cerning this curious figure Dr. Vogel remarks' We are at once reminded 
of the hypocritical cat Dadhikarna of the Indian Fable who assumed the part 
of a pious ascetic to allure the unsuspecting hare and sparrow into his power. 
I have little doubt that the sculptor who fashioned this figure had Dadhi- 
karna in mind, though there is here no evidence of the penitent cat not being 
sincere. The mice playing around him do not seem to disturb his quietude 



EXPLORATION 



of mind. But the interesting point in the present instance is that the cat of Southern 
the fable performs his feigned penitence on an island in the sacred Ganga 
(Ganges) according to one version and, according to the olher on the bank of 
a river.' 

" It is not clear what deity is represented standing inside the miniature 
temple, in front of which the group of ascetics are engaged in various religious 
occupations. The image holds what appears to be a bud or flower in the 
right hand while the left hand rests on the hip. It looks more like 
an image of Surya than anything else. The ascetic* do not appear to be 
paying any special attention to the image. Below thi* group is A tiger in 
his den, two deer, the male hcratr-hing lus muzzle with hi hind foot in a 
very lifelike manner, arid a tortoise crawling towauls the water. These animal 
figures arc introduced into the scene merely to show that the temple is situated 
in a forest on the bank of some sacied river, before ulnch the ascetics are 
absorbed in religious contemplation. It \\ill be noted that the figures of the 
ascetics and animals are nearly life-size, whereas, the image of the deity in the 
temple is very small. This clearly shows that the latter plays a subordinate 
part in the scene and is of no particular importance. 

" Immediately above this scene, we have the so-called figure of Arjuna 
standing on one leg. In all probability, this figure really belongs to the group 
of ascetics seated around the temple and its position above the latter 
is merely due to a < onveiitional manner of portraying one of the group in the 
act of doing penance behind the temple. There is certainly no reason to 
assume that this figure has any special connection with the large bas-reliei 
image of Siva standing on its proper right. 

' v The big four-armed figure of Biva, carrying Ins trident and attended 
by three fat little goblins, seems to be a representation of that deity in the 
form of Bhikahatana. The popular story of Siva in this form is as follows : - 
When Siva cut off one of the heads of Brahma, he incurred the sin of killing 
.a Brahman ; and the skull of Brahma is stated to have stuck to the palm 
of his hand arid refused to be removed, In order to get rid of both the sin 
and the skull, it was ordained that Siva should Wander about on earth as 
a naked beggar (bhiksh&tana), until ut length he reached a sacred spot in the 
Himalayas known as Brahma-kapalam, where he was released from the sin and 
the incriminating skull fell off of its own accord. As a rule, figures of Bhiksha- 
tana are represented in the nude, only a few jewel* and the usual head-dreaa 
being worn He is always four-armed and usually holds the trident and dram 
and is accompanied by two or three little goblins and a pet antelope. The 
nude figure of Siva represented here answers to the above description in every 
detail, even to the antelope prancing along in front of him. He is portrayed 
here exposing the palm of his left hand in a very prominent manner perhaps 
to show it no longer contains the incriminating skull and thus indicating that 
he has arrived at Brahma-kapalam in the Himalayas as represented by the 
.group of ascetics around the little temple below. The attendant goblins are 
".quaint little figures. The one following behind aeenu to be holding a conch- 

Q 



EXPLORATION 



106 



Southern 
Circle 
Mr.A.H. 
Lonfthurst 

Makabalipurarx 



Burma Circle 

Mons. Chas. 
Duroiselle 

Hmawza 



shell trumpet whilst the other two carry fly-whisks. The one on Siva's proper 
leitj is depicted wearing a conventional lion's mask across his fat little body. 
Above Siva's head, flying along towards the cleft, are figures of Gandharvas 
and Apsaras, Kinnaras and Kinnaris. 

'" There can be little doubt that the whole scene is a symbolical represen- 
tation of the (Ganges flowing from the Himalayas. The rock is Mount Kailasa 
and the cascade that once flowed down the cleft represented the sacred Ganga. 
The figure u * ^ va yeem s to have been introduced mainly with the object of 
making it quite clear that the rock represents the Himalayas. 

" The Pallavas, or at least the sculptors they employed, appear to have 
hud a particular veneration for the Ganges, perhaps owing to the northern 
origin oi some of them, as we find the same subject, although treated in 
a different manner, occupying an important position in the rock-cut temple 
at Trichmopoly executed by Mamalla's father, which has been already de- 
scribed and illustrated in Part 1 of my Memoir on Pallava Architecture. In 
this case, the subject IB a large bas-relief image of Siva in the form of Ganga- 
dhara, k the bearer of Ganga,' and he is portrayed in a stooping attitude with 
the right knee bent and body braced ready to receive the mighty rush of 
waters on his head and shoulders. Unlike figures of Bhikshatana, images ol 
Gangadhara are portrayed fully clothed and decorated, and the attendant 
goblins and pet antelope sire usually absent whilst the goddess Gangu is 
depicted as a tiny stream trickling forth from Siva's matted locks." 

" Excavations were continued at Hmawza (Old Prome) during the cold 
season this year. Although the results, as a whole, were not as satisfactory 
as were expected, still, an appreciable amount of progress was made in the 
knowledge of the customs and cultural development of the people the Pyu- 
who once inhabited that pait of the country and who about seven centuries ago 
disappeared through amalgamation with other races occupying the land 
in their neighbourhood. It was believed at one time that the Pytf burn 
their dead and buried the ashes on the hill sides. The results of this year's 
excavations at. well aw those of previous years, however, lead to the conclu- 
sion that they buried the ashes, not only on the hill sides but also in the 
plains, on brick platforms finally covered up with earth, in isolated graves and 
in extensive cemeteries. They were also buried within the precincts of a 
pagoda, either individually or in family vaults, in stone or earthern urns 
according to the status of the individual. In some cases, as for instance for 
members of a ruling family, a short epitaph giving some particulars regarding 
the deceased, was engraved under the rim of the urn. Moreover, it is now 
an established fact that iron nails or implements Were regularly buried with 
the ashes. 

" At a mound situated near the Yahandakan village, a few hundred yards 
to tlui south of the spot which was dug into last year, were discovered this 
year Home more luneral urns ; while in the village itself a level piece of ground, 
unmarked by either mound or any traces of brickwork, yielded hundreds of 
UIBS Yen closely packed 1 ogether and laid in two or three layers ; the first 



107 EXPLORATION 

or uppermost layer being iound within six inches of the natural surface of the Burma 
grotind. Circl * 

" Among the other objects found during the year, mention may be made Ommna 
-of a small votive tablet bearing a seated image (Plate XXXI V (c)) ot Buddha 
flanked by four stupas of the shape of the lotus-bud. This latter design is 
noticed on many other votive tablets found at Hmawza It is altogether absent 
from those found at Pagan or other parts of Burma, though models of such 
stupas exist at Pagan and nowhere else in the province Another feature ol 
these tablets, which differentiates them from similar objects at Pagan, is the 
posture in which the central figure, that is the Buddha, IB seated. Instead 
tf the legs crossing each other and being 'locked in the orthodox fashion, HO 
that- the soles of both feet are visible, the right leg IB BO placed over the 
left that the sole of the lower or left foot i almost completely hidden from 
view. This posture appears to be common in Southern India and Ceylon, 
though only occasionally met with in Northern India. In Eastern. India, how- 
ever, it may be noticed in the images of the Buddha, in Aral^an as well 
as sometimes in those of Cambodia A curious story is current in Arakan 
regarding this pose It is said that (Jautama Buddha, in the course of one 
of his visits to Arakan, made a figure after his own likeness and breathtd 
life into it so that the people might look upon it as himself. The duplicate 
had the legs crossed in the orthodox fashion so as to expose both the soles ; 
but when, the Master A\as about to depart, the figure did not relish the idea 
of being left behind. So, it began to rise, but was stopped bv the Buddha 
just as the left leg had been partially raised so as to bring its foot under 
the right leg. This wonderful figure is fondly recognised m the Mahamuui 
image now in Mandalay whither it waa brought among the spoils of war in 
1784 A 1). Since that event all the images of the Mahamuni type in Arakan 
have been represented in that posture. The image, probably of Buddha, with 
the head broken away and reproduced as fig. (/) of Plate XXXIV is seated 
in the same pose. It is in stone and appears to be older than the tablet 
just referred to and was found at Hmawza during the year under review. 
Belonging to the same locality and found also at the same operations are two 
other fragments of stone sculpture, which have been selected as types repre- 
sentative of the art of Old Promo (Plate XXXIV, figs, (e) and (</)). Fig (<>), 
though very much damaged, has some of its principal features still intact. 
The umbrella 'over the head of the central figure which here too represen+B 
the Buddha Gautama, is caived with skill as are also the scroll and flower 
designs on either side of the head. On the proper right, the attendant has a 
peculiar headgear found nowhere else in Hurma, but common enough in every 
old sculpture found at Hmawza. Fig (<y) has also decayed very much. Bur 
from what can be made out from the sinviving fragment the larger figure 
on the right presumably represents the Buddha seated in the same attitude 
as two other sculptures 1 found at the same place more than fifteen yeais ago. 
n the latter, the Buddha is seated with the left hand placed in his lap ami 

~" / 4n**0bpeal Survey Report, 1909-10, Part II. Piste XLVII, figs. 3 and fi. 



EXPLORATION 



108 



Moos. Chaa. 
DurolMlle 

ffmotma 



Burma Circle the right hand stretched out and placed over the right knee with the fingers 
pointing outwards. In one case the feet cross each other while in the other 
one is placed over the other, but neither of the figure* has the legs crossed. 
In this respect the.y resemble very closely the sculptures of Amaravati, princi- 
pally those shown as fig. *2 of Plate V and figs. 3 and 4 of Plate XVI in 
Burgess' " The Buddlusf Mupa* of Amaravati atu? Jaggwjapeta" Vol. I. 

" The excavation and research work at Old Prome is far from being com- 
pleted, and it is expected thai future discoveries in the locality will throw more 
light, on the interesting question of the relations of India with Burma in the 
curly centuries of our era. So far. it has been shown that the earliest writing 
found at Promc is to be traced to South Indian alphabets as its immediate 
source, and it is more than probable that, when other examples of old sculp- 
ture are found, we shall have to look for the original models of the sculp- 
tural art, at Hmawxa to the same part of India. 

" At a mound near the Kimmmgyon village, some fragments of terracotta 
plaques with *the ligure of a man riding a pony \vere found. Fig. (d) of 
Plate XX XIV represents one of the best preserved among them. The pony 
has no hoofs, but instead three claws, thus marking it out as a supernatural 
animal. Though not perfect from an artistic point of view, it is better 
modeled than most of the horses represented on other plaques at Pagan. It 
seems to be standing on clouds. The, rider has no stirrups and rides exactly 
us the Burmese do now a -days when riding bareback. In his right hand he 
holds the. re.iis which form a loop at the end while with his left he is brandishing 
n curved sword or cimetar. H appears to be scantily dressed for, besides 
a tucked up Ion cloth he has only a, sash thrown across his right shoulder 
and waving in graceful folds behind him. The headdress consists of a close- 
fitting cap, and we also see 'arge ear-rings and bracelets. It is difficult 
to identify this personage in the absence of any context. As far us can be 
judged from the plaque .tself, the cast of the features is not Indian and this 
would tend to show that the plaque was made by a local artist From its 
technique and the form of the headgear, the plaque appears to be earlier than 
the llth century A. U. It measures 2 feet 3 inches square with a thickness 

of JJj inches. ^ 

"Several other places we.re visited during the year: viz., Sagamg lada-U 
and Pagan. While at Sagaing. I inspected the Kaung-hmu-daw-pagoda, 
about five miles away southwards. Thin pagoda is not on the ist of Central 
Monuments but s interesting in that the Thunaraina in Ceylon was taken for 
its model. I was shown round by the Trustees. On the platform there i* a 
stone inscription recording the history of the monument, and nside a small 
bulking near the platform may be seen a standing image of Sakra. The local 
tradition has it, and there s documentary evidence to support it, that originally 
the enclosure wa Is were covered with frescoes in illustration of the jatahas 
with explanatory legends in three languages - probably Pali, Burmese and 
Talaina. Unfortunately, owing no doubt to exposure to rain and sun, not a 
ingle tww can now 'be seen of these paintings. It is likewise recorded that 



Sagaing 



101* KM'LOUATIOH 

at each entrance into the pagoda compound there were finely curved wooden Burma 
monasteries erected for the residences of the King's preceptors. These bu 
ings have all crumbled away and disappeared and now only u few pieces of 
wood carving (17th century) are preserved in a small building on the platform. 
The wooden door of the southern entrance to the pagoda, which is the original 
door, is covered with very tine carvings, and they are interesting and important, 
as forming a link between the earlier work and that of today. This fact 
was pointed out to the Trustees, who had not before understood its importance 
and they gladly agreed to take very particular curt* of the door in question. 
The platform itself supports two plain wooden buildings, now covered witli 
beautifully glazed tiles saved from the wreck of th< monasteries above men- 
tioned. These halls were built by the Chief queens of King Mindon (I8f3- 
1S7S). The tiles themselves, which are very much older than the halls, consti- 
tute a direct link between the old glaze of Pagan and that of the present day 
which is very much inferior. The Trustees very kindly gave me a few of 
these tiles which will be eventually placed in the Pagan Museum. 

" Tadi-l. T means 'the If cad of the Bridge' and was HO named because Toda-U 
it is situated at the head of a long bridge crossing a stream and morasses 
separating the two old sites of Ava imd Paiiyit. Old bridges in Burma, owing 
to their having been made entirely of wood, are extremely scarce, not to say 
non-existent. The one at Tada-U is said to have been built by one Mating 
Oh, the brother of the well-known Nanmadaw Menu, the Chief (Jueen of 
King Bagvidaw (1819-18117). But there arc immy indications to show thai it 
had been in existence long before Bagvidaw. At both ends. the brick 
approaches to the bridge were built in a series of arches in the Pagan style, 
which is found nowhere else so far away from Pagan. Moreover, the name of 
the village Tada-U, is found mentioned in the history of the Mingalaxrdi 
pagoda built at Tada-t' by King IMingaung II. in J41MI. It is thus fairly 
evident that the bridge must have been constructed before 1 lie time of Mating 
Oh who very probably did nothing more than repair it. 

"The country around Tada-U is abundant in historical interest. Within 
a radius of a few miles arc clustered some of the ln j st known (and mostly 
old) cities which played an important role in the history of Burma : Suguing, 
Ava. Ptmyti, Mandalay. Panya. is situated about a mile ami a half to the 
South of Tada-U and there is still a village of that name ipiite near the old 
site. Panya was founded in 1312 A. J>. by Thihathu, but now only some 
vestiges of the city wall and a few ruined pagodas remain. Ou one side of 
the road there may be seen in a row throe ruined temples in the Pagan slyic, 
the central and largest one being known as the Kinya-gyaung temple. It WHS 
built by King Uzana in 1340 A. U. Uzana was a scion of the Pagan Koyal 
family, being the son of King Kyawzwa, who was dethroned and killed by tl.-e 
three .Shan usurpers. At that time, the queen of Kyawzwa was betrothed 
to Thihathu, one of the three Shan Brothers and was then about to give bird: to 
a son, Uzana, who afterwards became king in 1322. The latter tried to revive 
the Pagan style of architecture at Panya } but though the plans are on the 



EXPLORATION 110 

Burma Circle whole adhered to. th- broad ma ks of that decadence in architecture, which 
L? 0118 /*!* 1 **' began after the fall of Pagan at the hands of Kubiai Khan's Mongols (1286), 
Tada-D arif * wn10 ^ nas Continued up to the present day, are clearly visible on Uzana's 

temples. 

Pagv* k ' In visiting Pagan this year, 1 had principally m view, besides the usual 

work of inspection, the completion of ray Work on the Petleik plaques, as 
those plaques and others on different pagodas required further examination. 
While thus engaged 1 took opportunity to remove to the local Museum many 
old and interesting stone and wooden figures which were lying on the floors 
ol turned temples, and m imminent danger of being irretrievably damaged 
by the bricks falling down from their roofs. 

k ' Among these, the most interesting Were four seated images of the 
Buddha projecting m high relief from slabs of stone. Three of them which 
bear at their backs a line of Writing in Burmese were removed from the 
Kubyaukgyi temple, which is included in the list of monuments built by King 
Kyanzittha (1084-1112). All the four images from their technique, are to be 
classed among the oldest sculptures so far found in Pagan, that is to say, they 
are. of the same type as the sculptures in the Ananda temple (1090) some 
of which 1 belong to the latter part of the llth century. This, as We know* 
is the period to which all documents point as the beginning of sculptural 
Ait at Pagan. 

kf The inscription on one of these figures is quite indistinct and illegible 
but those on the other two read as follows : 

(1) na pah purha 

(2) ha put (daha) 

" The fourth image, which was recovered from a small ruined temple near 
the Ananda also contains a short epigraph which roads : 

(3) panphay sa n& (r) en 

Another short inscription was found on a terracotta plaque which originally 
belonged to the Ananda temple but has now been placed in the Pagan 
Museum. It was found among the antiquarian objects collected by a vener- 
able monk, U Seinda, residing near the Ananda, who made it over to me 
for removal to the Museum. The inscription on it reads : 

(4) panpu a kha (n) pak 

AH these inscriptions probably contain the names of the donors of the objects 
on which they are engraved. The custom at that time was that, although the 
king was actually the founder of a monument the queens, princes and 
princesses, the ministers and even the commoners were allowed to contribute 
to the cost of the building either in the shape of bricks or ornaments such 
as sculptures, etc., so that all, from the king downwards, might mutually 
share in the merits of each other. The first inscription is translated " The 
Buddha of na pan," that is, the image of Buddha offered to the temple after 

See plates XXXT XXXVII of Arohaologtoftl Surrey of foil*, Annual Report, 1913-14 



Ill *1 XPLOK ATION 

its completion by n, pan. The second is merely a name . tta put (daha), Burma 
who made a gift of this particular image. The third may be rendered *' na ren,Po0a 
the smith's son," who had that image sculptured and presented it to the 
temple. The fourth means *' Khftn-pak, the son of a sculptor." In this last 
case, the statue was probably made by Khan-pak himself, who was a sculptor 
by trade, for at that time trades and crafts descended regularly from fathei 
to son. Fig. (A), in Plate XXXIV, reproduces the image on which the third 
inscription is inscribed. It is a good example of the images in the Kubyaukgyi 
and generally of the sculptural art of that period. The features of the Buddha 
are frankly Indian, and show that, at that time, the ornamentations to temples 
were executed by Indian artists. It is only about a century and a half later 
that the Burmese themselves tried their hands at sculpture, and that the pure 
Indian cast of countenance began to disappear to give place gradually to the 
Mongolian or Burmese cast. The artists who carved the images just mentioned 
were, notwithstanding their Burmese names, Indians, or descendants of Indians 
by Burmese women. The ttthie records of those times show that emigrants 
from India were then quite numerous at the Burmese capital. Even now 
many Indians, both old residents and those born in the country and Zerbadis 
have, besides their Indian names, a Burmese one." 

''The Maharaja of Mayurbhanj who has decided to build a new temple Indian 
of Chanaunda (Kinchakesvari) on the site of the Khandiya I)eul after removing Museum 
the existing structures requested me to supervise the dismantling work. As j* ai 
I could nofc reach Khiching in time, the work was begun in March 1925 and chanda 
carried on by Babu Paxamananda Acharya, State Archaeological Scholar, with Mayurbhanj. 
care and skill in my absence. I was present later on when the brick temple State 
of the goddess was dismantled and her image transferred to a temporary KhioMng 
kachcha temple. The Sub-divisional Officer, Panchpir, was also present on 
behalf of the Maharaja when the image of the goddess was installed with 
due solemnity in the now shrine. For the worshippers from far and near who 
in winter and summer flock daily to the shrine of the goddess and sacrifice 
goats to her, the transfer of the image from one temple to another appeared 
to make no difference. 

" On dismantling the small brick shrine it was found thai the image of 
Kinchakesvari was installed on a platform of earth on the remains of the 
plinth of the temple in which evidently the life-size image of Siva was origi- 
nally enshrined (A. S. L, A. R., 1923-24, p. 87, Plate XXXIV, a). The old 
plinth, parts of the retaining wall of which are still traceable, measures about 
H5 feet square. Evidently when the magnificent temple on this plinth which 
was the largest of the old group of temples on the site and occupied the central 
position was in ruins, the building of the Khandiya *ras undertaken, 
not on the foundation of the old temple as stated in the last Report (A. 3. 
I., A. R,, 1923-24, p. 86), but just behind it on the west, and the ruined 
temple was used as the quarry, The finely carved door jambs and the door 
lintel (A. S. L, A. R., 1922-23, Plate XLII, a) of the old temple Were pro- 
perly utilised. But in disposing of the other carved architectural pieces und 



EXPLORATION 112 

Indian sculptures the builders of the Khandiya Deul displayed recklessness and 

RafBfthLd v ! Uid>ilwm of the Wor8t ^pe. In Plate XXXV (a) arc reproduced the photo- 

Ramapraaad g!' 118 of two door Jml), one fragmentary and the other probably whole, 

Ghanda that were built into the outer side of the wall with the carved sides turned 

Khwhing inwatd aud the plain sides exposed to view. Worse fate awaited the sculptures 

reproduced in Plate XXX\ (/>), (< ) and (<t) and scores of other pieces that were 

thrown in pell-mell to servo us fillings to the walls of the temple. 

' hi my two previous reports the sculptures that decorated the main 
temple oi Siva and conveniently the temple itself have been assigned to the 
eleventh centuiy A. 1), (A. 8. I., A. R., 1922-23, p. 128; Ibid, 1923-24, p. 85), 
and in the last report (p. 80) two different elements, an Onssan and an Upper 
Indian, have been distinguished in the art of Khiching. In a note on the 
Lingaraja temple of BhuvaneKvar also published m laet year's Report (p. 120) 
the temple of Parasuramesvara at Bhuvanesvar has been assigned to about 
750 AD. and the Lingaraja to two centuries and a half later. From the 
style of the decorative .sculptures two distinct groups of temples, an earlier and 
a later, may be distinguished at Bhuvanesvar. The figure sculptures decorating 
the temples of one group which includes the Parasuramesvara, the Vaital 
Deul and the Jsanesvara, are characterised by comparatively low relief, flat 
squarish laces and broad noses. In these we find the Gupta art in its decadent 
stage and the Orjssan school in the making. In the temples of the other 
group l*ftiiiiimn with the Muktesvara and the Lmgaiaja the decorative figure 
sculptures are, as a rule, in bolder relief with sharp pointed noses, the lower half 
of the faces narrower than the upper half, and pointed chins. The minor 
decorative figure sculptures of the old temples of Khiching, as is evident from 
Plate XXXV (</), closely resemble the figures that decorate this later group of 
temples at Bhuvanesvar So the main temple of Siva at Khiching may on 
stylistic grounds be assigned to the same epoch as the later temples of 
Bhuvanesvar. 

" But m the bigger decorative sculptures of the temple of Khiching, in 
the figures of the nttgas and nagix, in a few female figures, and in the images 
of the gods and goddesses, we recognise certain features that are not Orissan. 
Examples of such are a rwgfi figure in Plate XXXV (c), a fragmentary female 
figuie and fragments of an image of dancing Siva in Plate XXXV (e). Tt 
will be seen in Plate XXXV (e) that the figures of the musicians on the 
base are the works of a sculptor of the Orissan school, but the main image, 
particularly the head, must have been carved by an artist of another school. 
The faces of all the three statues (viz., the naga, the female figure and the 
dancing Siva) are round, or nearly round, and full and remind one more of 
the contour of the faces of the images of the Gupta period found at Deogarh 
(Jhansi District, United Provinces) and in other parts of Central India, than 
anything else in the field of Indian sculpture. If the sculptors of Orissa had 
not stamped the date below or beside these images of Khiching, we could 
have safely assigned them to the most flourishing epoch of the Gupta period. 
But the difference between the Gupta head and the Khiching head is also not 



113 K XPLORATION 

inconsiderable. In the former the locks of hair that descend on to the fore- Mayurbhanj 

head below the crown form almost a straight line exposing the entire breadth of State 

the forehead ; but in the latter they form a semi-circle covering the two Khiching 

corners 'of the forehead with a bend in the middle in most cases that divides 

the cluster of locks into two fine curves. Another distinguishing feature of 

the head of the Khiching image is that its eye-brows run into one another 

above the nose forming a curve, whereas in the head of the images of the 

Gupta and of the later periods in other parts of India including Orissa proper 

the eye-brows are either separated by the nose or meet and form an angle 

at its root. 

" The bust of the naga (Plate XXXV (c)) and the big image of Siva (A. 
S. I., A. R., 1923-24, Plate XXXIV ()) appear to be the work of the same 
master hand. The contour of the face of both the imag e s is of almost exactly 
the same type. A curled lock of hair falling on either shoujder adds greatly 
to the grace of both the figures. This feature is conspicuous by its absence 
in other naga figures and images of Khiching recovered so far. Both these 
statues are master-pieces of Indian plastic art. The face of the one, Siva, is 
beaming with benevolence, and that of his naga votary is lit up with a smile 
of satisfaction born of confident expectation of boons from the god. The some- 
what disproportionate length of the upper arms of the naga, in due to the 
foreshortening of the forearmw. 

" In connection with the compilation of the catalogue of Arabic and Bengal 
Persian inscriptions in the Indian Museum most of which relate to the reigns SuUanganj 
of the independent Sultans of Bengal and Bihar, the Muhamniadaii Assis- 
tant Curator of the Archaeological Section, Indian Museum, visited Sultaii- 
ganj near Godagan in the Rajsham District to copy certain unpublished 
inscriptions. Fixed on the front wall ol the dargah of a saint named Sultan 
Shah at Sultanganj he found two important unpublished Arabic inscriptions 
that originally belonged to two different mosques. Both the inscriptions have 
been deciphered and translated by that officer and will appear in the 
appendix to his catalogue. The earlier one records the erection of a mosque 
in the reign of Sultan Jalalu-d-din Abu-l-Muzaflar Muhammad Shah in the 
year 835 H (= A.D. 1431). According to the Persian histories this Muhammad 
Shah was the son of Raja Kamsa and originally bore the name Yadu. No 
inscription dated in his reign was hitherto known though his coins are not 
rare. The second inscription records the erection of a mosque in the reign of 
Shamsu-d-din Abul-Muzaffar Yusuf Shah in the year 870 H (^ 1465 A.D ). 
Another inscription of the same year of Yusuf Shah is published by Bloch- 
mann. 1 But as the reading of the date haa been declared doubtful, the date of the 
death of his father, 879 H, as given in the Persian histories compiled long 
after, has been hitherto accepted as correct. 2 This new inscription, which 13 
engraved in very clear Tughra characters, leaves no room for doubt that Yusuf 
Shah was reigning in 87 J H. 

iJ.AS.B., VoL XLHI, 1874, Part I, p. 298. 

9 H, N. Wright, Cataloffiu of the Caw in the Indian Museum, Culcutt*. Vol. II, Part II, p. 169. 



EPIGRAPH V 



114 



SECTION HI. 



Sanskrit 
Epigraphy 
Rao Bahadur 
Krishna 
Sastri 

Decipherment 
of inscriptions 



EPIGRAPHY. 

" During the year under review more than 900 inscriptions were examined" 
by the Government Epigraphist and his Assistants. The majority of these are 
records copied in previous years whose estampages were till now lying packed and 
awaiting classification in the office of the Director General of Archaeology at Simla. 
Out of the six large boxes which contained them, the contents of only four 
have so far been scrutinized and a tentative list prepared. Many of the estampages 
examined are too fragmentary and unsatisfactory to yield any tangible results. 
A fair number of them, however, which have been examined, seem to possess 
considerable value for the local history of a portion of Central India and are 
of the late mediseval period. An equal number are inscriptions which have 
already been edited in the Epigraphia Indica or other journals. 

" At the request of Mr. P. J. Thomas, of Balliol College, Oxford, a transcript 
and translation of the mural inscription on a temple at Udaipur in the GwaUor 
State was sent to him and the Christian nature of its contents as indicated 
by Baron Textor de Ravisi before the 12th International Congress of Orienta- 
lists held at Rome in 1899 was proved to be unwarranted and untenable. Two 
good estampages of the record and a correct transcript thereof, as far as it 
was possible, were supplied by Mr. Garde, the Archaeological Officer of the 
GwaUor State. The queiStion raised by Mr. Thomas was thoroughly investigated 
and it was found that the interpretation given by the Baron as well as a 
host of missionary gentlemen after him, was altogether wrong. The document 
in fact, pertains to the Vikrama year 1562 (A.D. 1505) and is clearly a Hindu 
record being in no way connected with Christianity or its history. It commences 
with the usual Brahmanical invocation to Ganesa, Parabrahman and Siva and 
refers to some of the early Malava rulers of the Pavaravarhsa beginning with 
Suravira. Gondaladeva was the son of Suravira, and Arivalamathana was Gon- 
daladeva's son. Arivalamathana was most famous, he built a tank in Malwa, 
erected several temples and made many gifts. Further on, the record speaks 
of a famous old king Udayaditya of Malava (?) whom it relegates to the years 
1116 and 981 respectively of the Vikrama and the Saka eras (=A.D. 1059) 
and after him, of (S)agarava(rma) alias Chadadeva whose son, Sfira set up 
the image of Siva mentioned in the record, in the Vikrama year 1562 or the 
Saka year 1427 or the Kali year 4607 (=A.D. 1505). Such being the case, 
one is extremely surprised to find an unmistakable Hindu record interpreted 
as one which wholly or partly pertained to a faith with which it has not 
the remotest connection. The incident is the more regrettable as Baron Textor 
de Ravisi and his followers do not hesitate to translate words like Sftlivahana 
and Soba(dubha)lakshmi as the ' Cross-bearer (Christ)/ and * the joy of the 
Sabseaus ' respectively. 



115 EPIGBAPBY 

"The Director General of Archaeology in the Dutch East Indies sent for Sanskrit 
decipherment an estampage of a rock-cut Sanskrit inscription from Sumatra. Epigraphy 
On examination it was found to be written in the Grantha script of about 
the 14th century A.D. But as the record was very badly damaged and the 
copy supplied far from satisfactory it being not even properly inked little 
sould be made out of it. Names, however, like Sri-Narendravarman which 
the document appears to contain, show that it possesses some historical value ; 
especially as it strongly reminds us of the names ending in varman which 
the kings of the Sailendra dynasty, that held sway over Java and Sumatra 
at the beginning of the 10th century, bore. 

" There were also examined squeezes of a Tamil inscription found on Fort 
Frederick at Trineomalee which were sent to me for decipherment and remarks 
by the Archaeological Commissioner of Ceylon. Prom the occurrence of a 
double fish symbol engraved immediately above it, the document appears to 
be a fragment of a Panclya record which on palaeographical grounds must be 
assigned to about the 16th century A.D. The object of the record was to 
provide for the repair of a building whose nature could not be ascertained 
from the fragmentary condition of the writing. 

" Eight Kanarese inscriptions, some of which are mixed up with Sanskrit 
all lying in the Prince of Wales Museum at Bombay, were examined at the 
request of the Curator of the Archaeological Section of that institution. The 
earliest of the documents belongs to about the 9th century A.D. and is a 
r hero-stone ' commemorating the fight and demise of a warrior called Iromadi 
(Irmadi ?) Singa. Another belongs to the reign of Trailokyamalla (Somesvara 
I) of the Western Chalukya dynasty of Kalyana and is dated in A.D. 1054. 
It is a Jaina record and purports to register the construction of a chaity&laya 
(Jina-temple) and the consecration of some Jaina images at the village of Pon- 
navada in (the province of) Tardavadi ' Thousand * and in the sub-division 
Bage-fifty, by the chief Chankir&ja son of Kommar&ja of the Vanasakula, and 
his brother Jinavarman. The village, Ponnavada was situated on the banks 
of the river Bhima at the military station (appayanavitfu) of Ma^iyura which 
was being governed at the time by Ketaladevi, a queen of Trailokyamalla. 
Another inscription dated in 1485 of the Saka era (=1563 A.D.) belongs to 
the reign of Chenna Bhairadevi of the Sajuva dynasty (of Sangltapura) ruling 
over the provinces of Nagira, Haive, Tu|u and Konkana on the West Coast. 
Besides registering grants of land and the setting up of images, it records the 
construction of a Jaina shrine at Garasoppe (mod. Geasoppa after which the 
famous Geasoppa waterfalls are designated) by the chief, Sajuva Nayaka, the 
son of Hemmarsi-Nayakiti and Vitthappa-Nayaka. The fourth inscription which, 
though not dated, may be palaeographically assigned to about the 12th century 
A.D., is a record of a grant of lands to the god * VighneSvara ' of the Nagar- 
esvara (temple), made by the Saiva teacher Gagana&vegvaracharya born m 
the Lakshadhyaya-santati of the lineage of the sage* DurvSsas. The lands 
wore situated in the village of Yijapi which the donor had received as a gift 
from the Pandya king Sri Chanda Ga(ja}hilcura (?) Bammadeva. 



EPIGRAPHY 



116 



Sanskrit 
Epigraphy 
Rao Bahadur 
Krishna 

Sastrl 



Publtcatiotis 



" Of the remaining inscriptions examined, mention may be made of two 
newly discovered Kharoshthi records at Shahdaur in the Agror Valley of .the 
Hazara District in the North-West Frontier. Both are fragmentary and muti- 
lated and it is difficult to ascertain if they form two parts of one and the 
name inscription or are distinct records. They are of the Kushana period and 
nearly synchronize with the well-known Ara inscription of Kanishka II. One 
of them bears XX, XX, XX or 60 as its date and mentions names like Naga- 
ciiada (Nagachandra or Namichandra), Mitravadhana (Mitravardhana) and Sa- 
chamitravadhana (Satyamitravardhana) which were not unknown in that period. 
The other fragment possibly contains the name Sivarakhita (Sivarakshita). 

" Only two parts of the Epigmphia Indica, instead of the usual number 
of four, were issued during the year, viz. Part VIII of Volume XV and Part 
VII of Volume XVII. This was partly due to the simultaneous taking up 
of other parts of the journal and partly to the delay caused by the firm which 
supplies facsimile plates. The index parts of Volumes XVI and XVII are 
under preparation and will be issued shortly. Parts I to III of Volume XVIII 
are also being prepared for issue. In the Parts issued (viz. VIII of Vol. XV 
and VII of Vol. XVII), two interesting Kannada Sanskrit records edited by 
Dr. L. P. Barnett deserve special mention. They come from Gawarwad and 
Annigeri in the Dharwar District and belong to the reign of the Western Cha- 
lukya king Bhuvanaikamalla Somesvara II who ruled in the latter half of the 
eleventh century A.D. They record that Lakshm arasa or Lakshmana, a pious 
feudatory of Somesvara II, while zealously promoting the cause of the Jaina 
church, made a grant for the restoration of the Jina temple, which having 
been originally built by the Ganga prince Permacji in the 10th century A.D. 
had been defiled and damaged along with other shrines, by the Chola king Ko. 
Parakesari-Rajendra-deva who invaded Bejvala but was killed by Somesvara I 
(Trailokyamalla), the father of Bhuvanaikamalla at the commencement of the 
llth century The depredations of the Cholas on the West Coast during their 
continuous struggle for power with the Western Chalukya kings Irivabedenga, 
Satyasraya, Jayasimha, Somesvara I and Somesvara II are often referred to 
in the Tamil and Kanarese inscriptions of these kings. The Hottur inscrip- 
tion for instance of 1007-8 A D. (Ep. Ind. Vol. XVI, p. 75), refers to the 
Chola king Rajaraja I (there called Rajendra) as having entered the Chalukya 
kingdom with a host of nine hundred thousand men, ravaging the whole coun- 
try, perpetrating murders of women, children and Brahmanas and overthrowing 
the order of caste and to Satyasarya having slain (in revenge thereof) the Ta- 
mils and driven away the Chola, capturing his trains of baggage waggons. 
The Gawarwad inscription under review also says that the Chola ' deserting 
the practice of his own race set foot upon the province of Belvala and burnt 
down a multitude of temples/ It is difficult to explain the mean mentality 
of the Ohola kings and their soldiers who in their own country are known from 
inscriptions to hav been great patrons of learning and founders of a large 
number of religious institutions. A third record, which is perhaps still more 
interesting belongs to the 23rd year of Vikram&ditya VI (Tribhuvanamalla), 



117 EPIGRAPHY 

the brother of SomesVara 11 (Bhuvanaikamalla). If tellh us that the latter Sanskrit 
ruler having become inflated with pride and hence regardless of his dutie Epigraphy 
towards his subjects, his virtuous brother VikramRditya had to remove him 
and occupy the throne himself. Vikramaditya is here clearly stated to hav 
established a new era in supersession of the Saka era and called it Vikrama- 
Varsha after his own name. A highly learned minister of the king and the 
Superintendent of religious affairs (Dharmadhikarin) was the Brahmana Somesvara 
Bhaf;$a, who at Lokkigundi founded a school for the study of the Prabhdkar- 
doctrine of the Purva-Mimamsa. This school of PrabMkara was widely patronised 
in the south in the beginning of the 10th century A.D. 

" Part VII of Volume XVII of the Epigraphia Jndica comprises .six articles 
all of which are historically important. The Velvikudi grant of which the ori- 
ginals are preserved in the British Museum, London, is a Panflya document 
which was briefly noticed by the late Mr. Venkayya some sixteen years ago. 
Jt gives a full and detailed genealogy of the Pancjyas. r ^ G royal donor Netjlun- 
jadaiyan of about the 8th century A.D. is shown by the authoi of the article 
to be identical with the homonymous king of the Madras Museum Plates which 
were published by Mr. Venkayya in the Indian Antiquary, Volume XXII. The 
record registers the renewal of an old grant of a village which had been re 
sumed by Government during the short interregnum of the Panxjya kingdom 
by a usurping line of kings called Kajabliras. This renewal was brought about 
by the legal claimant of the village himself approaching the king with a loud 
complaint before the palace doors. The complaint was heard, the king him- 
self making kind enquiries ordered the applicant to produce the necessary docu- 
mentary evidence before the nd$u (evidently the district assembly which en- 
quired into such matters), the applicant eventually getting back the village. 
This kind intercession of the king, his decision and the reference of the peti- 
tion to the Executive Assembly may throw much light upon the system of 
administration in the early 8th century in the Pan<Jya country. 

" The Nalanda copper-plate inscription of JDevapSladeva of Bengal, deal^ 
with by Mr. Hirananda Shastri in the same issue is a document of international 
importance. Besides other valuable information which it contains the inscription 
tells us that Devapaladeva, the P&la emperor of Bengal, at the express request of 
Balaputradeva, a Sailendra king of Suvarnnadvipa (Java-Sumatra) granted five 
villages, four lying in the Rajagriha and one in the Gaya-vishaya (district) 
of the {3rinagara-6A&<i (division) for the upkeep of a monastery built at Na- 
landa the well-known centre of Buddhist learning in Bihar or Magadha, for 
maintaining the writing of Buddhist texts and sundry other purposes. 

" Of the four important epigraphs which Dr. Hultzsch has edited, three 
come from the Guntur district and one from Ganjam. All of them are very 
old and are Written in characters which must be referred to a period not later 
than the 6th century AD. The Mattepad plates state that the Maharaja Ds- 
modaravarman who was a worshipper of the truly and perfectly enlightened 
one (eamyak-sambuddha) i.e. of the Buddha, granted the village of Kangtira 
to a number of Brahmanas and performed the GosaJiatra a well as Hirapya- 



EPIGRAPHY 



118 



Sanskrit 
Epigraphy 
Rao Bahadur 



Publications 



Progress of the 
publication of 
South Induw 
Inscriptions 
(Texts) 



Tour in 
connectwn with 



Indicaandthe 
South Indian 

% M 



garbka rites, two of the sixteen mahddanas, so highly extolled in the Purfi^as 
ftQ d other Brahmanical treatises. He was a king of the Ananda family like 
Attivarman (Hastivarman) and Kandara who from inscriptions are likewise 
known to have belonged to the line of the great wage Ananda. The TJrlam 
plates were issued by the Maharaja Hastivarman of Kalitiga, who belonged to 
the Ganga family, resided at Kalinganagara and was evidently a predecessor 
of Indravarman of the Parlakimidi plates. It is dated in the year 80 'of the 
reign,' which as Dr. Hultzsch has rightly shown, must be referred to the Ga&ga 
or Gangeya era and would thus be the earliest known date of that reckoning. 
The two remaining documents come from Ipur in the Guntur district and were 
issued by two different kings having the same name Mfidhavavarman and be- 
longed to the same family of Vishi^uku^wjlins. MMhavavarman, who was the 
son of Uovindavarman, Dr. Hultzsch says, must be identified with a king of 
that name who is known to have been the grandfather of the grantor of the 
Ramatirtham plates and the great* grandfather of the grantor of the Chik- 
kulla plates. The other Madhavavarman is identified with the grandfather of 
the above Madhavuvarman who should now be differentiated as Madhavavar- 
man II. This surmise of Dr, Hultzsch is supported by the shastraw custom 
of naming grandsons after their grandfathers and is fully borne out by the 
early type of the alphabet used in the document. 

" The publication of the South Ind'ian Inscriptions (Texts), Volume V, 
which was commenced last year, has rnade good progress. Texts of more 
than 1000 inscriptions have been already printed. They have been compared 
with the original impressions, corrected and returned to the press for revise. 
The revised proofs will soon be received and passed for final printing and issue. 
The Assistant Superintendent, Mr. K. V. Subrahnianya Ayyar, who is mainly 
in charge of this work undertook a short tour in the Tamil districts for exa- 
mining in situ certain inscriptions whose ink-impressions in the office, prepared 
several years ago, were found defective. He has rectified them on the spot 
and completed and corrected also certain preliminary transcripts made in the 
office of the Assistant Archaeological Superintendent for Epigraphy, Madras 

" Besides the completion of the above Volume V of the new series of the 
South Indian Inscriptions (Texts), it has been decided to issue the IVth and 
concluding part of Volume III of the old series of South Indian Inscriptions 
with translations, etc., in order to complete that volume which was begun by 
Dr. Hultzsch and still remains unfinished. The materials necessary for this clos- 
ing part will consist of (1) a general index to the Volume, (2) an introduction 
and (3) a few additional papers on the Cholas and the Pa^glyas. These have 
been collected together and the materials will be sent to the press shortly. 

" The tours of the Superintendent for Epigraphy and the Assistant Super- 
jjj^^ent for Epigraphy were undertaken mainly for the purpose of the veri- 
a fication and checking of certain inscriptions which toere to go into the Epi- 
gmphia fatdica and the South Indian Inscriptions (Texts). In February and 
n ftrc ^ the former proceeded to Nalauda in Bihar where he took the opportunity 
aJao of studying on the spot some old seals aud sculptures in connection with 



119 EPIGRAPHY 

an article on Nalanda which he is writing for publication as an Archaeological Sanskrit 
Memoir. The newly discovered Buddhist sculptures identified by Mr. Sastri Epigraphy 
included a female figure with a child which possibly represents Harltl and was, 
as is evidenced by a votive inscription engraved on its pedestal, put up at 
Nalandfi in the reign of Devapfiladeva. He also deciphered a short votive 
inscription of the time of Mahendrapaladeva of Kanauj which had recently 
been excavated at NfilandS by Mr. Page and examined a miniature stupa, 
now fragmentary, which to judge from an inscription incised on it was set 
up in the reign of Dharmapala, king of Bengal. 

" The epigraphical work done in the several Circles of the Archaeological 
Survey and the Museums is briefly summarised below : 

" In the Frontier Circle the epigraphical discovery of the year was the Frontier 
Kharoshthi rock inscription of the Kushana period at Shahdaur near Oghi in Circle 
the Agror Valley, Hazara district, which has already been noticed under ' de- 
cipherment of inscriptions.' 

" Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni, Archaeological Superintendent, North- Northern 
ern Circle (Hindu and Buddhist monuments), contributed two papers for inser- Circle 
tion in the Epigraphia Indica. They deal with eight short dedicatory epigraphs 
from Mathura written in the mixed dialect and the BrShml script of the Kushana 
period. One of them is dated in the 14th year of Kamshka and curiously 
enough applies the epithet Fitamaha, a well-known appellation of Brahma, one 
of the Hindu triad, to the Buddha who does not seem to have been so de- 
signated anywhere else. It may, however, be suggested that since in the later 
Mahayana period, the Bodhisattvas were each considered to be a separate Brah- 
ma and were the authors of Creation, the epigraph in question perhaps refers 
to the Bodhiaattva on whose pedestal it is written. Of the remaining seven 
votive records which form the subject matter of the other article by Rai Baha- 
dur Daya Ram Sahni, only five are dated and their chief interest lies in the 
mention of four ancient monasteries at Mathura, the Pravarika-vihara etc. which 
do not appear to have been mentioned in any of the previously known in- 
scriptions. 

"In the Central Circle Mr. Page supplied estampages of 119 inscriptions Central Circle 
at Nalanda to Mr. Hirananda Sastri in connection with a Memoir the latter 
is preparing on the antiquities of Nalanda. Maulvi Muhammad Hamid Ku- 
raishi, Assistant Superintendent in the same circle, copied some Arabic and 
Persian inscriptions which have not yet been published anywhere and which 
he proposes to discuss in an article in the Epigraphia Indo-Moslemica. Mr. 
Hamid has already contributed to the same journal a paper on six unpublished 
records of the Sftri kings, Sher Shah and Islam Shah, and translated for publi- 
cation a Kufic inscription dated 482 H (1090 A.D.) which is now preserved 
in the Peshawar Museum. 

" In the Western Circle a large number of inscribed objects were discover- Western 
ed in the course of the exploration of the pre-historic site at Mohenjo daro Circle 
in Sind. These can only be dealt with along with the other results of the 
lado-Sumeriaa investigations. Mr. Dikshit, however, copied eight other inscrip- 



EPIGRAPHY 



120 



Sanskrit 
Epigraphy 
Rao Bahadur 
Krishna 
Sattri 

Western 
Circle 



Southern 
Circle 



tions which may be noticed here. Of these three are from Sholapur Fort, four 
from the temple at Nimbal, District BijSpur, and one from Elephanta. The 
lat mentioned epigraph is engraved on a copper-jar which was discovered in 
the course of the clearance of the cistern to the west of the main cave. It 
is dated Samvat 1143 Kshaya (A.D. 1086) Chaitra Sudi 14, speaks of a queen 
JogesVarl and, what w more, supplies the ancient name of Elephanta which 
was Srlpuri. One of the Nimbal inscriptions is dated in the 3rd year Palvanga 
of the Era (varsJui) of the Yfidava king BhUmadeva (probably Bhillama III) 
and records among others a gift of tolls by the king for the maintenance of 
worship in the temple of Koti-Sankaradeva at Nimbahura (Nimbal). Another 
is also u fragmentary record of the Kalachurya Bhujabalachakravartin Vlra- 
Tnbhuvanamalla whose date is lost. On the &ame fragment is another record 
one of Rayamurari Sovideva of the Kalachurya family which is dated in the 
8th year of the king's era corresponding to the Cyclic year Jaya and still 
another of the same king dated in the 10th year Durmati. The first of the 
two kings mentioned is perhaps Tribhuvanamalla Bijjala who ruled from A.D. 1145 
to 1167 and the second his son who ruled from A.D. 1167 to 1177. The remaining 
two records from Nimbal are very fragmentary and nothing could be made 
of them. The impressions taken at Sholapur by Mr. Dikshit are of the same 
nature. One of these which is in Kanaieae mentions the family name KaJa- 
churya and seems to record a grant for the repairB of a temple. It thus fur- 
nishes an approximate date for the so-called Chahikya temple excavated under 
the walls of the Fort at Sholapur. 

"In the Southern Circle Mr. Venkoba Itao and his assistants visited 277 
villages and copied aa many as 411 documents, out of which 19 are copper- 
plate inscriptions. In the Mayavaram Taluk of Tanjore a detailed survey was 
taken up and yielded ^77 of the total number of inscriptions, the bulk of 
which is connected with the Chola dynasty Of the nineteen copper-plate in- 
scriptions examined in the year three are very important. They belong to 
the Saiankayana dynauty and were issued from Vljaya-Vengi. One belongs 
to the Maharaja Sri Vijayaskandavarman and the rest to Maharaja Sri Nandi- 
varman. All of them register grants made to Brahmans. Of the remaining 
copper-plate inscriptions one, which require* a passing notice, is a grant of king 
Viahnuvardhana 111 of the Eastern Chalukyari dynasty and registers the gift 
of two nivartana* of land in the village of Ariyeju in the Attili-wAya to 
a Brahman called Nuri6arman of the Patafijla-0o*ra and a resident of the 
village Padmiiu Agrahara. 

"Of the stone epigraphs collected in the Southern Circle some are connect- 
ed with dunces and theatrical perfoimances given in temples on festive occa- 
sions. An inscription of Kajaraja I (A.D. 991-1012) dated in his 9th year 
comes from Tiruvaduturai and records a gift of land by the assembly of Sftt- 
tanur for enacting the seven atigas of a drama in the style of the JLrya-Ktotu 
on the festival day in the month of Puratta6i and also makes provision for 
the eupulv of rice-flour, betel leaves aa well as areca-nutB and ghee for mixing 
(ollyrium and turmeric in connection with the performance. A later inscription 



121 EPIGRAPHY 

of the time of Rajakesarivarman Kulottunga Chola make* provision for the Sanskrit 
maintenance of a theatre called Navavidha-nafca-SaLai which goes to show that Epigraphy 
in the ancient Chola temples various kinds of danoen tind acting wore largely 
patronised as early as the 10th century. 

"One of the Chola inscriptions copied in the year speakf* of Uu> hitherto 
unknown queens of Uttama-Ohola Oraftanan Soruppaiyar and irfiran 1'oimam- 
balattadigajar. Another, which was copied at Tiruvafluturai tells UB that Trailo- 
kyamadeviyar was the wife of Rajendra-Chola and that her mother wan Iraman 
Abhimanatongiyar 

"An inscription dated in the 19th year of Kajaraju lit (AD. 1210- 
1*24) refers to some great calamities which disturbed the prosper^ oi the 
country during the filh, llth and 15th years of this king's reign. It iufomis 
us that the tax-registers and the title deeds of Talachchangad" were lost dur- 
ing these disasters and consequently the Mtfaparialuit of the village approached 
the authorities and got their orders for the renewal of the AnuWw/uppaf- 
fuolugu, i.e., title deeds in lespect- of such lands as had been in the enjovment 
of the villagers till the 18th year of King Rajarftja II J 

" Two inscriptions of great, importance for literary history in Tamil verse 
have been secured. These refer to Saflaiyau alias Sedipan of Puduvai, the pat- 
ron of Sen-Tamil in general and of the poet Kamban in particular, who was 
the famous author oi the Tamil Eamaya^a, Sedipan, it is stated, was an orna- 
ment of the Ganga line of kings. 

"An inscription from Punjai furnishes an instance of ordeal by fire in 
which the Tiruchchula-velaikkarar (i.e., the servants of the temple) gave up 
their lives, in a dispute over a piece of land belonging to the temple and thub 
secured it for the temple, the decision being pronounced in their favoui by 
the MQfapariskat of the village along with the penalty of 80 Icatu from the 
rival claimants. 

"Mention may be made here of the three epigraphs written in an appa- 
rently unknown script which were copied in the Kudligi Taluk of the Bellary 
district. Some of the characters used in these inscriptions seem to resemble 
Vatteluftu letters but as they have not yet been deciphered nothing can be 
said about them definitely. Of the inscriptions which belong to the Western 
Chalukyas one record is of the time of the Mahamantfalesvara Vishnuvaidhana 
Vijayaditya who calls himself the Lord of Yengi He was governing the No- 
lambav&fli 32,000 country under the Western Chalukya King Tribhuvanamallu 
The title of this chief, Mr. Venkoba Rao opines, would suggest that he was 
a descendant of the Eastern Chalukyas who were related by marriage to the 
Chola sovereign Virarajendra after whose demise Vinhnuvaidhana transferred 
his allegiance to the Western Chalukyas. Aftei entering the service of Tri- 
bhuvanamalla Vikramaditya, he may have been appointed governor ol the No- 
lambavftfli country. 

"In the Burma Circle M. Duroiselle reports the discovery of twenty new Burma Circle 
inscriptions, of which eleven are short epigraphs each containing a few words 
or letters engraved on bricks, terracotta votive tablets or stone slabs bearing 



EPIGRAPHY 122 

Sanskrit images of the Buddha in relief. ThoBe on bricks and terracottas are in Pyu 

Epigraphy characters, while those on stone slabs are in Burmese giving the names ot 
Kr?ni?^w!tii ^ ouorB or 8PU lp tor8 - ^' ie l atter mft .v oe assigned to the llth century A.D. 
Burma Circle ^ e rest rtin 8 e m ( * ttte ^ rom 1228 to * 444 A.D. an d record principally the 
building of pagodas or monasteries and the dedication of slaves thereto. Of 
these three were found tn the Taungtha township and three are in the Pagan 
Museum, one being an iron seal given by King Mindon to Myadaung Sayadaw, 
a Buddhist monk. Notice may be made here of one of the inscriptions 
in the Pagan Museum which is dated 090 Sakkaraj (1334 A.D.) and 
records the making by n certain monk of a seated image of Buddha 
seven cubits in height inside the Thatbymnya temple at Pagan. This docu- 
ment, M. Duroiselle siys, is interesting for it forms one of the few lithic 
records now extant giving the date ol the making ol an image of 
Buddha.' 

Moslem " During the year " Mi. Yfzdam writes, "two numbers of the EpigrapJmt htdo- 

Eplgraphy Moslennca have been published while a third \\hich is in the press will, it is 
Mr. G.Yazdani j^p^ | )e i 88ue d ghortly. These issues include altogether fourteen art icier, six of 
which were contributed by the officers of the Archaeological Department and others 
and the remaining eight by myself. The Kufic inscriptions from Hund, edited by 
Mr. Muhammad TTamid Kuraishi, Assistant Archaeological Superintendent, Central 
Circle, is the earliest Miislim inscription in India yet published It is said to 
have been originally discovered in 1894, built into the wall of an irrigation 
well at Hund, from where it was removed at the instance of the Deputy Com- 
missioner of Peshawar to the Tahsil of Swabi. The importance of the dis- 
covery was soon forgotten and the tablet remained unnoticed for eighteen years 
or so, till 1912, when Khan Bahadur Mian Wasi-ud-Din secured it for the Pesha- 
war Museum where the tablet is now preserved. The inscription is dated 482 H. 
(1090 A.D.) almost a century earlier than the advent of the Ghorids in India. 
Two other articles contributed by Mr. Hamid treat respectively of the un- 
published inscriptions of the Sun kings and certain inscriptions from Burhanpur 
and Asirgarh. These records are important as giving the dates of various 
monuments, but their chief interest lies in the styles of their script which like 
the contemporary styles of architecture are typical of the character and inclina- 
tions of thut age. For example, the Suri writings exhibit a solidity of cha- 
racter combined with that love of beauty which forms a characteristic feature 
of their buildings. Mention should also be made of a long article contributed 
by the Government Epigraphist for Arabic and Persian Inscriptions on twenty 
two inscriptions from Bid, the seat of a district in H. E. H. the Nizam's Do- 
minions. The majority of these records are Mughal, and they have enabled 
hun to show the influence of the Mughal kings in the Deccan at various periods, 
' The Assistant Superintendent for Epigraphy, Southern. Circle, gent for decipher- 
ment and translation a number of records from time to time. Two of these, men- 
tioning the names of the Bijapur Governor, Masud Khan and the Qutb 
Shaiii General, Rifa'at Khan Lari, have been published in the Epigraph^ Indo- 
Moskmica for 1921-22. These inscriptions throw considerable light upon coo- 



123 MUSEUMS 

temporary historical events and also fix the date of certain monuments ID the Moslem 
Bellary and Kistna districts of the Madras Presidency. Epigraphy 

'* In the Report for 1921-22, a reference was made to the publication of 
a monograph on the inscriptions of Alau-d-Din Husain Shah of Bengal in whose 
reign the Tughra script reached its high water mark. Mr. K. N. Dikshit sup- 
plied to Mr. Yazdani the estampages of a number of Hussam Shah's inscrip- 
tions, but the rubbings of the entire group have not been secured us yet " 



SECTION IV. 

MUSEUMS. 

*' If the very large number, the great variety and the historical importance Indian 
of the specimens that have been added to the Archaeological Section during Museum, 

1924-25 are taken into consideration, this year may be rightly called the (wnus n _ _. . 

'. . Rai Bahadur 

mirabalis for the Indian Museum. First in order of time, number, and value Ramaprasad 

are the antiquities excavated by Mr. R U. Banerji in 1922-23 and Mr. M. S. Chanda 
Vats in 1923-24 at Mohenjo-daro in the Lark ana District in Hind which have 
been kindly lent by the Director General of Archaeology in India for exhibi- 
tion. They number in all 1809. These antiquities have been briefly noticed 
by their discoverers in the previous issues of this Annual Report and will 
be more fully dealt with later. The questions that may naturally be asked 
in connection with these discovenen are, who were the people who built 
these long-buried pre-historn; cities in the Jndus Valley and fashioned the objects 
that have been found in their rums : what was their relation with the immi- 
grants who call themselves Arya in the hymns of the lligveda and are believed 
to be akin to the so-called Aryan or Indo-European folk : how did the once 
flourishing pre-historic culture of the Indus Valley come by its end ? The 
excavations that are now being carried on will, it may be hoped, yield materials 
for answering these questions satisfactorily. But there is another source, the 
Vedic literature, that may throw some light, if not on the beginnings and 
the maturity of the ancient civilisation of the Indus V alley, at least on its 
last phase. In a separate Memoir 1 entitled, ' The Indus Valley in the Veclic 
Period/ I have discussed the evidences contained in the Vedic literature relat- 
ing to the pre-historic civilisation of the Indus Valley. These evidences seem 
to point to the conclusion that in the second millennium B. C. there wiu 
being repeated in the Indus Valley what happened almost simultaneously in the 
Aegean World. successive hordes of invaders of Aryan speech and inferior material 
culture wiping out an older indigenous civilisation. 

"To facilitate the comparative study of the ancient pottery and seals the 
Director General of Archaeology in India has lent for exhibition his o>vn 

1 Memoirs of the Axohologio*l Survey of India, No. 31 

82 



MUSEUMS 



124 



Indian 

Museum, 

Calcutta 

Rai Bahadur 

Ramapraaad 

ChandfT 



collection of fragments of the painted Cretan pottery (N. S. 4292-4329 
ad planter casts (N. S. 4455-4501) of a few Babylonian seals in the British 
Museum. 

" The series of antiquities of the historic period acquired during the year 
begins with a fragment of grey sandstone umbrella with Mauryan polish mea- 
suring 7 -I" by *i" (N. S. 4406), lent by the Director General of Archaeology, 
and includes product* of most of the schools of plastic art that flourished in 
India afterwards. Some of the more notable among these groups and speci- 
men are briefly noticed below. 

" Plastic art in India, reached its zenith in the Gupta period (A D. 300-600). 
The Buddhist art of the Gupta period is fairly well represented in the Indian 
Museum by statues of Buddha and engraved steles excavated by Sir Alexander 
Cunningham at Sarnath near Benares and presented by him to the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal But there was hitherto only one Brahmanical statue 
of the Gupta period and that of indifferent artistic value in the gallery, 
nz., an image of Haragauri found at Kosam (ancient Kausambi) near 
Allahabad. Among the architectural pieren in the collection there were 
only two door jambs exhibited in tho eastern verandah of the Museum 
building that may be attributed to the same period. This deficiency has now 
been partially made up by the acquisition of 58 pieces of sculptured atones 
belonging to a (iupta temple, which have been presented to the Indian Museum 
by the Nagod Darbur. This temple which is situated at Bhumara in the Nagod 
State in Baghelkhand escaped the notice of Cunningham in 1873-74 and was 
discovered by Mr. H. 1). Banerji, Superintendent, Archaeological Survey, in 
1920. It was briefly noticed bv him in the Annual Progress Keport of the 
Archaeological Survey of India, Western Circle, tor the year ending 31st March 
1920, and has since then been fully deBciibed by him in the Memoirs of the 
Archwological Survey of India, No. Hi. As the temple was in a hopelessly ruin- 
ed condition and Us conservation out of the question, at the request of the 
Director General ot Archaeology in ludia the late Raja Jadavendra Singh of 
Nagod consented to make over to the Archaeological Department such sculptured 
stones, other than actual idols, as it might select tor exhibition ill the Indian 
Museum. Acoordinftly 1 visited the site with Khan Sahib Zafar Hasan in 
October 1924 and selected 58 pieces including trtatuea of Ganesa and two 
door-keeperb. Thene pieces (N. S. 4905-4962) have been brought to the Indian 
Museum and are exhibited in a Bay of the Gupta Galleay. All of them have 
been deHcnbed and illustrated by Mr. Banerji in the Memoir referred 
to above, but I would draw particular attention to one piece on 
account of the light, it throws on the influence of the Indian Gupta 
art on the art of Java. This sculpture is a figure of the Sun-god 
in a horse-shoe niche which must originally have been placed over a 
window (Plate XXX VI (rf)). The body of the image is covered with along 
garment reaching down to the knees. This is evidently the udichyavetto or 
northern dress which according to Varahamihira's Brihat Samhita (57,4) the 
Sun-god wears. 



125 MUSEUMS 

"Among the Brahmanic sculptures from Java exhibited in Bay 10 of the Indian 
Gupta gallery and catalogued by Dr. Anderbon there IB a Chatunnukha hnga Muscuin, 
or phallic emblem of Siva (made of yellowish aanastone) with iour images, u * 
viz.y Brahma, Vishnu, Siva and Surya on four sides 1 . These images are re- 
produced in Plate XXXVII. Another image of Brahma from Java of the 
same material and in the same collection is reproduced in Plate XXXVI (r). 
A comparison of the Sun image from Java (Plate XXXVII ()) with the Sun 
image in the horse-shoe niche from Bhumara (Plate XXXVI (<?)) shows how close 
is the resemblance and how clear the influence. Though the arrangement of 
hair in the two figures IB different, we find in a, figure in another horse-shoe 
niche from Bhumara (Memoirs, A. S. 1., 16, PI XIV (<)) the hair falling on the 
two shoulders in the same successive rows of curled locks as in the Sun image 
attached to the linga from Java, Yet the non-Indian traits of the icons 
are clear. Four-armed Siva without the trident is met with only in Java. 
Vishnu, though four-armed, has only one of the familiar attributes (the noiu.h- 
shell), and the four-armed Brahma has evidently none unless the object in the 
left upper hand proves to be the sacrificial spoon. As the origin of the Indo- 
Javanese art is still a matter of controversy , a and an isolated image of the 
Indian style may not be considered sufficient for proving the hypothesis of 
Indian origin, I may in this connection draw attention to a parallelism of 
much greater significance in the field of architecture The Tjundi Poentadewa i 
well-known to students of Javanese art and the remnants of this temple have the 
appearance of a two-storeyed building with a small porch. 3 Structurally this 
temple bears a olo&e resemblance to the Gupta temple at Nachna-Kuthan in the Jaso 
State in Baghelkhand (Central India), 4 which is thus described by Mr. H I). 
Banerji .- 

1 It consists of a shrine in the centre with one door, which IH covered by 
a narrow covered verandah on three sides. There was a very small wa.ndaptt or 
porch in front of the only door of the shrine, which has collapsed entirely. 
A series of steps lead up to it on the south. Over the shrine it has a small 
chamber, inaccessible just, now, over which is a small flat roof slightly raised 
in the centre.' 

"The superstructure of the Gupta temple at Deogarh (Jhansi District, 
U. P. ) also reminds one of the superstructure of some of the Tjandis of Java. 
The Matsya-Purana (Cliapter 169) 5 contains directions for the building of tempi en 
of two classes, one class with curvilinear sikhara (spire), and the other with 
storied superstructure. In the latter group twenty different types of temples 
are named. Among these Meru is sixteen-storied, Mandara twelve- storied, 
Kailasa nine-storied and so forth. In Varahamihura's Brihat Samhita, a work 
of the later Gupta period (sixth century A. D.), in chapter 55, which deals with 

> Aadenon** Catalogue and Handbook of A* Arckoahgiedl Colfecfem* Ac Indian Jftunim, Part II, p. 362. 

F. D. K. Bowh, " A Hypothww aa to the origin of Indo-Jaraneae Art," JfefNMi, 1924, pp. 6-41- 

K*rl With, Jaw, Plate 66 ; N. G. Krom, /nWflttf fftnrfWwmeft* **, III, Plate 4. 

P*r*tt JfeMrf o/ tfe Anhoobgieal Survey of ItuKa, Wejtom tfrelf. for tbe year ending 3 lot Man-h 1919. 

Mam Aaad**wm Sexto. Poam, 1902. 



MUSEUMS 



126 



Indian 

Museum, 

Calcutta 

Rai Bahadur 

Ramapratad 

Chanda 



temples, the type with the curvilinear sikhara finds no mention, but the twenty 
types of storied templeH are enumerated and described. Though most of 'the 
names are identical in the two lists, there is considerable difference in the 
descriptions. An English translation of this chapter of the Brihat-Samhita 
by Kern has been published in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, New 
Series, Vol. VI (1873), pp. 310-321. This contemporary account of the different 
types ot temples of the Gupta, peiiod has not yet received the attention it 
deserves. The monumental and hteraiy evidences converge to prove that 
the .Javanese temples with storied superstructures have their prototype in the 
storied temples of the Gupta period in India and the Gupta art including both 
architecture and sculpture is the parent of the I ndo- Javanese art which in 
its island home developed on independent lines. 

'' Late mediaeval or post-Gupta sculptures acquired during the year, though 
comparatively small in number, include typical specimens of the different schools. 
Most notable among these are two images of Nataraja or dancing Siva of 
two different types. One of these is a superb brass image (Plate. XXXV1I1 (a)), 
42" by 36", of the well-known South Indian type lent by the Director General 
of Archaeology ; the other a much- weathered and defaced sandstone image from 
the Chittagong Distiict in Eastern Bengal. The South- Indian Siva 13 four- 
armed, the Eastern Bengal image twelve-armed. The former is dancing on the 
back of a human figure, the apasmara-'purusha, the latter on the back of the 
bull. Mr.N. K, Bhattasali, Curator of the Dacca Museum, has published photo- 
graphs of two other images of Nataraja from Eastern Bengal both of which 
represent the deity as dancing on bulls which with up-turned heads watch 
the dance (The Modem Review, 1920 June, p. 625). One of these in twelve- 
armed with two arms of which the god plays on a vina as he dances, and the 
other is ten-armed. Mr. Bhattasali has kindly brought to my notice two other 
images of Nataraja discovered by him in the Dacca and Tipperah Districts in Eastern 
Bengal. All the images of Nataraja found in Eastern Bengal have one 
feature in common, they are shown as dancing on the back of 
the bull. There arc two other stone images of Nataraja in the Indian 
Museum. One of these (Ms. 8) is ten-armed and probably comes from Upper 
India ; the other (N. S. 2063) from Orissa is twelve-armed. These two images 
have one feature in common, they dance with their feet touching the ground, 
and the bull watches (-he dance from behind. In some of the temples of 
Bhuvanesvar an image of Nataraja of the same type is placed in a niche on 
the spire above the entrance door of the shrine. Magnificent images of the 
dancing Siva with the feet touching the earth are also found in the cave 
temples at Ellora, Badami and Aihole. 1 So three main types of the images 
of Nataraja may be distinguished : the Eastern Bengal type wherein 
Siva dances on the back of the bull ; the South Indian type with Siva dancing 
on the back of the demon Apasmara; and ft third type with Siva dancing either 
on the grouod or on a lotus neat found in Qrissa and other parts of India. 

BorgeM, An****** S*n*y of VTuter I*d*a, VoL V (London, 1888), Plate XXI, 4 ; XLI. 3 ; XLII. * 
and T. A. Ooptaath Rao, tftemenfc of Htttdu IconogtPfa VoL P*** J ***** LXI1 Md IJUU * 



127 MUSEUMS 

A Nataraja of the South Indian type IB found in a panel of the south side of Indian 
the shrine in the rock-cut Kailaea temple at Ellora. 1 It may be noted in this Museum, 
connection that the Kailasa temple at Ellora IB a shrine of the Druvidian stylo. 

" The story of how Siva came to dance is told in the Kurnih Purana 
(Uttaravibhaga, 1-5). Once upon a time Sana lea, Sanandana, ftanatkumara, 
Kapila and other sages after performing austerities met the divine Rishis Nara 
and Narayana at the Vadanka monastery and requested the latter to discourse 
on such* topics as atman, salvation, the supreme Biahman, the doctrine of 
re-birth. At that moment the Rishi Nara became invisible and Narayana 
giving up the garb of an ascetic assumed the divine form with four arms. 
Then Hiva appeared on the scene. Vishnu advised the nages to put the same 
question to Siva. When they did so there appeared a heavenly throne. Siva 
seated himself on the throne with Vishnu and expounded the doctrine of 
atman and Brahman consisting of elements of both the Sankhyu and the 
Vedanta systems of Philosophy. The god concluded the long discourse b\ 
saying, " F am that God who sets in motion everything, who is fully of great 
joy, and who is a Yogin ever engaged in dancing. He who knows that knows 
Yoga. 2 " Having thus spoken Siva began to dance. To a Sivaite the dance oi 
Siva symbolises his philosophy as well as his religion. His philosophy conceives u 
Supreme Being who while Himself unmoved moves all things mundane. In 
the description of the image of Nataraja, m the Matsya Parana (259, 3-11) it 
is said that while performing the dauce the countenance of the god should 
wear the appearance of perfect calmness (sawnya-murti). Siva is a Yogin, that 
is to say, he is one who has subdued his passions and impulses, withdrawn 
his mind from all external thingb, and concentrated it in the contemplation 
of the Absolute. The higher religion of the Sivaite (as of the other Hindu 
sects) enjoins him to practise Yoga, that is to say, self -control and concentra- 
tion of the mind on the divine essence, while carrying on hib duties as a 
man of the world, 

"In the image of Nataruja, the Indian artist endeavours to create a Yogi 
with super-human attributes, such as a plurality of hands, engaged in dancing 
and in certain cases achieves wonderful success. In the best images of Nataraja, 
we meet with the expression of the spirit of calm contemplation on the face 
and the movement of rhythmic dance in the body symbolising the procession 
of the cosmos. The South Indian artist, by confining himself to four arms 
in most cases, 3 had an advantage over his brother of the north. He could 
with greater ease manipulate the gesture of the four arms Lhan that of ten 
or twelve. Auguste Rodin has left on record his opinion that the gesture 
of the four-armed Nataraja in the Madras Museum "can well contest for 
superiority in gracefulness with the gesture of the Venus de Medici/' 4 Yet 

i Aid. FUte XXXI, 2. 

1. 4trt frcfvrr ti: 



. aa 
Kiarma Purana (Bib, lad.) p. 468, 

Jfcr Swrth Indian WMM of Nfttu*;* with mom thaa toot rm sat Qopmath Ka Element* of Hindu 
Hoyrapky. VoL 11, pt 1, Chapter VI. 

Bupam, October 1921, p. 11 (Art. Anatiea, III Sculpture Civartei). 



128 



Indian 

Museum, 

Calcutta 

Rai Bahadur 

Ramaprasad 

Ghanda 



the gruccfuliieab of the gesture of the twelve arms of our defaced image of 
Njtturaja from Chittagong (Plate XXXVI (e)) is undeniable. 

'1 have already referred to the fragments of an image of dancing Siva (p. Ill ; 
Plate XXX V(r-}) found at Khiching. Unluckily the excavations carried on at the site 
and described above (p. 1 11} have not revealed any more fragments of this splendid 
image that was evidently originally placed in a niche on the spire of the main temple 
of Siva. On the right of the Nataraja is the emaciated figure of Bhringin, while 
1'arv.iti holding a fly-whisk stands on the left. Unfortunately the left arms, the right 
fore-arms, the thigh and legs of the main figure are lost. The only remnant of the 
lower part of the body, the right foot, the toes of which touch the upper surface of 
the lotu-s seat, IK instinct with movement. This image compares favourably with 
even the best specimens of the South Indian Nataraja. The mouth is not inflated 
and projecting like that of the South Indian image ; the modelling is 
far more graceful, and the play of light and shade is more subtle. The slight 
inclination of the head towards the right is natural and adds much to the 
charm of the figure. 

" A very fine black basalt image of Garuda (Plate XXXVIII (6)) fiom 
Vanchasara near Kampala in the Dacca District has been added to the collec- 
tion by purchase (N. 8. 4288 ; height I'-ll"). Tt has the face and limbs of a 
man, and the wings of a bird, and wears ear ornaments, armlets, bracelets and anklets 
of snakes. The tenon below the lotus seat indicates that the figure once served 
as the capital of a pillar known as the Garuda-dhvaja or Garuda standard. 
Such pillars are a distinctive emblem of Vishnu who also rides on the Garuda. 
A miniature from a Nepalese Buddhist manuscript in the Cambridge University 
Library (Ms. Add. 1643) copied in A. D. 1015 and reproduced by Fouchei shows 
a pillar with a bird, evidently a Garuda, near a stupa. The label below the 
miniature reads, Radhya Dharmardjikd-chaitya, " The stupa called Dharmarajika 
at Radhya/* Radhya is Rahariya (called Radhya by Hodgson) in the Cham- 
paran District in Bihar. Radhya has given its name to a monolithic column 
bearing six Edicts of Asoka which stands 2| miles E. S. E. of the village. 
The column is now designated after another village called Lauriya-Araraj that 
lies nearer. The capital of this pillar is lost. According to the Divyavadana 
(edited by Cowell and Neil, p. 379) Asoka built 84,000 Dharmarajikas or Stupas. 
The miniature referred to above represents a Dharmarajika or Aaokan atupa and 
a Garuda column. This has led scholars to the conclusion that the Asokan 
column near Radhya was originally surmounted by a Garuda capital. 1 Two 
bas-reliefs of Bharhut showing two Garuda banners held aloft by a male 
and a female respectively on horse-back lend support to this conclusion. 2 
Whether the Garuda capital on the ancient Buddhist monuments was 
recognised as the emblem of Vishnu it is difficult to say. But at Besnagar 
there is still in existence a monument, which is nearly a contemporary 
of the railing of Bharhut, a column of which the capital is lost but the ins- 



p. 147. 



' Fouchrr, titude tw t'lcanoffraph* Bovddiqut At find*, Pru, 1900, p- 66 ; V. A. Smith, Aoit t Svd edition, 



Cunningham's Bharhul. Plate XXXIl. 5 and 6. 



129 MUSEUMS 

cription on which tells us that it was surmounted by a Gaiuda of Vasiuleva Indian 
(Vishnu). A fragment of another Garuda pillat of the samo (Sun^a) period ha* Huseum, 
also been discovered at Besnagar. Calcutta 

" The Garuda in the bas-relief b of Bharkut has the appearance of a Kiiiuaru 
with the head, the arms and the chest of a man and the tail ol -\ bird. In 
early sculptures the Uaruda may be distinguished from a Kmnaia by his 
association with a pillar as its capital. The earliest repiesentation ot 
Garuda carrying Vishnu 011 bin back is found in a niche of the Gupta 
temple at Deogarh (Jliansj Dintrict, IT. P.). This (Garuda his not only the 
uppei half of the body, but also the legs, of a man. In proportion to the 
upper half of the body, the lower half of our Garuda (Plate XXXVI II (6)) 
appears short. But as the image Was placed on a pillar and intended to be 
ween at some height from below , this apparent defect did not mar tbe beauty 
but rather added to the impressiveness of the bird-god. The broad chest with 
tourid shoulders is indicative of the strength of the charger of Vishnu Kneel 
ing with palms joined in a naturalistic fashion and looking down with slightly 
inclined head and open expectant eyes, this statue of G-aruda looks the 
embodiment of tranquil devotion. 

" This and other Indian effigies of the Garuda are in striking contrast with 
the frightful winged monsters fashioned by artists outside India to do duty for 
him. As a specimen of the latter class a brass relief from Lhasa in Tibet 
lent by the Director General of Archeology is illustrated in Plate XXXVIII (c) 
The armlets and bracelets of snakes remind us of the Indian prototype. With 
this Tibetan relief may be compared an image of Garuda from Cambodia in 
the Indian Museum, and the figure of Garuda in the Kama relief from 
Prembanan m Java. 1 But far more typical of the Indian art is the well- 
known Garuda with Vishnu from Velahan in Java. Dr. Vogel writes of 
this sculpture, " In a most striking manner the artist who fashioned this grand 
composition had expressed the contrast between the savage Garuda, with his 
hog-like head, threatening the Nagas whom ho has seized with his claw-shaped 
feet, and the supreme deity, the four-armed Vishnu, enthroned on his lotus 
seat in undisturbed repose and serene contemplation." 2 But the association 
of a savage Garuda with Vishnu is an un-Indian conception and must be 
traced back to the primitive religion of fear. In India Garuda is a type of 
dasya-bhakti, the devotion of a servant to his lord, and cruelty is inconsistent 
with devotion to Vishnu. Apart from the monstrous shapes fashioned in 
Tibet, Java and Cambodia, Garuda with a hooked nose resembling the beak of 
a bird and human features is rare in India. 

" Plastic art began to decline m Northern India after the Muhamrnadan con- 
quest. But very few dated specimens enabling us to fix the chronology of 
the art of this period are as yet known. Special importance therefore attache^ 
to a small brass image of Lakshmi-Narayana (4i* by 2j") from Mathura (Plate 

i J>r. J. Ph. Vogel, "Tl relation between the rt of India and Jam", TJi< Inflwnct of Indian Art. 
London, 1085, Plate VI. 

/6U, p. 79 and Plato IX. 



MUSEUMS 130 

Indian XXXVIII (/) & (g)) that bears a dated Nagari inscription on its back. The 

Museum, inscription in in incorrect Sanskrit and reads : 

RaiBah d 8a ^'^ var8lta [ 8 ^ f ] phalugana vadi 3 Sanivaro Suhadasa SilikahmindrdyairM 

RamapffRMd Ka[ri]til. 

Cbanda "In the (Vikrama) year 1538 (=1471 A.D.), on Saturday, the 8th day of 

the dark half of the month of Phalguna (this image of) Lakshmi-Narayana 
was caused to be made by .Suahadasa." 

" In this image the attitude of Narayana riding on Garuda with Lakshmi 
seated on his left knee is rendered in accordance with the directions contained 
in the Visvakarma-Sastra quoted by Hemadri. 1 Among the subsidiary figures, 
Siddhi holding a fly-whisk and Brahma and Siva in the role of worshippers 
are omitted on account of the small size of the image. Of the two dwarf* 
only one is shown on the left. This Brahmamc image bears a striking resem- 
blance to a brass image of the Jaina goddess Ambika reproduced in Rupam, 
January, 1924 (Figures II and III on Plate attached to p. 49). The inscrip- 
tion on the back of the image of Ambika is dated in Samvat 1591 (=1462 A.D.). 
Though defaced, the Garuda in our Lakshmi-Narayana image is rendered well. 
Another small brass image of the same late decadent school that deserves 
notice here* is a Gopala or child Krishna, 2J inches in height, lent by the Di- 
rector General. The palms of both the hands of this image are worn Gopala 
is shown as crawling or resting on the right foot and the left knee and palm 
of the left hand. With the lost palm of the right hand he was probably 
holding a lump of butter. Though the modelling is clumsy, this figure is full 
of animation 

" Among the Muslim antiquities acquired during the year, an inscribed 
brass cup 7" in diameter and 2" in height lent by the Director Geneial of 
Archaeology in India deserves special notice. The inscriptions engraved on both 
the inside and outside of the cup, which have been deciphered by 
the Assistant Curator, contain Arabic charms and verses from the 
Quran. Water drunk from such a cup is believed to protect one from 
the attack of madness or of epidemic diseases. It may be about 200 
years old. 

" The year under review is notable not only for a very large collection 
of valuable sculptures received for exhibition in the galleries, but also for a large 
number of coins added to the cabinet of the Museum. The new additions 
consist of 1717 coins of non-Muhammadan dynasties, 41 plaster of Paris casts 
of such coins, and 625 coins issued by the rulers of the Indian Muhammadan 
dynasties. The former group includes 738 coins and 41 casts lent by the Di- 
rector General of Archaeology, 5 coins presented by the Superintendent of the 
Madras Museum, 8 coins presented by the Director of Industries, Central 
Provinces, 910 copper coins of the so-called Puri Kushan type sent by the 
Collector of Balasore to the Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1912 and deposited 
in the fndian Museum by the latter, and 50 coins directly purchased for the 
cabinet. Photographs of a few of the rare coins of this collection are 

> Hemadn. Chaturvarga.Chintamam, FmtofttoMfe, Part I, (Bib. Ind.) p. 118. 



131 



reproduced in Plate XXXVIII (d) & (e) and are dealt with in a note Indian 
by Pandit B. B. Bidyabinod, Assistant Curator, from which extracts are given Museum, 



Fig. 1. An ancient coin of Ceylon known as (?) Plaque of the Lakshmi and 
Svastika type received by the Director General of Archaeology from the Colonial 
Secretary, Ceylon, It is composed mainly of lead and copper. Obverse- Sri 
with two elephants pouring water from the top of two lotus stalks on two 
sides. Reverse Svastika on a post with a tnratna symbol to the right and an 
indistinct (Nandipada ?) symbol to the left (Codrington, Ceylon Coins and Cur- 
rency, Memoirs of the Colombo Museum, Series A., No. 3, Colombo, 1924, pp 
16, 26 31, Plate II, 20-25). 

Fig. 2. A punch-marked copper coin of the double-axe type found at Kosani 
in the Allahabad District. Obverse Tree within railing Reverse- Blank. 
The Director General of Archseology has lent 12 coins of this type from Kosam. 

Fig. 3. A copper coin. Obverse Brahmi legend Kosabi or Kosambi and 
symbols. Reverse Various symbols. It is a unique coin issued by the popular 
assembly or some guild of Kausambi. Lent by the Director General of Archaeo- 
logy. 

Fig. 4. Plaster cast of a com of Agathocles of a type not represented in the 
Indian Museum. Obverse Kharoshthi legend, [Aka~\tfiukreyasa, Buddhist stupa. 
Reverse Tree in a square railed enclosure ; below indistinct Kh. Legend, hi'tuja 
Same. Lent by the Director General of Archaeology. 

Fig. 5. Plaster cast of a square coin of Telephos of the enthroned Zeus 
and warrior type. There are two copper coins of this type in the Lahore 
Museum (Whitehead's Catalogue of com* in the Punjab Mweum, Lahore, Vol. 
I., p. 79, Plate VIII, 640 and V. A. Smith in J. A. S. B., Vol. LXVI1, pt. I, 
p. 130, PI. XIV, I-C.). The reverse of the specimen, from which this cast 
is taken, is in a better state of preservation than the other known specimens 

Fig. 6. Cast of a seal of Sivarakshita showing a figure of a warrior with 
"the name of Sivarakshita m Brahmi on left and in Kharoshthi characters on right 
margin. The monogram in the right field is also found on the coins of Indo- 
Parthian and Kushan kings. 

Fig. 7. A copper coin of late Kushan type. The attitude of the figure 
of the king on the obverse seems novel. 

' In figure 8 are reproduced the obverse and reverse of a copper coin of 
the so-called " Puri Kushan " class with the legend tanka in Gupta characters 
on the reverse. It belongs to the Balasore hoard. Hitherto only one coin 
of this type noticed by Messrs. Walsh and Banerji has been known. 1 The 
Balasore hoard includes 63 coins with the legend (anka. In this group Pandit 
B. B. Bidyabinod distinguishes four different types and among the other coins 
of the hoard no less than 28 types in accordance with the difference in the 
position of the sun and the crescent and the attitude of the standing figure. 
In this connection 1 may refer to another hoard of copper coins of the " Pur 
Kushan " type found in association with a large number of copper coins of 

1 The Journal of the Bihar and Ortiaa Research Society, Vol. V, pp. 78 and 84. 

T 2 



MUSEUMS 



132 



Indian 

Museum, 

Calcutta 

Rai Bahadur 

Ramapraaad 

Ghanda 



Delhi 
Museum 
Khan Sahib 
Maulvi Zafar 
Hasan 



Kanishka and Huvishka. This hoard was found in 1923 in an earthen pot 
b'.ried in a field at Bhanjakia in the Panchpir Sub-Division of the Mayurbhanj 
State. Mr. S. McLeod Smith, Dewan of Mayurbhanj, has sent a considerable 
number of these coins to the Indian Museum for determination. The Mayur- 
bhanj hoard includes two coins with the legend tanka. As coins of the so- 
called " Puri Kushan " type have been found not only in the Puri District, 
but also in the Balasore District, the Mayurbhanj State in Orissa, in the ad- 
joining Ganjam District in the Madras Presidency and in the Singhbhum Dis- 
trict in Ohota Nagpur it would now appear reasonable to drop the name 
'" Puri Kushan " and designate this class of coins as " Oriya Kushan." 

Fig. 9. A copper com. Ob verse-- Human figure holding bow in the left 
hand. Reverse Brahnn (Gupta) legend Jishnu. 

Fig. 10. One of the 8 silver (joins oC the Rashtrakuta Krishnaraja presented 
by the Director ot Industries, C. P (found at Dhernore, Amraoti District.) 1 

** Coins of the Muharrimadan rulers acquired during the year number 625. 
This collection includes 237 coins of the later Mughal sovereigns purchased 
by the Director General ol Aicha'ology from Mr. H. Nelson Wright and lent 
to the cabinet ol the Indian Museum. The collection comprises 28 gold, 419 
silver, 1 billon and 177 copper coins. Of these, 27 are of the early (so-called 
Pathan) Sultans of Delhi, 243 of early Mughal emperors up to Aurangzeb, 
285 of later Mughal emperors, 4 of the Bahmani Sultans, 24 of the Sultans 
of Malwah, 14 of the Sultans of Gujarat and 1 each of the Muhammadan 
dynasties of Jaunpur, Oudh and Ahmednagar (Nizam Shahi dynasty). The 
collection also includes 3 coins of the Ottoman empire and 11 coins of the 
Indian Native States. Many of the coins of the later Mughals are unique and 
rare. Among the coins of the early Mughals a dam of Akbar the Great 
of the Bhakkar Mint presented by Hao Knshnapal Singh of Awagarh, District 
Etah, U. P., is worthy of special notice." 

" Two new table show-cases and one stand for the Mughal prayer carpet 
were added to the Museum and the exhibits duly arranged in them. There 
are still a few more old cases which require to be replaced by new ones of 
the approved standard type and these will be provided as soon as funds are 
available. The work of cataloguing the coins in the Delhi Museum which 
was started some four years ago but had been in abeyance on account of my 
transfer from Delhi to the office of the Director General of Archaeology, was 
resumed by the Gallery Assistant who has already classified all the coins of 
the Pathan and Mughal emperors of India received up to date, and arranged 
them systematically according to rulers, dates and mints. The next step will 
be to decipher their legends and catalogue them. 

"The total number of antiquities acquired during the year was 52 includ- 
ing 33 Persian tiles, 8 Persian vases, 4 ancient Mughal documents, 2 paintings, 
a bound volume of the old " Punjabee " newspaper, and three miscellaneous 
objects (tide Appendix B). The tiles and vases which have been purchased from 
Mr. H. Nelson Wright are very interesting both on account of their antiquity 

' * Cunningham. Coin* tf JfeKovuI Inditt, London, 1894, p. 8, Plate 1, 18. 



133 MUSEUMS 

and workmanship. The former bear fine portraits and hunting scenes worked Delhi 
in relief in various shades and colours. One of them contains a Quranic verse Museum 
engraved in Kufic characters. Of the ancient Mughal documents, a Jarman 
of the Emperor Akbar deserves special notice. It is dated in the 5th year 
of his reign and is therefore one of the earliest jarmans issued by that Emperor. 
Like the farwans of other Mughal emperors, preserved in the Museum, it 
bears an impression of the royal seal and the Tughra in vermilion, but it is 
written in Shikasta instead of Nastaliq characters and there is no back endorse- 
ment, technically called the Zimn, except a few seal marks of the officials 
concerned. Abul Fazl gives the following description of Akbar's seals :- * In 
the beginning of the present reign Maulana Maqnud, the seal engraver, cut 
in a circular form upon a surface of steel, in the nqu character, the name 
of his Majesty and those of his illustrious ancestors up to Tirnurlang ; and 
afterwards he cut another similar seal, in the vastahq character, only with 
his Majesty's name. For judicial transactions a second kind of seal was made, 
mihrabi in form, which had the following verse round the name of his 
Majesty : 

(' Uprightness is the means of pleasing God ; 1 never saw any one lost in 
the straight road.') 

k Tamkin made a new seal of the second kind, and afterwards Maulana 
Ali Ahmad of Dehli improved both. The round small weal goes by the 
(chagatai) name of Uzuk and is used for Jarman-i-sabtis ; l and the large one, 
into which he cut the namt\s of the ancestors of his Majesty, was at iirst 
only used for letters to foreign kings, but now-a-days for both/ 2 The fannan 
under notice makes a grant of 1,431 bighas and 8 biswas of land, one hundred 
rupees cash and one rupee daily for the maintenance of a tomb at the village 
of Sohna, Subah Barkar Delhi. It Was a farnw,n~i-*abti, and its seal mark, 
which is circular, contains the name of the Emperor Akbar in the middle 
and those of his ancestors back to Timur around it. It is written in Riqa 
characters and is apparently an impression of the very seal which was engraved 
by Maulana Maqsud in the beginning of Akbar's reign. 

" One of the two paintings added to the collection during the past year 
represents the Emperors Akbar and Jahangir shooting tigers while the other 
is a portrait of Begum Samru smoking a huqqa. The bound volume of ' The 
Punjabee ' newspaper consists of a collection of 39 issues from the 30th May 
1857 to the 30th January 1868. It was a weekly English paper published 
every Saturday from Lahore under the editorship of Mr. Henry Gregory. The 
issues belonging to the Mutiny period contain very valuable information about 
that event, with a descriptive account of the terrible deeds perpetrated by 

* Farautt-i-SabtiB were i*ed for three purpose*, t**., (a) foir ppoitttai*i*s to Man***, higb po*t* etc , <&) 
tor ppoteteiH to j*gi and (c) for conferring groat* for beneficent purpose* (Ain^Akban, English traiwlatmn 
by Bloobmwn. VoL I, pp. 200-61). 

> Ibid p. 62. 



134 



Delhi 
Museum 
Khan Sahib 
Maulvi Zafar 
Hasan 



Peshawar 
Museum 

Mr. H. 

Harftreavea 

(Curator) 



the mutineers and their final overthrow by the British forces. A short extract 
from one of the issues is as follows : 

The Punjabee, Saturday, June 13, 1857. 

* * * * * * * 

But in the whole paragraph so explicitly written in the Delhi extra of 
the Agra branch, we look and look in vam for the arrival of 60th, 6th, or 
Artillery at the scene of murder. Indeed we are told that after the miscreants 
had ended their bloody work at Meerut, they proceeded unmolested to Delhi ; 
set up a new King, and established the dynasty of the Timour family, and 
finally, murdered all the Europeans. And here they are in a position of such 
strength that our army on an extensive scale has to be sent to dislodge them, 
which will not be effected without a great expense to the state ; and will 
doubtless incur a great loss of life at this season of the year especially * * * 

" The total number of coins added to the cabinet amounted to 1899 (102 
gold mohurs, 429 silver rupees and 1,368 copper coins) and were received from 
the following sources (vide also list Appendix B) : 

(a) Treasure Trove finds from the various local Governments, 121 

(6) Coins presented, 1,345. 

(c) Coins received on loan from the Director General of Archeology, 

433. 

Out of the coins loaned by the Director General of Archaeology a 
collection of 276 coins of the Pathan kings of Delhi purchased from Mr. H. 
Nelson Wright, I.C.S., is of special interest, as it includes many rare issues. 

" Thanks are due to Mr. H. Nelson Wright for his generous gift 
oi 1,344 copper coins of the Pathan kings of Delhi, and also to Munshi Kalyan 
Singh of Bareilly who presented a J rupee of Qutbu-d-Din Mubarak Shah 
which is a rare issue." 

" The Peshawar Museum still maintains its popularity, the total number 
of visitors during the year being 63,393. 

" Recent acquisitions numbered one hundred and forty four, all, save eleven, 
being coins. Of these latter 91 were a find of silver coins, purchased in July 
1924 from a cultivator of village Marghuz, Swabi Tahsil, Peshawar District, 
who stated that they had been found in an earthen vessel while ploughing a 
field some three months before at Muharamadi Dheri near his village. The 
hoard consisted of one Mughal, eighty Durrani and ten Sikh pieces. Fifteen 
silver Mughal coins were presented by the Director of Industries, Central Pro- 
vinces, twelve silver Mughal coins by the Government of the United Provinces 
and one copper coin of Muhammad-bin-Sam by Major A. E. Parsons, D.S.O., 
O.B.E., Political Agent, Tochi. Three silver and eleven copper coins were 
received on loan from the Director General of Archaeology in India. 

" The other eleven antiquities were two reliefs on loan from the Govern- 
ment of India through the Superintendent, Archaeological Survey, frontier 
Circle, and nine various small objects received from the Director General of 
Archaeology in India, being part of the antiquities recovered from excavation 
at Charsada in 1903-04. 



135 MUSEUMS 

" Twenty three books and reports have been added to the Library, nine Peshawar 
being purchases and fourteen presentations from official sources. The library Museum 
is now well supplied with books dealing with the history and art of the Frontier 
and every endeavour is made to keep it up to date. 

" A number of new show cases and stands for two large BodhUattva and 
Buddha heads have been purchased and for the first time since its excavation 
the fine relief of Panchika and Hariti is now adequately exhibited. Most of 
the Museum cases have been repolished and the condition of both these and 
the collections is generally very satisfactory. Much more labelling is required 
but cannot be undertaken until the Curator is able to spend more time at 
headquarters. His frequent and prolonged absence on tour has likewise delayed 
the publication of the revised edition of the Handbook to the museum collections. 

" Necessary repairs to the Museum fabric and the usual colouring and 
whitewashing have been carried out and the Museum building is in a sound 
condition. 

" Partial eifect has been given to a scheme referred to in last year's 
report for the improvement of the grounds and an electric pump has been 
installed, but the details of the scheme of levelling, gardening and watering 
have received little attention and very unsatisfactory knchcfia water channels 
aie at present used to brii g water to the lawns. 

" The conduct of visitors has been exemplary and neither the antiquities 
nor cases have suffered damage. The staff of the Museum performed their 
duties aat'sfactorily and the good work of the Custodian, M. Dilawar Khan, 
has been recognised by the Local Government by the bestowal of a khillat 
of rupees three hundred." 

" During the year under review the Superintendent, Hindu and Buddhist Samath 
Monuments, Northern Circle, continued to act as ex-officio Curator of the M " 8 ^|^ hf 
Archaeological Museum at Samath. Further progress was made with the Saiiip Vata 
labelling of the antiquities, and a proposal was submitted for the construction 
of a new godown for the housing of the surplus sculptures. 

" The only antiquities added to the Museum were a beautifully shaped 
bronze casket with a domical lid, which unfortunately contained nothing (Plate 
XXXVI (a)), a Buddhist monk's bottle of the same material (Plate XXXVI 
(6)) and a number of heavy metal anklets all of which came to light in the 
clearance of the mound of earth adjoining the second gateway of the Dharma- 
chakra- Jinavihara. ' ' 

" The only " Museum " in the Central Circle .maintained from Central Nafanda 
Eevenues is the little collection of minor antiquities found in the course ot Museum 
the excavations at Nalanda, which is accommodated in one wing of the Archwo- 
logical Best House there. 

"The collection has already been briefly described in the report for the 
year 1922-23. It is especially notable for its metal images and figurines of 
the Pala period, which are mostly Buddhist, but include a few Hindu deities; 
among the former being an inscribed image of Hariti dedicated in tho reign 
of Devapaladeva (c. 844-92 A.D.) the 3rd of the Pala line. 



MUSEUMS 



136 



Nalanda 
Museum 

Mr. J. A. 

Page 



Museums'in 
Burma 



"A find of interest added to the collection in the year under review was 
the fragment of a female image holding a vajraor thunderbolt, and thus pre- 
sumably Vajratara, a deity not previously represented in the Nalanda collection. 
This image is anatomically normal, which is unusual in representations of 
Vajiatara, who more often is portrayed as multi-armed and holding various 
symbols, of which the wtyia is only one. 

"Ariothei find of importance was a gold coin of Sasanka, king of Gauda, 
(r. 60<MU9 A.D.), which was identified by Mr. R. D. Banerji of the Eastern 
rircie This king, a zealous devotee of Siva, hated Buddhism, which he did 
his best to destroy. It is recorded that he dug up and burnt the holy Bodhi 
tree of Bodh Gay a, on which Asoka is reputed to have lavished inordinate 
devotion ; broke the stone marked with the footprints of Buddha at Patali- 
putra, destroyed the convents and scattered the monks, carrying his persecu- 
tions to the foot of the Nepalewe hills. 

" There can be little doubt that Nalanda, in common with other Buddhist 
centres in Magadha, suffered devastation at his hands ; though his coin, 
recovered from the ruins of a monaatry here, was found at too high 
a level (some three feet below the ground surface) for its presence to be 
associated with his period. It can have come here only several centuries after 
his death." 

" There are, in Burma, three small museums attached to the Archaeological 
Department, mz., (1) at Mandalay located in one of the apartments on the 
Mons. Charles p a l ftc e platform ; (2) at Pagan, and (3) at Hmawza (Old Prome). The Palace 
16 * Museum at Mandalay was designed mainly for the exhibition of objects belong- 
ing to the former Royal family, the high officers of state and others connected 
with the Burmese court No new exhibits have been added to those already 
in that Museum during the year under report; but it is proposed next year 
to hang enlargements of photographs of the late Burmese kings, queens, princes, 
princesses and of some personages closely connected with the history of the 
latter years of the last Burmese dynasty. The Museum at Hmawza is at 
present merely a store-house of important archaeological finds made in the 
course of excavations there. During the year under report most of the objects 
discovered in the course of excavations have been deposited in it. They 
consist of stone sculptures, earthen funeral urns, ornamental bricks, etc. Owing 
to lack of room for the proper display and exhibition of finds, the Museum 
at Pagan is now in little better a state than the one at Hmawza, and the objects 
discovered during the last few years have had to be placed in a room which 
had been reserved for the museum office. The finds made this year, which 
date from the llth to the 17th centuries A.D., number 41 in all and comprise 
7 images of the Buddha in wood, 14 in stone, two stone pedestals, one stone 
ring forming part of a funeral urn and 17 enamelled terracotta plaques. 
An estimate amounting to Rs. 24,409 for the extension of this museum 
was prepared some years ago, but is still outstanding and it is feared that funds 
will not be available for the work to be put in hand for yet a few years 
to come." 



137 OFFICERS ON SPECIAL DUTY 

SECTION V. 

OFFICERS ON SPECIAL DUTY. 

Sir Aurel Stein towards the close of the financial year 1923-24 was granted Sir Aurel 
six months' leave, and he utilized the first half of it for a tour intended to te n 8 wor 
serve archaeological interests in the Near East. The first month was spent 
in visiting ancient sites of Egypt between Cairo and Aswan. He also devoted 
attention to the abundant remains of the Hellenistic and Early Christian period 
to be found in the Egyptian and Coptic Museums at Cairo. 

The opportunity offered by an archaeological survey conducted by 
Sir Alexander Kennedy at Petru subsequently enabled him to make 
a short but very instructive stay at thin famous site in the extreme 
north-west corner of King Husain's Arabian kingdom. After seeing a few 
ancient sites of Trans- Jordan he proceeded to Syria where a series of 
historical sites between Byblos on the Mediterranean and the ruined city of 
Bostra near the Jebel Drus were visited. Particularly interesting was a tour 
undertaken subsequently from Aleppo to Antioch across the barren hill ranges 
of Northern Syria. It enabled him to become acquainted with extensive 
remains of the Hellenistic and Early Byzantine periods surviving at a consi- 
derable number of sites, some of which do not appear to have ever been 
systematically surveyed. 

Finally, travelling by the Anatolian railway, he visited Konia with its 
important Muhammadan structures of Seljuk times. A somewhat longer stay 
at Constantinople Was devoted mainly to the inspection of the remains of 
Byzantine architecture and to the study of the Hellenistic and later antiquities 
in the great collection of the National Turkish Museum. 

A period of deputation to England had been previously sanctioned by 
the Government of India and the Secretary of State for the purpose of .enabling 
Sir Aurel Stein to attend to the manifold tasks connected with the publication 
of his Innermost Asia, the detailed report on the results of his third 
Central-Asian Expedition. Starting work at the close of May 1924 he was 
first occupied in the arrangement at the British Museum of that portion of his 
third collection of antiquities which had been temporarily transferred with a 
view to the reproduction in England of all objects apart from wall paintings 
claiming special antiquarian interest. This task, mainly through the assiduous 
help by Mr. F. H. Andrews, was completed by June. The following three 
months were claimed by the selection of representative specimens and their 
photographic reproduction in carefully arranged plates. The total number of 
plates prepared, partly by three colour process, partly in monotone, amounts 
to 140. Much labour was involved also in selecting and preparing materials 
for some 500 illustrations from photographs of sites, topographical features, 
etc., taken on those protracted explorations* 

Simultaneously Sir Aurel was occupied with the preparation of a lecture 
which was intended to furnish a general survey of the facts which determined 



OFFICERS ON SPECIAL DUTY 



138 



Sir Aurel 
Stein's work 



Mr. F. H. 
Andrew's 
work 



Mr. Sana 
Ullah 



the important r&e played by Chinese Turkistan as the great passage land 
for the early intercourse between the Far East on the one aide and India 
and tho Classical "West on the other. This lecture, entitled " Innermost Asia : 
its Geography as Factor in History," was delivered before the Royal Geogra- 
phical Society in Novembei, and has since been published filling, m its ex- 
panded form, rS payes in the Geographical Journal for May and Juno, 1925. 

During the hubtwquejit portion of the official year, Sir Aurel Stein occupied 
himself in work on the proofs of plates and other illustrative materials required 
for Innermost Asia and by a final revision of the text, which is likely to 
fill about a thousand pages of Royal quarto in volumes corresponding to those 
of his fienndfa. The printing of the text has been steadily carried on at the 
Oxford Umveisity Press since February, about 400 pages having since passed 
into type. 

Work on the Central-Asian Wall Paintings in the temporary Museum at 
Raibina, Delhi, was resumed in the last week of October, 1924. During the 
cold weather tho erection of wall-cases and other fittings required for the 
protection of the pictures was continued. 

The mounting of all pictures on aluminium frames was completed and a 
number of smaller fragments were treated and set in plaster. Some extremely 
interesting fragments from Sistan presented great difficulties due to the coarse- 
ness of the material on which they are painted, the broken condition of the 
pieces and the ravages of white ants in antiquity. The considerable time 
occupied in successfully mounting these examples was fully justified by reason 
of their archaeological and artistic interest as they exhibit characteristics different 
to those of the Central-Asian schools. 

Further progress was made towards the reconstruction of the painted 
domed ceiling from Toyuk. This work is not completed and presents several 
difficulties still to be overcome. An iron framework was constructed on which 
to mount the fragments of dado from the circular shrine at Miran (M. 8.). 
The sections comprising the dado required each to be curved and involved 
the making of preliminary experiments before a successful method was evolved. 

Ceiling pieces from Bezeklik and Toyuk were set up in places specially 
designed and constructed for them in the arched openings connecting the 
exhibition galleries. Tentative experiments were made with various types of 
frames to surround the larger pictures, and schemes for the fixing of a suitable 
background to the wall cases Were tried. 

On the whole the season was a busy one and satisfactory progress was 
made. 



SECTION VI. 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL CHEMIST. 

The Archaeological Chemist reports that "during the year under review 
2,822 antiquities of various lands were treated by me, I had alao to under- 
take a considerable amount of chemical analysis for the elucidation of the 



139 ARCHAEOLOGICAL CHEMIST 

-composition and technique of a number of ancient objects. Noteworthy among Mr. Sana 
these were faience objects (e.g., bangles, beads and vases) found at llarappa 
and Mohenj o-daro. This faience has a fine granular body and is bluish-green 
white or violet in colour and appears to have been made by mixing fine 
white sand, clay and a copper frit in suitable proportions, and firing the 
moulded and dried objects to a high temperature. The analysis of a light green 
bangle from Mohenjo-daro gave -Si O 2 , 88-12; P a O fi , ml; Al a O 8 , 3*02; Fe, 
O a , 1-82; CaO, 1-26; MgO, nil ; Na a O, 4-M) ; K a O, 0-65; CuO, 0-46. It 
is interesting to note that its composition approximates closely that of an 
Egyptian funeral statuette, discovered at Saggarah (Memphis) by M. de Morgan. 1 
This is the first clear evidence of the existence of faience m India at a very 
early period. Other objects of interest examined by me were steatite seals, 
gypsum crystal and contents of funeral urns from Mohenj o-daro; asphalt 
coating from the statues in the Elephaiita Caves ; c nnzaffo ' from the frescoes 
at Bagh ; decayed stone and terracotta, etc. 

" Fragments of a deep blue long-necked glass flask from the Taj Museum, 
Agra, and a deep blue glaze from a tile excavated at the Qutb, Delhi, both 
belonging, probably, to the late Mughal period, were also analysed and the 
results are as tabulated below:-- 

SiO, AlgO, Fe,O, CaO MgO GuO Na,O Total. 

Blueflaak 6015 1026 1-49 3*27 2-83 1-33 2067 100-00 

Bine glaze 71-88 5-47 1-88 2-28 0-05 0*61 1783 100-00 

The high proportion of alumina in the flask is significant and it was pro- 
bably introduced intentionally in the form of feldspar. A certain proportion 
of alumina facilitates the working of glass in fire and renders it resistant to 
sudden changes of temperature, but the amount contained in the flask is 
excessive and makes it unsuitable for heating purposes." 

Last year Kao Bahadur Krishna Sastri, Government Epigiaphist, drew 
attention to the decayed condition of the Nanaghat inscription in the Bombay 
Presidency and Mr. Sana Ullah was instructed to inspect it and to suggest 
measures for the protection of the inscription against further decay. He 
writes that " the rock which bears this inscription is a hemi-cryatalkne augite- 
basalt, locally known as ' trap/ It disintegrates gradually under the solvent 
action of rain water on its constituent minerals, and by the process of oxida- 
tion. The aqueous extract of the decomposed rock was practically free from 
soluble salts and contained only traces of sodium chloride. The walls of the 
cave on which the inscription has been cut, have, in places, developed cracks, 
thus facilitating the infiltration of water. Also, the crumbling of the entrance 
permits of rain-water reaching some of the wall." Mr. Sana ITUah'd scheme 

Th reralta of La Ghtdir' analysis of the Egyptian funeral statuette are those : -SiO,, 88*6 ; Al, O r 1 -4 
Fo.O,, 0* s OaO, *1 i CuO, 1-7 ; Na,O, 5 8 ; (Oompt. Rend. 1899, VoL CXXIX, p. 387). 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL CHEMIST 140 

consists essentially in (a) repairing and strengthening the damaged parts with 
Portland cement, (b) stopping cracks with the same material; (c) providing a 
dnppirg channel at the entrance and (d) impregnating the surface with paraffin 
paste in order to render it impervious to moisture. These operations are 
now in hand. 

Another case of deterioration in a stone monument referred to Mi. Sana 
Ullah lor cidvice was that of the temple of Mahadeo at Dhotra (District 
linldanu) The stone of which the temple is built, is a coarse-grained highly 
ferruginous sandstone. Paraffin paste has also been recommended for thia 
monument. 

Some of the terracotta figures in niches at the monasteries of Jaulian and 
Molira Moradu at Taxila have recently shown signs ol disintegration. Originally, 
these figures were of clay strengthened with vegetable fibres, but they have 
become more or less burnt by a subsequent conflagration. The area is free 
from saltpetre and the figures are well protected against rain. The Archaeo- 
logical Chemist, who tested the decayed specimens, writes that "they are 
free from chlorides and nitrates but are charged with small amounts of sodium 
sulphate. Tt is well known that sodium sulphate effloresces in a dry atmosphere 
and liquefies by the absorption of moisture in wet weather. It is also obvious 
that the colloidal constituents present in this material will swell by the absorp- 
tion of water from the solution of sodium sulphate and contract from loss 
of water in dry weather. Both of these processes repeated indefinitely result 
in the disintegration of the material. The pulpy condition of the decaying 
parts supports this view. Sodium sulphate was obviously present in the soil 
under which these figures were lying buried before their excavation, and found 
its way into them through the infiltration of rain water charged with this 
salt. I have treated the affected figures with baryta water in order to fix 
the sulphuric acid. The excess of the baryta will eventually be carbonated 
and serve as a harmless binder. Tt is proposed to impregnate them with ' cell on' 
later on/' 

Mr. Sana Ullah paid a visit to Mohenjo-daro in order to make suitable 
arrangements at the site for the treatment of those antiquities which could 
not safely be transported to his laboratory at Dehra Dun. The soil at this 
place being heavily saturated with saltpetre, objects of stone, pottery and 
terracotta cannot be allowed to remain untreated safely even for a couple 
of days. He finished the preservation of a number of seals and other valuable 
antiquities during his stay there. 

He has designed a small lethal chamber for killing insects with hydrocyanic 
acid in books and manuscripts; it is hoped that it will be handy in libraries, 
record rooms or museums. 

Apart from officers of the Archaeological Department who invariably consult 
him on matters respecting the preservation and technique of antiquities, Curators 
of museums and sometimes private collectors are appreciating the value ot 
Mr. Sana Ullah 'B methods and have sought his advice and help on several 



141 ARCHAEOLOGICAL CHEMIST 

NOTE No, 1. Mr; Sana 

Ullah 

Recipes for the Cleaning of Copper, Bronze and Silver objects. 

Kreyf ting's zinc and caustic soda method and dilute sulphuric acid (3-4 
per cent.) are useful for cleaning superficially oxidized copper and bronze, but 
both are disastrous if employed for deeply or completely corroded objects. 
It is, therefore, recommended that the above methods be employed as little 
as possible and that the following, which are safer and more reliable be 
adopted : 

Copper and bronze.-- (a) Rochelle salt 3 parts, caustic soda 1 part, water 
20 parts. This was recommended by Scott and gives good results. (6) Tartarie 
acid 1 part, caustic soda 1 part, water 10 parts. Thie is as good as (a) 
but somewhat quicker in action and much cheaper. 

Bed stains of cuprous oxide left after treatment with the above solutions 
may be removed by immersion in dilute ammonia solution, to which a little 
sodium sulphite has been added, in a well covered vessel. 

Silver. Superficially oxidized silver coins may be treated in the following 
manner. Place the coins between two sheets of perforated zinc sheet in a 
porcelain vessel ; fill it up with plain water and add a few drops of strong 
acetic acid. Examine after 3-4 hours or leave it over night. Silver alloyed 
with copper should be treated by the methods given for that metal. 

After cleaning, the objects should be washed several times with plain water 
and finally with distilled water until the washing gives only a faint opalescence 
with a few drops of silver nitrate solution acidified with nitric acid. 1 Finally, 
they should be dried and impregnated in molten paraffin wax (M. P. 166- 
170 F.). 

NOTE No. 2. 

Paraffin Paste Treatment for the Preservation of Decaying Stone. 

Stones of all kinds yield, in various degrees, to the solvent action of rain 
water which is aided by the chemical actions of oxygen and carbonic acid 
which the water holds in solution. The best plan, therefore, in order to check 
the disintegration of stone by these agencies, would be to render the surface 
impervious to water. This can be accomplished by the impregnation of the 
Btone surface with paramn wax which is neither affected by these atmospheric 
influences, nor has any deleterious action on the stone itself. 

Paramn wax recommended for this purpose should be the hardest available 
(M. P. 165-170 F.). It is dissolved in a suitable volatile solvent to form 
a solution or paste which can conveniently be applied to the stone surface 
by means of a paint brush. After a time the volatile solvent evaporates 
away leaving behind solid paraffin wax. 

Thw meant m*y be prepwed by diwolving 6 gramme* of diver nftmte erycteb in 600 o. o. of distilled water, 
nd Adding 10 o. c. of fteong nitric wad to it. It should be kept in brown stoppered bottle* 



ABOHJBOLOGICAL CHEMIST 



142 



Mr. Sana 

Ullah 



Northern 
Circle 

Mr. Prayag 
Dayal 
(Secretary, 
Coin Com- 
mittee) 

United 
Provinces 



Preparation of Paraffin Paste. Melt 1 Ib. of hard paraffin wax (M. P. 
165-170 F) 1 and | oz. of bees-wax in a metal vessel over a gentle fire and 
pour gradually into one gallon of petrol. Finally add 1 oz. of spirit of 
turpentine and shake well. 

Precautions. Keep in a well stoppered can or drum. Owing to the petrol 
the paste is highly inflammable and should, therefore, be kept, away from 
fire. 

7,sv. If the mixture is not clear, make it so by placing the can in warm 
water. Pour out a small quantity at a time into a tin and apply with a 
paint brush. Repeat until the surface absorbs no more of it. If after a 
few minutes any superfluous paste remains on the surface, it should be wiped 
off with a cloth. 

For the success of this treatment it is essential that the stone surface 
should be quite dry and the treatment should therefore be carried out in the 
hot and dry weather. If the building is in need of repairs or conservation 
measures, which will necessitate wettmg the surface, they should be earned 
out beforehand and the masonry be allowed to become quite dry before the 
Paraffin Paste treatment is applied. Otherwise, the paate will not penetrate 
deeply and even disfigurement may result. 

This treatment is not applicable to those monuments which are badly 
affected with saltpetre or are situated where the rain-fall is so frequent that 
they do not get a chance to become sufficiently dry. 



SECTION VII. 

TREASURE TROVE. 

The Curator of Hie Lucknow Provincial Museum lias supplied me with the 
following information in regard to finds of coins in the United Provinces. 

" During the year eighteen finds of coins from the districts of Barida, Basti, 
Farrukhabad, Gorakhpur (2), Hardoi, Kheri (3), Lucknow (2), Meerut, Mirzapur, 
Moradabad, Rae Bareli, Shahjahanpur, Sitapur and Sultanpur were dealt with 
by the Secretary and detailed reports on each submitted to Government. The 
total number of coins examined was 1084, comprising 12 gold, 830 silver, 181 
billon and 61 copper. They covered various types struck in the 5th or 6th 
century A.D. down to those of the Hon'ble the East India Company struck 
in the 19th century. The most interesting find of the year was a Hoard of 
101 silver Mughal coins from Basti district which yielded a rare rupee of Far- 
rukhsiyar (mint Bijapur) and another of Muhammad Shah (mint Muazzama- 
bad). The next best was a find of 10 silver pieces from Sitapur District which 
contained three coins of Hoseyn Baikara, a descendant of Timur, of mints 
Herat and Astarabad. This is probably the first time that such coins have 
been discovered in the United Provinces." 

1 Paraffin wax of the above specification can be had from the British Drag HOUMM Ltd., 1630, Graham Street* 
London, N. 1. 



143 TREASURE TROVE 

' In view of the circulation by the Education Department of the note Frontier 
on Treasure Trove referred to in the Annual Report for 1921-22, it is dis-Ci^te 
appointing to have to report that Treasure Trove is still but rarely reported J^ r * H * 
in the North- West Frontier Province. ^ 



" A find recovered in the spring of 1924 at village Sarpanna, Ilazara Dis- frontier 
trict, and said to have consisted of 7] * rupees' and two copper coins was Province 
sold to a goldsmith at Dhamtaur for Rs. 64-11-6, by whom they were melted 
and turned into jewellery before information reached the civil authorities. It 
Was then too late to take any effective measures and it seemed inadvisable to 
take action under Section 20 of the Treasure Trove Act as the finder was an 
ignorant peasant. 

" The Deputy Commissioner, Peshawar, reports that on or about the 1st 
of February 1925 four seers of copper coins were found in a mound between 
Turlandi and Naudeh in the Mardan Tahail of the Peshawar District. These 
coins are stated to be with Umar Khan of Kalu Khan who has given security 
under Section 4 of the Act. Five specimens were sent for examination and 
received while in camp in Baluchistan and these were all Kushan coins and 
possibly all are of the wame period. It has been recommended that the hoard 
be acquired under the Treasure Trove Act." 

" In the Punjab only one find of 70 silver coins was reported by the Punjab 
Deputy Commissioner, Gurdaspur. These were found in an earthen pot in vil- Mr - Madho 
lage Kot Bhatta of the Gurdaspur District and were disclosed by a flood in 
the River Ravi. The find consisted of 43 Sikh coins, 2 of Aurangzeb, 1 of 
Shah Alam I, 4 of Farrukhsiyar, 19 of Muhammad Shah and 1 of Alamgir 
II. It is proposed to acquire two of these coins, including an unpublished 
rupee of Farrukhsiyar of the Kabul Mint for the Lahore Museum and return 
the others, as being of no special interest, to the finder." 

" The Secretary to the Royal Asiatic Society, Bombay Branch, to whom Western 
all treasure trove coins found in the Bombay Presidency are forwarded for exa- Circle 
mination and distribution, reports that 5 gold, 3,018 silver and 1,828 copper JfcJ^ N * 
coins were received by the Society during the year from five places, 2 of which Bombay 
are situated in East Khandesh, 1 in West Khandesh, 1 in Satara and 1 in Presidency 
Thana. 

" Two cases of treasure trove were referred by the Government of Bom- 
bay to the Archaeological Superintendent during the year. One find con- 
sisted of a bronze image of the Jaina Tirthankar, Santinatha, which was found 
in a field at Chahardi, Taluka Chopda, District East Khandesh. The image 
was inspected by Mr. Chandra, the Assistant Superintendent, and was recom- 
mended for acquisition ^ m s sieges? 011 - ** 2 ' * n ne ig nt an( * weighs 12 
seers and represents ^ ne Jina named J^ 6 ' witn a number of smaller figures. 
The central figure is 9J" in height a? d stands on a lotus seat with hands 
stretching dow- n to the knees. The anf^P 68 ' tlle cognizance of the patriarch, 



are carved -on the pedestal of the imatf 3 Tne diamond-shaped mark on the 
breast of the ^Q ^ j^^ ^ iih ^d the eys with silver The remain- 



ing twenty-three ' xthankaras are shown ifc relief on the Prabhavali background 



TBEA8UBE TROVE 



144 



Western 
Circle 
Mr. K. N. 
DUuhit 



Central Circle 
Mr.J.A. ' 
Pafte 

Bihar and 
Orissa 



in the attitude of meditation, prominence being given to Parsvanatha in the 
centre of the top row. The rest of the sculpture is occupied by two standing 
male attendants holding fly-whisks on either side of the central image and two 
other figures, one male and one female, seated on lotuses issuing from the 
stem of the Jot us throne. The dedicatory inscription on the back and the style 
of execution of the image show that it must be assigned to the end of the 
tenth century A.D. The image is being acquired under the Treasure Trove Act 
and will be preserved in the Prince of Wales Museum of Western India. 

" The other find of treasure trove which was reported by the Collector 
of Thana consisted of 410 silver coins enclosed in a copper pot, the corroded 
remnants of which were sent to me for examination along with 3 specimen 
coins, a silver ring and two pieces of the inset coloured stone. The hoard was 
discovered in a Municipal gutter in the town of Thana. The 3 coins were 
issued by Prince Chittaraja of the Silahara dynasty who ruled northern Kon- 
kan in the first half of the eleventh century A.D. As Thana is known to 
have been the capital of these kings it is but natural that the treasure trove 
has been found within the limits of the town of Thana. The entire hoard 
being of sufficient archaeological importance, has been recommended for acqui- 
sition by Government and distribution in the usual manner." 

" Particulars of four finds of treasure trove that proved to be of numis- 
matic value have been received in the Central Circle in the year under re- 
view. They were examined by Rai Sahib Manoranjan Ghosh, Curator of the 
Patna Museum, who recommended the acquisition of them all for the coin 
cabinet. 

" One of the finds consisted 01 2 gold coins found at Dumrai, P. S. Mas- 
rakh in the Saran District. Both of these bear on the obverse the legend 
srimad-gangeva-deva in bold characters, and on the reverse a nimbate goddess 
seated cross-legged. It has not been possible to identify these coins. 

" Another find was made at Shahjahanpur in the Patna District. This 
was a collection of 18 gold raohars. The finders, twelve m number, concealed 
their discovery, but it reached the ears of the police through the village chau- 
kidar. Only five of the coins have been surrendered so far, and these 
the Kai Sahib pronounces to be of Chandragupta II ; one, of Chhattra type, 
being very rare and another, of Archer type, unique. The Collector has duly 
taken proceedings under the Treasure Trove Act for the recovery of the 
remaining coins. 

"A third find, made at Misian, also in the Patna District, consisted of a 
dibba containing 314 large silver coins, six smaller coins, one gold mohar, and 
four yellow metal rings. The gold coin pro$cf^tt *>e of Akbar (Agra 
Mint), dated 970 Hijra and very r^ re> Of the &^ Iver > which were in 
rupees and half-rupees, the greater niu% er were issues o/ /A-urangzeb mostly 
from the Patna Mint, four among them being coined at Azimabad and 
one at Gwalior, this last being ver y rarc . Shah AlaU* Bahadur, 
Farrukhsiyar, and Alamgir II a^ represented ii^ the collection, 
all these coins being from ^ e Ajrimabad Mint, and v >rare. A 



146 TREASURE TROVE 

number of these coins of which duplicates exist in the Patna Museum cabinet Central Circle 
will be distributed among other Museums. 

" The fourth find also came from the Patna District, from Rajgir. This 
was a gold coin of Ruknu-d-diu Barbak (1459-1474 A.D.) of Bengal. Silver 
coins of this type exist, but in gold it is unique. 1 ' 

" A bronze image of the ten-armed Durga was found in clearing an old well Eastern Circle 
belonging to Lakshminarayan Thakur of Tinsukia in the Lakhimpur district JJjJ 
of Assam. A case was instituted against the gentleman under Act VI of 1878, 
but the decision had not been communicated to the Superintendent of the 
Eastern Circle up to the end of the year under review." 



SECTION VIII. 

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

SIR AURKL STEIN** THIRD CENTRAL- ASIAN EXPEDITION. 

(By Sir Aurel Stein, K.C.I. E., F B.A., Ph.D., Litt.D., A Ate.) 

At an exhibition lately held at the British Museum, was shown a small selec- Third Central- 
tion from the archaeological objects brought back by Sir Aurel Stem from his third Asian 
Central-Asian expedition which led him, during the years 1913-16, over great por- Expedition 
tioiis of Eastern Turkestan and Westernmost China, and, towards its end, was Sl ln ura 
extended across the Pamir region to North-Eastern Persia. The expedition 
was carried out under the orders and at the expense o the Indian (Jrovern- 
ment, which, through the Survey Department, has published the topogiaphical 
results of the expedition in an atlas of forty-seven maps on the scale of 1 : 
500,000. A sketch map, compiled for the Boyal Geographical Society, mainly 
from these surveys illustrates the essential geographical features of the vast 
area visited in innermost Asia. Among the archaeological proceeds of the ex- 
pedition, ail the property of the Indian Grovernment, is a large collection of 
wall paintings from ruined Buddhist shrines ; this has been set up at Kaisinu, 
Delhi, in a temporary building designed for its reception. Specimens from the 
more portable antiquities Were temporarily taken to the British Museum to 
be reproduced in the plates of Innermost Asm, Sir Aurel Stein's detailed report 
on his third expedition, now being printed at the Oxford University Press. 
A preliminary account of its results was published in the Geographical Journal, 
vol. xlviii. 

After reaching the Tarim basin from Kashmir the expedition crossed the 
great desert of the Taklamakan to Khotan, and thence proceeded to visit the 
sites of ancient oases eastwards, abandoned to the desert between the third and 
ninth centuries A.D. The remains ol relievos in stucco and wood, painted 
panels, and other objects of decorative art obtained from ruins of Buddhist 
shrines at those sites (Domoko, KadukhJk.61, etc.) belong mainly to T'ang time*. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



146 



p <v 
Xp 1 100 

Sir Aurel 
Stein 



Third Central- They illustrate the predominance of the Graeco-Buddhisfc style developed under 
Hellenistic influences on the north-west confines of India and transplanted to 

Ctentral Asia along with Buddhist doctrine and Indian literary culture since 

.1 i . . , 

the early centuries of our era. 

Towards the close of the second century B.C. trade intercourse between 
China and Western Asia was first opened through the Tftrlm basin. Soon fol- 
lowed by political penetration, it caused Chinese influence to be widely felt 
there in many aspects of material civilization. This is most strikingly illus- 
trated by the discoveries made in the area of ancient Lou-Ian, now represented 
by the wholly waterless wind-eroded desert to the north of Lop-nOr. Through 
it and the salt-encrusted wastes of a great pre-historic sea -bed extending east- 
wards, there had passed the earliest route followed by the caravans which 
carried the silk fabrics of China, the famous products of the ancient Seres, 
into Central Asia, and thus brought them within reach of the classical West. 

By exploring grave pits into which remains of earlier Chinese burials had 
been collected by pious hands before this route became impassable through the 
drying up of the Kuruk-daryS river and the consequent abandonment of Lou- 
Ian early in the fourth century A.D., Sir Aurel Stein recovered numerous arid 
very interesting Chinese silk fabrics, dating probably between the 1st century 
B.C. and 2nd century A.D. They belonged to old garments which, in accord- 
ance with an early Chinese burial custom, had bee i used for the tight warp- 
ping up of bodies of Chinese travellers, traders or soldiers, who had died on 
their way along the forbidding desert route described by the Han Annalists. 
The specimens of fine figured silks found among them, both polychrome and 
damasks, prove the high degree of perfection attained by ancient Chinese tex- 
tile art. The graceful designs of these earliest known silk fabrics, fortunately 
preserved by the extreme aridity of the climate, open up a new chapter in 
the history of Chinese decorative art. The identical grave pits have yielded 
a number of fragments of woollen tapestries, unmistakably Hellenistic in style, 
such as the fine piece showing a Hermes-like head with caduceus by its side 
Their association with those early Chinese figured silks is a striking illustra- 
tion of that interpenetratiou of art influences from the classical West and the 
Far East, of which that distant passage land of innermost Asia had been the 
scene tor centuries. Other sepulchral deposits, partly of the indigenous popula- 
tion, acquaint us with aspects of the daily life which the Lou-Ian tract wit- 
nessed before its abandonment. 

Wind-erosion has unceasingly worn down this ground, unprotected by vege- 
tation since water ceased to reach it. Hence there could be picked up in 
plenty ou the surface in different parts of the Lop Desert stone implements, 
mainly of a primitive type suggesting use by a pigmy race. Certain well- 
preserved burials indicate that even during the historical period the scanty 
population of indigenous hunters and fishermen had not emerged very far from 
the conditions of neolithic life. 

From the delta of the dried-up river Sir Aurel Stein traced the ancient 
Chinese trade route across the salt-encrusted bed of the pre-historic sea and 



147 MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 

its utterly barren shores. The line followed by it was all through historical Third Central* 
times wholly devoid of water and vegetation for a direct distance of more Asian 
than a hundred miles. Among the relics left behind by the traffic which gf Allw i 
.had toiled through this wilderness were some two hundred odd Chinese copper g te | n 
coins and bronze arrows. They were picked up on the surface beyond the 
last watch tower on the Lou-Ian side, lying in a line just as they had succes- 
sively dropped from a bag or box carried by some military convoy of Han 
times. 

On reaching the terminal basin of the Su-lo-ho to the east the explora- 
tion of the Chinese Limes constructed about 102 B.C. for the protection of 
the route into Central Asia was resumed. Its abandoned watch -stations yield- 
ed relics of the life led by the soldiers guarding this desolate border, includ- 
ing many Chinese documents on wood of the 1st century before and after 
Christ. From the sacred site of the *' Thousand Buddhas' Caves " south of 
Tun-huang, there were recovered some five hundred well-preserved Chinese manu- 
script rolls, mostly Buddhist, dating from the 5th to the 9th century A.I)., 
and belonging to the great cache to which Sir Aurel Stein had first secured 
access on his previous expedition. 

The exploration of the Chinese Limes were extended eastwards for a total 
distance of about four hundred rmles, mostly desert. Then descending the 
Etsm-gol river into southernmost Mongolia, the Khara-khoto site, first discovered 
by Colonel Kozloff, was visited. Its rums yielded interesting remains, dating 
from the Tangut dominion (12th-13th cent.) and including numerous block- 
prints and manusciipt remains in Hai-hsia and Tibetan, besides stucco relievos, 
decorated ceramics, etc. In the course of the surveys carried during the sum- 
mer of 1914 into the Nan-shan mountains there were obtained from Buddhist 
shrines at Ma-ti-ssu specimens of stucco relievos and wood-carvings dating from 
the Sung and Ming periods. 

A two months' journey in the autumn of 1914 through unexplored portions 
of the barren Pei-shan hills and along the easternmost T'ien-shan brought the 
expedition back to Chinese Turkestan for a winter's work in the depression of 
Turffin. The cave shrines near Murtuk yielded a large collection of fine wall 
paintings of the Uigur period, now safely set up at Delhi. From the much- 
exploited ruins of the Uigur capital at Kara-khOja there was recovered, inter 
aha, an interesting cache of miscellaneous metal objects. 

Particularly instructive finds rewarded the systematic exploration of a large 
series of tombs in an ancient cemetery adjoining the present village of Astfina. 
The extreme aridity of the climate had assured excellent preservation to the 
remains of burials dating, as proved by Chinese inscriptions on bricks, from 
the 7th and early 8th centuries A.D. Here, too, the bodies were found wrap- 
ped in pieces of old garments, and these provided an abundant collection of 
ancient textiles, mainly silk, very often figured or embroidered. Among the 
decorated silk fabrics a considerable number show patterns of unmistakable 
" Sasanian " type, clearly pointiug to manufacture in Eastern Irftn or even 
nearer to the Mediterranean. The part then played by Chinese Turkestan in 



M1SOKLLAKEOUS NOTES 148 

Third Central- the cultural exchange between East and West is strikingly illustrated by the 
E ned'f ***** *^ at Byzantine 8^ coins were found placed in the mouths, and Sasa- 

SlrAwel* n * an S ^ Ver c0 " 18 over ^ e eyes> * ^ e dea< *' 

Stein The sepulchral deposits comprise numerous stucco figurines of men and 

women, horses and other animals , models of household furniture, clothing, etc., 
all meant to symbolize provision made in true Chinese fashion for the future 
life of the departed. Coarsely painted paper pictures show them enjoying such 
comforts as they were accustomed to in life. Stucco figures of monsters re- 
present guardian demons (t'u-fatei). Of food offerings deposited with the dead 
the variety of carefully made and remarkably Well-preserved pastry deserve 
special notice. Among objects of actual personal use buried with the dead, 
toilet baskets containing combs, mirrors, cosmetics, etc., of two ladies may 
be mentioned. To the plundering which must of the tomb chambers had under- 
gone is due the fragmentary condition of a fine specimen of secular Chinese 
painting, dating from the beginning of the 8th century. 

The spring of 19 15 was occupied by surveys mthe barren hill region of the 
"Dry Mountumb " and supplementary explorations in the Lop Desert. A journey 
of close on 900 miles, utilized also for a,rcha>ological work at sites around the 
oasis of KuchS, brought the expedition back to Kashgar by June, 1915. Thence 
the long and difficult transport of the antiquities across the high passes of the 
K un-lun and Karu-koram (18,300 feet above sea) to Kashmir was safely ac- 
complished under the Indian Surveyors' supervision. Sir Aurel Stem himself 
subsequently visited extensive portions of the Russian Pamirs and the adjacent 
high valleys of the Oxus. While studying there the historical geography (and 
ancient sites) of si region through which led cit least t\vo of the main routes 
once serving the mt whmige of the ancient civilization of China, India, and the 
classical West, he at-quned from an old dwelling in Kosh&n a well-carved 
wooden window. Ife subsequent!) proceeded <va Samarkand and Bukhara to 
north-eastern Persia, and, alter travelling along the Perso-Afghan border, reached 
Sistftn in December, 1915. 

During the rapid examination of the numerous ruined sites to be found 
there remains of interesting wall paintings were brought to light in the ruins 
of a large sanctuary of Sasanian times on the Koh-i-Khwftja hill In the water- 
less desert south of the present cultivated area wind erosion has produced 
conditions exactly corresponding to those seen in the dried-up delta of Lop. 
The erowon terraces rising above the bare plains were found to be thickly 
covered with prehistoric remains, consisting largely of fragments of painted 
pottery. The association of these with stone implements of the Neolithic period 
is of particular interest, because exactly the same type of painted pottery has 
been brought to light in such widely separated places as certain Mesopotamian 
sites, the " Kurghan " mounds of Anau (Transoaspia), and quite recently by 
Dr. Anderson's explorations in Kanau. The remarkably wide extent of the 
prehistoric civilisation represented by these remains is bound to attract inciean- 
ing attention among students of early Asiatic civilization. 



149 MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 

A MATHURA IMAGE OF THE NAGA DADHIKARNNA OF THE KUSHAN PERIOD. A Mathura 

image of the 
(Bu Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni, M.A.) Naga Dadhi- 

. karnna of 
The tree and the serpent have been objects of religious worship from time ^ e K us || n 

immemorial, Several seals found at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa testify to the period 
veneration paid to the pipal tree in the third or the fourth millennium B.C. Rai Bahadur 
In the year 1924-25 when I was engaged in the exploration of the ancient g * m 
remains at Harappa, I acquired from a villager a terracotta serpent (Naga) 
which had been found by him in the said ruins and dates from the same early 
period. Coming to later times, we find the worship of nagas mentioned m 
the Gnhyasutras, and the Mahabharata and other Sanskrit works give long 
lists of serpent deities chief among whom were Vasuki, Sesha and Takshaka. 
With the Buddhists they were peculiarly sacred owing obviously to their inti- 
mate association with several important events of the life of Gautama Buddha-. 
It was two Nagas, Wanda and Upanamla, who gave the infant Buddha a mira- 
culous bath immediately after his birth. It was a Naga, too, named Muchalmda, 
who protected the Master from ram by extending his broad hood over hin 
head after his enlightenment at (Java. The railing around the Bharliut stupa 
is adorned with inscribed figures ot the Naga Chakavaka and there are several 
representations 111 the Gandhara sculptures in the Peshawar Museum ot the 
conversion of the Naga Apalala by the Buddha. Dr. Vogel 1 has sho\vn tin 1 
existence of a widespread Naga worship at Mathura jn ancient times and 
the Archaeological Museum at that place contains several large-sized statues 
of Naga deities. Some of them bear no inscriptions while others are merely 
described as Bhagava Naga or the Blessed Naga or Svaminaga, ' the lord, 
Naga.' No images of any of the Nagas which have personal names assigned 
to them in literature have, as far as 1 am aware, hitherto been found any- 
where The little statuette of Dadhikarnna (ht., l()i", width oA") (Plate XL 
()) which has recently been brought to light and presented to the Areha i o- 
logical Department by Rai Bahadur Pandit liadha Krishna, Honorarv Curator 
of the Museum of Archaeology at Mathura, is thus invested with unique im- 
portance. The name of Dadhikarnna occurs in the ' Snake- spell ' (alunltu-muntra), 
the daily prayer which is said to have been recited by Baladeva and Krishna, 
and a shrine dedicated to him is also mentioned m a stone slab inscription 
of the Kushana year 26 (>) now deposited in the Provincial Museum at Luck- 
now. This slab was found in the Jamalpur mound now occupied by the Col- 
lector's Court at Mathura which has been shown by Dr. Vogel to have been 
the site of a vihara founded by Huvishka in the Kushana year 47. It i 
also obvious, as stated by Dr. Vogel, that Huvishka chose this spot for his 
sanctuary as it was already hallowed by the existence of a shrine of ' Nagendra 
Dadhikarnna.' The image of this deity, however, which was worshipped in 
this shrine has not yet been lound and Dr. Vogel hazarded the conjecture that 
a Naga figure in the Lucknow Museum, which most probably came tiom the 

Annual Report of the Archaeological Survey of India, Part II, for 1908-9, pp. 159 M* 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



150 



A Mathura 
image of the 
Naga Dadhi- 
karnna of 
the Kushan 
period 

Rat Bahadur 
Daya Ram 
Sahnl 



same mound as the inscription connected with the shrine of Dadhikarnna, might 
have, been a later effigy of that same Naga who was worshipped on that spot. 
This statue is engraved with u short inscription which, however, does not con- 
tain the name of the deity The statuette which is the subject of this note 
is clearly inscribed with the name Dadhikarnna on the base. The character 
of the epigraph is the Brahmi of the late Kushana period and this must also 
be the date of the statue The upper portion of the head of the image, which 
is of the usual type met with at Mathura, together with the snake-hoods is 
broken ofT ; for the rest it is in good preservation Whether this is the same 
image us was worshipped in the shrine which stood nineteen hundred years 
ago on the site now occupied by the Collector's Court is more than can be affirmed 
at, present. But if it is not, it only shows that there must have been at 
least one other sanctuary sacred to this deity at Mathura 



Three 

unidentified 

Graxo- 

Buddhist 

reliefs 

Mr. H. 

Hargreaves 

An attempt to 
crush the Buddha 
wider a huge 
ttone 



THRKE UNIDENTIFIED GRJECO-BUDDHIST RELIEFS. 
(By Mr. H. Hargreaves.) 

The three attempts of Devadatta to compass the death of the Buddha 
by hired assassins, by hurling a huge stone, and by letting loose the enraged 
elephant Nalagin are well known, hut representations of only the first and third 
of these have hitherto been identified in Gandhara reliefs. Now among the 
sculptures acquired this year from the Makkand Agency is a frieze (Plate 
XXXIX (c)) the proper right panel of which depicts a scene lemimscent of 
the representations of the attack by the hired assassins, but yet possessing 
other and novel features, which render that identification impossible. 

On the proper left of the panel three lightly clad men of the athletic, 
bravo type endeavour to raise a ponderous columnar stone. Kight of this is 
a similar figure, turning right with clasped hands behind a similar but vertical 
stone, on the other side of which stands the Buddha, whose right hand like- 
wise rests on this stone. Behind the Buddha stands a monk. 

Were the oblique stone absent and a club placed in the hands 61 one of 
the three figures we should have a scene resembling Nos. G.I 2, G.30 of the 
Indian Museum, hitherto identified as the attack of the hired assassins. But 
these figures in our relief, struggling with the huge stone seem rather to in- 
dicate an attempt to crush the Buddha, for the vertical stone, which might 
be mistaken for a wall, is almost certainly that which the three men endeavour 
to raise on the left. To anyone acquainted with the conventions of the 
school the fact that the two stones are not of the same length, will 
present no difficulty, and if the cup marks on the sloping stone are no longer 
traceable on the upright one this may be attributed to the damage of its 
surface. 

It therefore seems probable that we have here a unique representation of 
the attempt to kill the Buddha by a stone. This scene has not, BO far, been 
identified in Gandhara and to account for its absence it has been suggested 
that it did not lend itself very readily to delineation. The accounts given of 



151 MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 

this attack vary considerably 1 and the relief does not agree in detail with Three 
any one of them, but the intention of the three men can hardly be mistaken unidentiflea 

The question also arises whether the scenes hitherto identified as the attack gu^^jgi 
of the hired assassins cannot be merely the second scene, as it were of tbiB re ]{ e f g 
act of hurling the rock, for what has been taken to be a wall, might well Mr. H. 
be merely the stone in its perpendicular position. The presence of the man Har * reave8 
with the club may however serve to differentiate the two scenes, and their 
likeness may be due merely to contamination and an attempt to link two acts 
arising from the machinations of one person. 

A second relief of equal interest and also emanating fi om the Swat Valley Buddha imtti 
is that shown on Plate XXXIX (d). It is a frieze of two panels ^P^^ 
by an Indo-Cormthian pilaster on the shaft of which is a meditating Buddha 
seated on a lotus. 

The scene to the left showing Mara's attack is in no sense rare, but the 
demon army is depicted with uncommon vigour and variety, and the presence 
of one of Mara's daughters is worthy of note. 

It is, however, the scene to the right to wliich attention is specially directed, 
this being an unidentified and possibly unique representation We see the 
Buddha accompanied by Vajrapani, turning left towards three crouching figures 
whose hands and feet have seemingly been cut off, for the stumps of both 
arms and legs project from their garments in gruesome and unmistakable fashion. 
Between the Buddha and these three victims stands Indra who seems to hold 
up with his right hand the garments of the nearest cripple. In the background 
are three admiring or adoring figures. 

The story would seem to deal with some cruel mutilation and require the 
intervention not only of the Buddha but also of Sakra. The fate of the Sakya 
maidens at the hands of the heartless and infuriated Virudhaka immediately 
suggests itself, but the figures cannot all be identified with certainty as females 
and, if we may believe Hiuan Tsang, the Buddha himself did not visit the 
unfortunate girls but sent a bhikshu with his robe. 8 Moreover Sakra intervenes 
only to collect their bones and, even then, m the guise of a Brahman. 

The relief from its unusual and striking character cannot fail to excite 
interest, and it is published in the hope that scholars m other fields of Bud- 
dhist research may be able to identify it. 

Among the scenes which the school of Gandhara completely remodelled as The Bath of the 
a result of the direct representation of the Buddha is that of the " bath " 
of the newly born Bodhisattva. Many reliefs of this scene are known 
and in general they show the Bodhisattva standing on a three-legged stool 
supported by two attendants while Indra and Brahma to his left and right 
respectively, pour over him water from waterpots held by them high above 
his head. 

'Bed, flu*BWKHU. VoL I, p. lix, VoL U. p. 16* ; Hwdy Manual <tf Bvddkim, yp.320,383. 
Bed, DwUMfl Jtaonfo, VoL II, pp. 11-12 } Cf. Bockbill, The life of ihe Bvddha, p. 121 where, however, 
the intervention of Buddh* himself i* definitely stated. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



162 



Three 

unidentified 

Grco- 

Buddhist 

reliefs 

Mr.H. 



Now it has been truly remarked 1 that this motive of the " bath " is one 
of the few creations of this school that has had no success in later Indian 
iconography, but u sculpt ure recently obtained from the Swat Valley shows, 
however, that oven the school of Gandhara itself was not entirely content with 
the India-Brahma motive and knew at least one other form of representation, 
fn the relief now published as Plate XXXIX (e) and which, it is believed, 
i a unique spec-mien, the infant Bodhisattva stands on the usual tripod, but 
ludra and Brahma no longer hold the posts of honour, but concede these to 
the two Nuga-rajaB, Nanda and Upananda, who holding themselves in the air 
m symmetrical fashion pour down a stream of water from their mouths over 
the newlv born child Of the figures in the background those to the left and 
right ot the Bodhisattva appear to be Indra and Brahma. Hiuan Tsang's 2 
iiccount of this event IK illuminating . " Moreover two dragons sprang forth, 
and fixed in the air, poured down the one a cold, and the other a warm water 
stream from //As mouth to wash the prince." Such might have been written 
by one describing u relief like the very one m question. 

These widelv different representations in the school of (iandhara of the 
kt bath " may at first sight, appear surprising, but become less MO when it is 
recalled that the Lahta Vtntata assigns this task of bathing the infant Bodbi- 
aattva not only to ludra and Brahma, but also to the Nagas, Nanda and Upa- 
iiand'i ah well as to "cent mille dieux." 8 As we have seen the Bodhinattva 
bathed by Indra and Brahma, and no\\ by the Naga-rajas may we hope to 
recover some dav a representation fiom (Jandhara showing this task of bath- 
ing the infant entrusted to "one hundred thousand gods"' It IN to be feared 
not. 

But the interest in this relief does not finish with the recognition of a 
second form ot the representation of the ' bath " or the identification of the 
protagonist* It has heretofore been believed that it was only maleficent nagas 
auoh as the black snake of Rajagriha or that in Kasyapa's fire temple which, 
in this sc.hool, were represented in animal form. The relief under discussion 
supported by that of the Naga Elapatra recovered at, Sahribahlol m 1912 by 
Sir Aurel Stem comes to disprove that belief and it can no longer be safely 
assumed that in this school the form of a nat;a reflects his character. 



An Ancient 
Slate Quarry 
in the 
Monghyr 
District, 
Bihar 
Mr. J. A. 
Page 



AN ANCIENT SLATE QUARRY IN THE MONGHYR DISTRICT, BIHAR. 

(By Mr J. A. Page, A.R.LB.A.) 

A paragraph in the '* Statesman '* of the 17th July, 1924, announced the 
discovery of a cave in the Monghyr District that had been formed through 
quarrying operations undertaken in early times for the extraction of slate and 
its manufacture into the platters known to Hindus as thaks. Enquiry of the 

' > Fouchor, Uart grecn-bouddiquc du Oandhara, T, I, p. 310. 

3 Beal, Buddhi* Record*, Vol. II, p. 24, 
*Lalita Fwtara, TMIU, FOUOMIX, p. 86. 
*4. S. L, 191M2. PI. XXXVni, fig. G. 



153 MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 

District authorities elicited the information that this cave was located at An Ancient 
Sitakohbar, near Paharpur, some 5 miles from Bariarpur Railway Station Slate Quarry 
(E. I. Ey. Loop), on the property of Messrs, the Ambler Slate and Stone /^ Ol ,* nvr 
Company, Ltd., who are working the locality for slate. District 

The cave was visited by the Assistant Superintendent of the Central Circle Bihar 
in April, 1925, and, as previously surmised, it proved to be a portion of an Mr *-A. 
ancient slate quarry. It penetrates into the hill side some 180 feet, with 
a width of some 60 feet, and its roof rises from 8 to 25 feet above the debris 
that now forms the floor, the original level of which Was perhaps some 20 or 
30 feet lower. 

The principal old slate workings are confined to a bed 65 feet wide exposed 
in a torrent cutting made by the Jalkund stream in the eastern flank of the 
Kharagpur hills. 

On the north bank of the stream the hill rises abruptly some 150 feet, 
and this face has been terraced in early times in the working out of the slate 
seam. The working in the topmost terrace appears in the better state of pre- 
servation, the lower terrace now bemg buried under the talus of the old quarry - 
men. 

A series of levels have been driven by the old Workers along the " strike " 
of the slate. One with about 20 feet of the roof still remaining is visible 
at the top of the hill, its floor being buried in debris and chippings of slate. 

In making a " drive " along the slate seam well under the above level, 
Messrs. Ambler, who are now opening out these ancient quarries, broke into 
a " heading " driven by the old quarrymen into the 65 feet seam of slate and 
revealed the cave to which reference is made above. 

This cave represents the mass of solid slate, of nearly 7 lakhs cubic feet, 
extracted by the old workers, every piece of which was laboriously taken out 
by hand with primitive iron chisels, some of which have been found in the 
debris. The method of extraction was as follows : A groove about 2 to 3 
inches deep Was first cut around the face of the slate outlining a portion some 
18 inches by 12 inches, which was then split out. The process was repeated 
until the extraction had been carried deep into the seam. In this way the 
whole mass of the slate was finally removed perhaps after a century of conti- 
nuous labour. 

Many of the slates extracted Were made into platters or thalis, broken 
pieces of which have been recovered from the debris in the caves. 

The panelling work done in the extraction of the slate is remarkably 
symmetrical, and the work was evidently carried out in a regular and methodical 
manner, with the workers organised into separate gangs. 

Judging by their intelligent layout of the working generally, and by the 
way they availed themselves of the natural jointing of the rock to form a 
solid roof, and avoided all hardened bands and " faults " that could not be 
worked on with their primitive tools, these early slate workers must have been 
very efficient quanymen, equipped, too, with a practical knowledge of geology 
to enable them to locate the seams of slate in the thick jungle of the hill*. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



154 



An Ancient 
Siate Quarry 
in the 
Monghyr 
District, 
Bihar 
Mr. J. A. 
Page 



Their work here seems to have been carried up to a certain point, and then 
Abandoned, for some reason not apparent. Old quarries and dressing- floors 
are to be seen all over these hills wherever the slate beds outcrop at the 
surface. 

At some time previous to 1756 A.D. a large throne or masnad now 
in the Victoria Memorial, Calcutta, was made from the slate of the Kharagpur 
Hills for the Nawab of Murshidabad. It measures 6 feet across and stands 
]| feet high on four stout pedestals of the same material, and it is inscribed 
in Persian with a reference to the place of its origin. Lord Olive is said to 
have Hilt on it with the newly selected Nawab after the Battle of Plassey in 
1757. 

The slate of the Kharagpur Hills is of exceptionally fine quality. It is 
harder and tougher than the ordinary Welsh slate, and far exceeds in strength 
any known variety of other stone. 

A report by the Mechanical Laboratory of the Sibpur Engineering College 
states that " the crushing weight of the slate would probably be 15 tons or 
so to the square inch. The highest breaking strain on record is 1-3 tons for 
strong granite." 

The above account is largely based on particulars kindly furnished by Mr. 
S. Swindon of Messrs. Ambler and Company, on whose property the cave is 
situated. 

While the quarry is of much interest as indicative of the methods of slate 
extraction adopted in earlier times, it is not felt that any action under the 
Ancient Monuments Preservation Act, VII of 1904, is to be desired in regard 
to it, and it is not proposed to take any steps for the preservation of the old 
workings as an ancient monurrent. 



MKDLEVAL IMAGES IN THE EASTERN CIRCLE. 

(By Mr. R. D. Banerji, M.A.) 

Medieval From time to time numerous medieval images are discovered in different 

images in the parts of Bengal. The mo&t important ones discovered during the current year 
1 e were found in the district of Dacca. One of these is a fine image of the 
Banerji ' Fish Incarnation of Vishnu (Plate XL (&)) which was found in the village of 
Fuh Incarnation Bajrayogini near Eampal and has been set up in a modern temple in that 
of Vishnu village. Separate images of the Fish Incarnation are rather rare. The majority 

of the separate images of the in car nations of Vishnu are those of the Boar, 
Man-lion, Dwarf and the Kalki. The images of the boar (Varaha) and the 
man-lion (Narasimha) are very common all over India, but the dwarf is com- 
paratively rare and the Trivikiama form, in which Vishnu covers the three 
worlds in three steps, is still rarer. The Fish and the Tortoise Incarnations 
are generally to be met with in slabs bearing representations of the ten incar- 
nations or in the tantric emblem of Vishnu, e.g., Vishnu-Yantras. I know of 
only one separate image of the Fish Incarnation namely the one in the palace 
of the Thakur at Sohagpur in the southern part of the Bewa State in Central 



165 MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 

India. 1 In type again the image of the Fish Incarnation at Bajrayogini 19 Mediaeval 

very peculiar. Ordinarily the Fish Incarnation is represented both on the 1 " 18 ^ 8 in he 

Dasavatara slabs and on the Vishnu-Yantras in the form of a simple fish. as ?"" f e 

In this particular case, we find the bust of the four-armed god issuing out Banerji 

of the neck of a large fish, which again is placed on an open lotus. The 

figure holds a mace in its upper left, a conch in the loWer left, and a wheel 

in the upper right hand. The fourth hand is broken but evidently it was 

either in the varadamudra or held a lotus. Two .small lotus flowers spring 

from the same stalk and on them Sarasvati stands to the left and Lakshmi 

to the right of the central figure. On the pedestal in the centre is the 

miniature figure of Garuda with a hala of curly hairs arranged over his head 

in the fashion peculiar to the Bengal School of sculpture. To the left is the 

bearded figure of the donor and to the right the kneeling figure of his 

consort. 

Another peculiar image (Plate XL (c)) was discovered in the same neigh- J Saiva image 
bourhood and was brought to my notice by Mr. Nalini Kanta Bhattasali of 
the Dacca Museum. This image is Saiva in character but I have riot been 
able to identify it. It consists of the phallic emblem of Siva, the top of the 
Imga being crowned with a lotus. The lingo, is carved in bold relief against 
a slab, the upper part of which is fashioned like the back-slab of an ordinary 
mediaeval image. Against this slab is carved a four-armed female figure, 
evidently Parvati, in a manner which suggests that the goddess is in co-itus 
with the phallus. The carving is decadent in style and evidently belongs to 
the second half of the twelfth century A.D. The goddess has four arms and 
holds a lotus in the upper right and a book in the upper left hands, while 
the two remaining hands are held in front of the breast in a posture resem- 
bling the dkyanamudra. This image was discovered in the village of Kagazi- 
para, close to the steamer station of Mirkadim on the Dhaleswari river. The 
present owner of the image has placed it over the funeral pyre of one of his 
relations. It is in an excellent state of preservation and with the exception 
of one end of the book (pustaka) and the tip of the nose of the main figure 
no other part is damaged. 

The Dacca Museum contains a number of wood carvings collected by Ancient wood 
Mr. N. K. Bhattasali. The finest specimen among them is a wooden cruciform < %^ l * r 1H 
capital with two brackets recovered from a mound in the village of Sonarang 
in the district of Dacca, noted for its deulharis or the remains of Hindu and 
Buddhist temples. This capital was carved out of a single block of wood and 
has a niche in the centre containing a small shrine enclosed within two pilasters 
and a trefoil arch, inside which is seated a four-armed figure of Vishnu. The 
carving has suffered a good deal and portions of the Wood have rotted away, 
but the beautifully carved border of the brackets is in an excellent state of 
preservation and contains a very fine piece of arabesque work of the tenth 
century A.D. The brackets themselves were carved as single volutes of the 

There is another image of thia kind in the anoient fort at Gftrbwa, District Allahabad (Ed.). 

Y2 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 156 

Mediaeval Corinthian type, but are now much worn. Below the volutes on each side 
! ?l. ? are two recessed corners, which once bore some sort of arabesque work, This 
Mr R D remarkable piece of carving shows that Wood was used, at least in Eastern 

Banerji Bengal in the construction of temples in the mediaeval period. The collection 

in the Dacca Museum contains another remarkable specimen of Wood carving 
in the shape of an image of Vishnu (Plate XL (d)). The outline of the figure 
shows clearly that it was carved in the middle of the twelfth century A.D. 
The implements held in the four hands are the mace, lotus, conch and wheel. 
It was discovered in the village of Muradnagar in the Tipperah district. 
MttalwMges w -jhe collection of metal images in the Dacca Museum has not received the 
Museum attention, which it deserves, in the past. The Curator has brought together a 

number of very fine metal images of the Bengal School of sculpture, which 
prove definitely that plastic art had developed independently in Eastern Bengal 
and was in a very flourishing condition in the eighth century A.D., when the 
sculpture of Magadha was still very crude. The best image of this collection 
is a figure of a female goddess with eight hands, seated on a lion throne 
(Plate XL (e)). The Curator is inclined to identify this figure as an image 
of Chandi. It was discovered at Sonarang in the Dacca District. Another 
fine image of a goddess (Plate XL (/)) which cannot be identified, comes from 
the Tipperah district and the oval shape of the halo shows that it is much 
earlier than the tenth century A.D. To the same class belongs a very fine 
image of the two-armed Avalokitesvara (Plate XXXIX (a)) discovered at Ban- 
darbazar in the Sylhet district, the elongated limbs of which prove that it 
belongs to the period of the renaissance of art in Bengal in the latter half of 
the tenth century A.D. when the Palas recovered their power under the leader- 
ship of Mahipala I, who united all parts of Bengal under his rule. 

To the same Museum belongs another fine image of Vishnu as Trivlkrama 
m his dwarf incarnation (Plate XXXIX (6)). The image belongs to the first 
half of the tenth century A.D. and is almost undamaged. The god stands 
on one leg while the other is pointed towards the sky in a very unnatural 
position. This position of the god is exactly similar to that of the same deity 
in the verandah of Cave No. IV (formerly No. Ill) at Badami in the Bijapur 
district. It has four hands and holds the mace and the wheel in the left hands 
while the upper right holds the conch. The remaining right hand is held 
near the breast. Near the foot of the main figure is a small basrelief showing 
king Bah seated on a throne and in front of him the dwarf with his particular 
symbol, the umbrella. A third figure is seen on the back slab and perhaps re- 
presents the sage BrihaBpati. This basrelief represents the gift of three steps 
of lancl to the dwarf by Bali, the god of the Daityas, after receiving which 
the dwarf suddenly assumed the form of an immense being (Virata-purusha) 
and proceeded to cover the heaven, the earth and the nether world in three 
steps. A similar basrelief is found in a similar position on an image, dedicated 
at Gaya in the 15th year of the king Nayapala of Bengal and still kept in the 
small temple of Narasimha in the courtyard of the Vishnupada temple at 
Gaya. The Dacca specimen was discovered at Joradeul in the Dacca district 



167 MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 

The credulity of the followers of the modern Hindu religion is shown Mediaeval 
by the way in which images of other sects and classes are worshipped in^niages in t 
their orthodox shrines. Inside the modern Hindu temple on the island * 5L f ri L * 
Umananda in the river Brahmaputra, opposite Gauhati, is a small Yab- Yum Banerjl 
figure, evidently of Tibetan origin, but worshipped as Siva and Durga. The A Tibeian 
little image is very small being about 3" in height. The god is of the fierce Bu^hist linage 
variety with long molars and two hands, while the crude figure of the female 
shows that it cannot be earlier in date than the eighteenth or the nineteenth 
century. The priests of the temple do not know at what date this image was 
brought into the temple. The legs of the pair are placed on the breasts of 
a prostrate male, and a female and a human skull arc represented in front 
of the crown on the head of the god. 

NOTE ON AN AHOM STONE PILLAR INSCRIPTION. 
(By Mr. K. N. Dikshit, M. A.) 

About three years ago, Mr O'Callaghan, Political Officer, Sadiya Frontier Note on an 
Tract, discovered a stone pillar broken in two pieces, lying in the bed of a A?. " 1 . s * on j e 
rivulet named Deopani, a tributary of the Dibong river, a few miles to thej*. 1 ^ *~ 

north-east of Sadiya. Mr. O'Callaghaii had the pillar brought to Sadiya a nd Mr< ^ >N> 
set up in the maidan close to his residence, taking care to refix the broken Dikshit 
fragments. The pillar has a square base and an hexagonal shaft tapering towards 
the top and crowned by a vase, over which appears the hood of a cobra with its 
body entwined round the shaft in bold relief. The inscription is incised verti- 
cally on the shaft of the pillar, including the tail of the cobra, and consists 
of three parts, the main document containing an agreement between the Dihin- 
gia Bar Gohain, the local plenipotentiary of the Ahom King and the Mishmis, 
a long one-line strip containing a postscript prohibiting the future rulers from 
breaking the agreement and another short strip in mixed characters. Impres- 
sions of the inscriptions Were sent to Rai Sahib Golap Chandra Barua, Deputy 
Inspector of Schools, Jorhat, who is the only living authority on the Ahom 
language, having been selected by Sir Edward Gait for training under a com- 
mittee of five old Deodhais or tribal priests of the Ahoms. The Rai Sahib 
has supplied the following summary of the inscriptions : " I, the Dihingia 
Bar Gohain, do engrave on the stone pillar and the coppei* plate these writings 
(on the strength of which) the Misimis are to dwell on the hills near the 
Dibong river with their temales, children, attendants and followers. They will 
occupy all the hills. They will give four basketfuls of poison and other things 
as tribute and keep watch over the body of the fat Gohain (Sadiya Khowa 
Gohain). If anybody happens to be in possession of and wishes to remain on 
both sites (of the hills), he is prohibited from encroachment. If anybody 
should dwell by the side of the hills, he will surely become a slave (of the 
Misimis). 

"I do proclaim wide that if anybody sits exalted (i.e., comes in power, 
i.e., becomes a ruler) he should not break (the agreement) and break the stone." 



MISCELLANEOUS NO1ES 



158 



Note on an 
&hom stone 
pillar 

inscription 
Mr. K. N. 
OUuhit 



Some Andhra 
Coins from 
the Quntur 
District 

Mr. C. R. 

Krishna- 
macharlu 



The poison of which the Mishmis stipulated to supply four baskets as 
tribute in consideration of the rights of occupation of the hills near the Dibong 
conceded to them, is most probably the Mishmi Bih, a kind of aconite, collected 
to this day by the various Mishmi tribes, e.g., Chulikata, Bebejiya, Digara and 
Miju Mishrais, from the outlying spurs of the Eastern Himalayas on and about 
the snow line. As the poison ia a very active one, and no reliable antidote 
against it J'H known, the Mishmis value it highly and offer only small quantities 
for wle, after their own requirements for medicinal purposes and anointing 
their arrows have been met. The date of the inscription is not known but 
it must be later than the first quarter of the sixteenth century, when the 
country around Sadiya first came under the occupation of the Ahom Kings 
of Assam under Su-hung-mung (circa 1524 A.D.). The inscription is the only 
known hthic record in the Ahom language and the pillar on which it occurs 
is a very interesting memento of the Ahom period of Assamese history. 

SOME ANDHRA COINS FROM THE GUNTUR DISTRICT. 
(By Mr. C. R. Krishnamackarlu, B.A.) 

The fifteen lead Andhra coins (Plate XIV (6)) noticed below were secured 
for me by my friend Mr. M. Kalidasu, Vakil, Guntur District, Madras Presi- 
dency, in the beginning of the year 1922. These were discovered, he tells 
me, in the village of Peiwnmh 1 in the Guntur Taluk, Guntur District, m a pot 
which came to light while earth was being dug near the outskirts of the 
village. The major portion of the other coins iound m the pot, which are also 
reported to have been of lead, are not forthcoming though 1 am not devoid 
of hope that the efforts being made for their recovery may yet succeed. The 
district of Guntur in which these coins have been found is rich in ancient 
antiquities. The monuments of Amaravati and Bhattiprolu are well known. 
The village of Konglamudi has given us a Prakrit copper-plate inscription of 
Maharaja Jayavarman, who cannot have been very distant m date from the 
Andhra kings Gautamiputra g&takarni and Vasishthiputra Pujumavi 2 . More 
recently a hoard of 304 lead coins of the Andhra kings has been found in 
the village of Manflur 8 . These coins have not yet been examined but it may be 
hoped that they will throw useful light on many obscure points in the history 
of the Andhra dynasty. The weights of the coins now under notice have been 
kindly ascertained and noted for me by the Archaeological Assistant, 
Government Museum, Madras. 

No. 7.- The coin belongs to the type of Nos. 88 and 89 of plate V of 
Prof. Rapson's Catalogue of the Indian Coins in the British Museum (1908) 
which bear the figure of a chatiya and an inscription on the obverse and the 
Ujjain symbol on the reverse. But it is of a lower denomination as indicated 
by its smaller size. The inscription, which is much worn, may be read as 
coin may be assigned to Vftsishtihiputra Sri Pujumavi, whose 

00 w ' th OKpftn " lve mouad ' Jn '*' violiuty - 



* ituftted Wlthw flftwn 



*p./nd.,Vol.VJ,p.315 
l P * 1 



159 MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 

coins 1 have already been found in the Krishna and the Godavari districts. Some Andhra 
The coin weighs 30-75 grs. Mntu"? 

No. 2. The coin, may be assigned to the series to which No. 90 of plate pj s(r j ct 
V of Rapson's Catalogue of Indian Coins belongs. The elephant symbol on the Mr> Ct R> 
obverse is clearly seen. But its trunk is lost. Faint traces of an inscription Krishna- 
over the animal remain, of which the letters gf 2 may be read. The Ujjain macharlu 
symbol on the reverse is entirely worn away. The coin is of a lower denomina- 
tion than Rapson's No. 90 and is therefore smaller in size. It may however 
be assigned to Sri Pujumavi. Compare also No. 18 of plate XXIII of V. A. 
Smith's Catalogue of the Coins in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, (1906). The 
weight of the coin is 34 grs. 

$0. 3. The coin belongs to the same series as Nos. 95 and 96 of Prof. 
Rapson's Catalogue (page 22). The ship with two masts on the obverse is 
clearly seen ; but as in No. 96, referred to, there are no traces of the inscription. 
The Ujjain symbol represented by four small circles or pellets is faintly seen 
on the reverse. The present coin is of a smaller size than even No. 96 which 
represents size 2 of the series catalogued by Prof. Rapson. The coin may 
perhaps be attributed to king Sri Pujumavi whose inscribed coins bear the 
same symbols as this com on the obverse and the reverse. The coin weighs 
39'75 grs. 

No. 4. The coin is of the same type as, though of a smaller size than, 
the horse-marked coins Nos. 126, 127 and 129 of plate VI of Prof. Rapson's 
Catalogue. The horse symbol is clearly seen, but the altar is not visible in this 
as also in Nos. 129 and G. P. 31 of Rapson's plate. The inscription above 
the animal which is preserved in part may be read as [TM] 3 - Tne Ujjain 
symbol on the reverse is worn but still discernible. The coin may be 
assigned to Sri Chandra Sata whose name on, coins appears as TC3TH 4 and 
whose coins (page 32 of Rapson's Catalogue) have already been found in the 
Krishna and the Godavari districts which adjoin the modern Guntur district 
where the coins under notice have been discovered. The coin weighs 25'5 grs. 

# . 5. The coin is of the same type and denomination as No. 134 of 
plate VI of Prof. Rapson's Catalogue. The chaitya symbol with the crescent 
surmounting it is clearly seen. The lotus flower aeems to be represented by a 
dot to the left while the conch-shell is shown on the right by a small irregular 
loop. The wavy line below the dwitya is lost but the right end of it appears 
to be carried up slightly and seen in the form of two specks. Part of the 
Ujjain symbol on the reverse is seen. The coin would belong to Oautamiputra 
Sri Yajna 8atakarni. It weighs 36 grs. 

No. 6. The coin has a horse cut on it facing the reader's right. Nos. 
148, 154 and G. P. 6 of Rapson's plate VI have the same animal. But the 
two former specimens have the crescent cut over the horse. Our coin which 
approximates to No. 154 in size and so must belong to the same denomination 

1 Rapson : Catalogue of the Indian Ooina in tke Brttith Museum, p, 20. 

;..,{putu]. 

i.^[8&3to[ga] 
* i. A., Ch*d*-S4t*. 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 



160 



Some Andhra seems to have the crescent cut near the hind legs of the animal. There are 



Coins from 
theGimtur 
District 
Mr, C. R. 



machftrlu 



Blight traceH of an inscription above the horse. Two of the four pellets of the 
Ujjain symbol are seen on the reverse. The coin must be ascribed to Gautami- 
putra Yajfia Satakarm to whom the allied coins noted above belong. It weighs 
39 KTH. 

No. 7. The com i*> of the type of No. 186 of Rapson's plate VII to 
which it approximates in size and resembles very much in cast. On our 
coin is preserved the lower part of the elephant's figure whose upraised trunk 
is obliterated. Of the worn-out inscription above the animal it is only possible 
to read n. The letters on either side of it are probably si and sd which 
could be part of the inscription ' Siri Satakanisa ' to whom Nos. 171 and 172 
of the plate belong. No. 185 of the plate, the king of which IK not known, 
has the same inscription as our coin and may have to be assigned with it to 
Sri Satakarni. The difference in size between Nos. 171 and 172 l on the one 
hand and Nos 186 and 186 and our com on the other, must be due to 
difference in denomination. The Ujjain symbol on the reverse is preserved 
almost as in No. 186. The coin weighs 43'5 grs. 

No. 8.- -The coin would belong to the type of No. 18 of plate XXIII 
of V. A. Smith's Catalogue to which it approximates in size and design. The 
elephant is almost in the same pose in both the coins but its trunk in our 
coin is lost. The inscription ' Pulumfi [vi] ' seen in Mr. Smith's coin, above the 
elephant, is Worn away in ours. The only other approximation to it in type 
is No. 183 of Kapson's plate VII. The weight of the coin is 42 grs. 

No. 9.- This coin which bears no inscription is of the same type as, but 
of a smaller size and denomination than, No. 183 of plate VII of Eapson which 
has been tentatively ascribed by Prof. Rapson to king ChaqLa Sata by taking 
the inscription on it to be part of ** Sin Chaolasa." On the reverse two of 
the four pellets that form the Ujjain symbol are seen very faintly. The weight 
of the coin is 39 grs. 

A*o. 10. The coin has the elephant with upraised trunk on the obverse 
and the Ujjain symbol is partly seen on the reverse. Above the elephant are 
worn traces of an inscription which may be restored as [TO]*( * The coin may 
perhaps be assigned to Satakarni with No. 185 of Rapson's plate. It weighs 
31 grs. 

A'o. 11. --The com is of the elephant type. Whether the trunk is hanging 
or upraised is not clear. The greater probability is that it is upraised. The 
coin bears traces of a worn-out inscription above the elephant. The Ujjain 
symbol on the reverse IB partly seen. The coin may have to be assigned to 
the series to which Nos. 185 and 186 of Rapaon'u plate VII belong. The 
weight of the com is 34-25 grs. 

1 No. 17.1 of Rapacn'g Catalogue (page 43) which is identical with No. 30 of plate I of Elliot'* Coins of Southern 
ln<tva, hao been taken both by Kir W Elliot and Pro! Rapaon to contain the elephant symbol A close examination 
w ould suggest the greater resemblance of the animal to a hone than to an elephant and so the com would belong to 
the king Yajfia gfttakaryi to whom No*. 148 and G.P. 6 of Hapton's plate VI belong. 

,.f.,[Sata]ka. 



161 MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 

No. 12.- -This belongs to the usual type with the elephant with upraised Some Andhra 
trunk on the obverse and the Ujjam avmbol on the reverse. There is <i damaged Coins from 

inscription above the elephant- which may perhaps In* rmd as [^Tf]?f * '^ e nktrict 
specimen would then belong to the king Satakarm to whom N 7 o 185 of KapBon 's Mr> c< R> 

plate with the inscription faft*H 2 has been attributed above bv mo. The KrUhna- 

' macharUi 

coin weighs 20 grs. 

No 13. -This coin is of the same size as No. 1!>7 of plate VJ1 of 
Rapson's Gatoloffw* off he 7WV/w Coin** but jn tvpe it approximates to No. 182 of 
the same plate The elephant symbol in (Hit exactly on the model of that of 
the latter. Of the four circles composing the* Ujjam symbol, represented on 
the obverse side, only two are een very faintlv No legend is traceable on 
eithei side of the coin 'I he smallnesn in size ot this c.ojn compared with 
No. 182 muet be due to excessive wear, The coin weighs 33 grs, 

No. 14.- -This coin would belong to the name type as No. 1J)7 of plate 
V1J of Kapson. It has no traces of any inscription. Hut the elephant symbol 
which has lost the head and the hanging trunk appears to have been of the 
same type as that on No 107 The reverse shows one of Ihe four circles 
which make up the U]jam symbol. The com weighs 32-5 grs. 

No 15. -The coin is much corroded bill bears clear traces of its symbols, 
viz., the elephant on the obverse and the Ujjam t*ynibol on tlie reverse, ft 
is difficult to determine whether the trunk is hanging or upraised. Above the 
elephant are indistinct traces of an inscription. The com weighs 17 grs. 



SECTION IX. 

INDIAN STATES WITH ARCHAEOLOGICAL DEPARTMENTS OF 
THEIR OWN. 

'" During the year under review " writes VI r. (i Ya/dum, Director of Hyderabad 
Archeology m Hyderabad (Ueccan), "an extensive prognimmo of conservation (" eccan / 
was carried out, the most important measures an usual relating to the paintings Vazdani 
at Ajanta. Previously reference has been made to the conservation of the f res- ^^^^j^,, 
coes by two Italian lestourateur*. Professor Lorenzo (Vcconi and (Jount. Orsini. 
The work executed by them is extremely satisfactory, but the relentless hand 
of time being always at work it is apprehended that despite all care bestowed 
upon them, these gems of India's ancient art and culture will one day be 
'Completely destroyed. His Rxalted Highness' s (rovernment is therefore most 
anxious to preserve for posterity a,n authentic record of the paintings by means 
of copies that will represent faithfully the original colour and line of the frts- 
coes. The preliminaries for this undertaking, tlurough the co-operation of Sir 
John Marshall and Sir AureJ Stem, have been fjompleted and estimates from 
various European firms of note are now under consideration. 

2. t.e.,8iri-Sft. 



INDIAN STATER 162 

Hyderabad " Two other important measures now being carried out at Ajanta also deserve 

(Ueccan) t/0 ^ e mentioned. The first is the laying out of a metalled road from the Farda- 

pur bungalow to the foot of the hill wherein the caves are situated. Hitherto^ 
fair-weather rod winch, in the tourist season, was kept sufficiently good for 
motor traffic has existed ; but during the rainy season, the road became almost 
inrpossible to drrve along even in a tonga. The work is being pushed on vigor- 
ounh and it is hoped that the road will be completed before the cold weather 
(1925) The estimated cost for the work is Rs. 1,20,000. 

*' The second measure relates to the building of a new approach to the 
caves. Till now visitors reached them by means of the steps built in front of 
cave No VI J ; but. during the rams, when the stream flowing at the foot of 
the hill IB full, visitors were laced with considerable difficulties. The new 
approach constructed at the eastern end of the hill enables the visitor to 
reach the caves without crossing the stream/' 

Kashmir Mr. Kak reports that funds for Archeology, which had stood at about 

Mr. R. c. Kak ^ s 14.000 for the previous vear, were reduced to only Ks. 100. He suyu, 
"In consequence of this the excavation works begun at Harvan, Martand and 
Kakapur cnme to n standstill and no new conservation or repair works could 
be taken in hnud The allotment >\a,B insufficient even tor winding up works 
which had been begun. The little that could be done consisted of the erection 
of a shed over the very valuable carved tile pavement found at Harvan and 
the replacement of the old fencing of the Avuntisvami temple enclosure bj r . 
new fence of more suitable design. 

fc 'A ne\\ site known as Hutakesvara in Malakhah, Siinagar, came into 
the possession of the Department owing to a dispute between the Hindus and 
Muhammadans over its ownership. The style of the architectural stones lying 
at the site or buried about it/ clearly stows that there was once a Hindu 
temple at the place, and Hindu tradition ascribes it to Hatakesvaia Bhaiiava 
one of the eight legendary guardians of the Srinagai city. The Musalmans, 
however, maintain that the place was the site of a mosque called Hara and 
point to several graves of which the tombstones are in situ as evidence. The 
Darbai, therefore, decided that the site should be made Over to the Archaeo- 
logical Department." 

Exploration " r ^ ne Archaeological Surveyor made tours through the northern pargana* 

of Lolab and Khuyahoma in the Uttarmachipura Tahsil and through the northern 
parts of the Baramula Tahsil. His reports deal mainly with the sculpture 
extant in those parts, since the larger architectural monuments had already 
been noticed by officials of the Archaeological Department. 

" Much of the Surveyor's time was occupied with literary work. A Memoir on 
Maiev-Wadwan, and a note on the Stone Age in Kashmir by Mr. Carter, I.C.S., 
were published, and are now available for sale. An article entitled : ' A Bird's 
Eye-View of Kashmir' was published in the Calcutta Review, another on "the 
Ancient and Medieval Architecture of Kashmir ' was Bent to the Rupam Art 
Journal for publication. An introduction to a Catalogue of manuscripts in the 
Library of liaja Sahib was prepared for the press, and a brief sketch of the Persian 



163 INDIAN STATES 

work, Gulab Nama, was a] BO made as a ready reference for the compilation of Kashmir 
a contemplated History of Kashmir." 

During the year of report conservation works were carried out at theGwaliOf 
following places at a total expenditure of KB. 29,534-1-0 which included a Garde" 3 * 
special grant for the Narwar Fort. Regarding the works undertaken Mr. Garde 
writes : 

" The woik of clearing d&biis from the Buddhist oaves at Bagh (District Conservation 
Amjhera) which has been going on for the last three or four years was brought ^ 
to completion. Caves Nos. 2, 3, 4 and 5, the only cave* in this group that 
are worthy or capable of being preserved, have now been cleaned up (Plate XL1). 
Caves Nos. 4 and 5 especially the former, which is also the most interesting 
in the series, now need masonry supports to prop up their ceilings, large spans 
of which are overhanging owing to the decay 01 disappearance of most of the 
original monobthic pillars. It is hoped to undertake this work ui the coining 
season. 

" The few but valuable fresoo paintings which still survive on the facade 
of cave No. 4 are seriously exposed to rain and weather, the roof of 
the verandah in front of them having fallen. Being situated nearly u hundred 
miles from, the nearest Railway Station Iliey re not easily accessible to those 
who mtiy be interested in them and the question, therefore, of removing them 
bodily and of exhibiting them at a central place such as G wall or has been 
engaging the attention of the Darbar Expert advice on this point was sought 
from the Director General of Archeology, who examined the frescoes in Febru- 
ary and advised that owing to the condition of the paintings their removal 
would be both unjustifiable and impracticable. The proposal has therefore 
been finally abandoned tmd it lias been decided to carry out the Director 
General's recommendation to erect a verandah of simple design in timber roofed 
over with tiles in front of the frescoes in order to protect them in their 
original position from the weather. An illustrated monograph on the caves with 
special reference to theii fresco paintings is being pubb'shed by the India Society 
of London on behalf of the Gwalior Government. 

" Plate XLII, figs, (a) and (6) illustrate certain measures of conservation Ujgoin 
carried out to the Samrat, Narivalaya and Digamsa Yattiras in Jaisingh's 
astronomical observatory at Ujjain. The repairs in question have already been 
described in the Annual Report for 1922-23. The photographs were not then 
available and are therefore published in this Report. 

" At Chanderi the rock-cut pass known as Katighati, the Delhi Darwaza, 
the small but beautiful tomb known as Shahzadi ka Roza, the Madrasa tomb 
.(Plate XLII (c)), the Battisi Baodi, a spacious step well built of chisel dressed 
stone masonry and the Badal Mahal Darwaza, a majestic gateway standing 
at the western foot of the Fort, were conserved. All these monuments date 
from the fifteenth century having been constructed during the reign of the 
Sultans of Mandu, as evidenced from the dated inscriptions recorded on most 
of them. Conservation measures carried out here consisted chiefly of clearing 
.jungle and Mbrte, tidying up surroundings, resetting displaced portions 



INDIAN STATES 164 



Gwalfor of masonry and architectural pieces. making roofs and tope of walla water-tight 

Mr. M.B. and providins; proper drainage arrangements. 

Gard * " Budhi (,'handen is the old site of Chanden, and appears to have been 



r 
80on a ter fh (1 |, rH f Muhammadan conquest of this part of the country. 

The town contained ,i number of Jain temples m three different groups which 
with the exception of one or two solitary examples, are now reduced to mere 
heaps of debris enveloped m thick jungle. Judging from the style of architec- 
ture and sculpture thev range in date from the 9th to the llth century. To 
conserve these temples IH n hopeless task but the ruins contain mam sculptures 
of Tirlharakaras winch both from the artistic and iconographic points of view 
are ol great interest and too good to be left uneared for As a preliminary 
measure the most important group Ivmg to the south-east corner of the site 
was cleared of jungle to facilitate a closer examination of the sculptures and 
carvings. The open courtyard of one of the two temples still standing in thib 
group was freed from jungle and debnt>, with which it was choked and the 
sculptures thus exposed in the debris or Ivmg scattered over the site were 
collected and arranged in order against the walls of the court forming a sort. 
of open an museum (Plate XLII (</)). It is proposed to pursue this same 
process in respect of the other important groups here 

" Within the walls of the hill fort of Narwar stand the nuns of an ex- 
tensive toxvn of the Kajput period, now practically deserted The eastern por- 
tion of the town is occupied l>v a group of nmhalit or residential palaces which 
would appear to huve been built bv the later Kachhavahas about 300 years 
ago. The style of architecture is Kajput, pillars being fluted and tapering and 
arches of multifoil design. The ceilings and roofs are all flat, no domes having 
been used. The walls and ceilings fho\\ remnants ot paintings in which men 
and women m Rajput costume are clearly distinguishable There is a series of 
enclosures forming separate units containing audience halls, baths, garden 
pavilions, harems \uth screened \\mdows and galleries and quite a number of 
swinging posts. One of the umliah known as the Kachehri Mahal, which pos- 
isesses some line ornamental plaster work inlaid with glass, part of which 
is set on the eastern verge of the Fort commanding a view of the vallev of the 
Sind river belovs, is being repaired bv the order of the late Maharaja for utili- 
sation as a rest house. Co-incident with this work the following were also 
carried out m connection with other old buildings of interest in the Fort. The 
approach road to the Kort was put m order One of the laige bastions flank- 
ing the road had fallen and blocked the road; this was repaired and the road 
cleared up. A fair-weather roadway was constructed between the Hawa Paul 
the topmost gate and the Kachehri Mahal Many of the palaces, which are of 
considerable architectural interest being in a state of disrepair and covered up 
with jungle were quite inaccessible to visitors. A footpath giving access to 
the more interesting Imildings and objects m the area has. therefore, been made after 
cutting strips of jungle clearing away heaps of dtbri*, which came in the way, 
and dismantling or repairing portions of masonry which appeared to be danger- 
ous to the safety of visitors The retaining walls of the old tank known as- 



105 INDIAN STATK8 

Makardiiaj Tal were repaired and the big mosque built by Sikandar LodiGwalior 
was freed from jungle and d&>ris and petty repairs were done to its parapet 
walls. The surroundings of the tomb known as Madar Shah ki Daigah wen* 
cleared and tidied up. 

" The work of clearing the courtyard of the Nilakanthesvar temple is in ffdat^ipur 
progress. The kachcha houses trespassing upon the old compound of the temple 
have been acquired by compensating the owners and the work of clearing them 
away will be taken in hand as soon as the rainy seasoi) is over. 

"Trial excavations were carried out in the year of report at Pawaya x/ferobMt 
situated at the confluence ot the Sindh and the Parvati rivers about 40 miles Sxmvaiwtu <*/ 
south-west of Gwalior. The site has been identified as that of the old city 
of Padmavati, one of the three capitals of the Nagas (See Annual Report 
for 1915-16, Part II, pages 101-4). It is a promising site for archaeological 
excavations as they are likely to throw light on the history of the Nagas (3rd- 
4th century A.D.) which is still veiled in obscurity. 

k4 The spot selected for the trial excavations this year is a conspicuous 
artificial mound about half a mile towards the north of the site of the tntv 
proper. This mdund measures nearly 200 feet by 200 feet by 30 feet (high). 
The area around it was studded with brickbats and the palm capital of a 
stone pillar had been discovered at its foot some years ago There was, there- 
fore, every reason to believe that the mound contained the ruins of an ancient 
structure 

" This hope was quickly realized an a few trenches sufficed to bring to 
light a large square platform 140 feet along each side surmounted by a smaller 
platform 56 feet square, both together rising to a height of 30 feet and solidly 
constructed with large well-baked bricks measuring 18"x9"x3" So far only 
the four corners of the structure, the whole of the east retaining wall and 
portions of the remaining three sides have been exposed (Plate XLIII (a)). 
The lower portion is strengthened at the base by a number of courses of 
footings which are absent in the upper platform their place being taken by a 
horizontal moulding relieved by vertical pilasters at suitable intervals The upper 
structure was further decorated with terracotta figures and panels, a number 
of which have been found in the excavations though none of them occupied 
their original positions (Plate XL1I1 (6)) 

" On the evidence so far disclosed it is difficult t-o determine the character 
of the building. The solid core and dimensions of the entire structure, point 
to its being a st.upa but as no Buddhist or Jaina antiquities have so far been 
found either in a well bored m the centre of the platform or anywhere else 
in the excavations carried out, it IB more reasonable to assume that it IK a 
Brahmanical temple, especially as several stone sculptures brought to light are 
of a distinctly Brahmanioal nature. One of these is a fragment of a large 
lintel of a Torana gateway on which the following subjects are depicted, (1) 
a patty of musicians, (2) Bali's sacrifice and Vishnu taking the three strides, 
(3) Karfelikeya and (4) the churning of the Ocean by the gods and the demons 
(Plate XLIII (a) & (d)). 



INDIAN STATES 



166 



Gwalior 

Mr. M. B. 

Garde 



Listing of 
monuments 



Buhla 






''The temple itself has disappeared. Further excavation may, however f 
reveal more remnants of its decorations, the gateway or gateways which gave 
accfeBH to the place, and last though not the least the stone column, the palm 
capital of which was found on the site some years ago (Annual Report, for 1915- 
1, Part II, plate LVTI, d). No coins of any kind were found in these excava- 
tions, The age of the building can however be approximately ascertained from 
the stone sculptures and brick mouldings referred to above which are definitely 
ttsHignable to the Early Gupta period. 

"In the year under report thirty-three monuments comprising temples, 
rork-c,ut sculptures, mahals, tombs, mosques, old Wells, Sati stones, etc,, Were 
inspected and listed at Ohanderi, Budhi Chanden, Lakhari, Bithla, Rakhetra, 
1 jttderi and (jurila ka pahad. Notable among the now discoveries are the Hindu 
and Jama rock sculptures at Rakhetra (better known locally as Bhiyadant), 
on the bank of the river Orr and the Jam temples at Bithla and on the hill 
known as (Jurila ka pahad. 

" The village of Bithla lies about 5 miles to the south-west of Budhi 
(lianderi. Some two furlongs to the north- West of the village is a group of 
Jaina temples Only one of these is standing at present, but there Were at 
least four other subsidiary shrines which are now merely marked by heaps of 
ruins. The former faces roughly towards the west. Jt consists of a shrine 
with a projecting entrance porch, the whole measuring externally 33'xl6'. 
Part of the back wall of the shrine and the sikhara have fallen down. The 
door frame is carved in the usual way. On the lintel are sculptured three 
Tirthamkaras in a row, the middle one being seated and the other two standing. 
The rest of the surface is carved with figures of the Navagrahai. Over the 
lintel is a frieze in the centre of which is an image of a seated four-armed 
goddess probably Padmavati with a figure of a seated Tirthamkara at cither end* 
The object of worship in the shrine is a large standing image of a Tirthamkara 
whose head is partly broken ofi. The cella also contains smaller statues of 
Tirthamkaras but as their pedestals are buried in the dfbns their lanchhanas 
or distinctive symbols are not visible and it Was therefore not possible to 
identify them during my short visit. 

"In the ruins of the attendant temples referred to above are seen carved 
pillars, door-jambs, lintels, roof slabs and a number of damaged images of 
Tirthamkaras including two which can be definitely identified as Sambhavanatha 
and Muuisuvrata from their lanchhanas the horse and the tortoise respectively. 
Judging from the style of construction the temples may be assigned 
approximately to the 12th century. 

" Within the limits of the village Rakhetra about two miles south-east of 
Bithla carved in the western face of a hill overlooking the Orr river in a 
series of rock-cut sculptures. The biggest sculpture in the group IB a seated 
image of the Jaina Tirthamkara Adinatha distinguished as such by a miniature 
figure of a bull carved on the seat and popularly known as Bhiyadant or 
Bhimasena. The height of the image is 10' 6* and the width at the base 
7' 6'. The head-dress is somewhat uncommon for a Jaina sculpture inasmuch as 



167 INDIAN STATUS 

it resembles the jaffi or matted hair of Siva. The head is flanked on either Gwalior 
side by an unfinished figure of an elephant and we notice on the right side 
of the Tirthamkara an image of the goddess Padmavati and on the left that 
of the goddess Chakresvari. On the seat is an inscription dated in V. S 
1675 and on the pedestal, a dJiarniachakra or the wheel of the law between 
two scenes of elephants fighting with lions. 

" At the point where this sculpture is carved, the face of the hill is 
chiselled into a right angle. The sculpture of Adinatha described above is 
carved on the arm of the right angle which faces the south. On the other arm 
which faces the West is carved a small niche crowned with a spire and enclosing 
a pair of foot-prints of Sri Visalaraja as is recorded in an inscription dated in 
V. S. 1555. The back wall of the niche is decorated With lotuses carved in 
relief while a swastika is carved in the floor on either side of the foot-prints 

" Sculptured on the fayadc of this same hill on both sides of the Jama 
group are a number of niches sheltering images or groups of images of Brab- 
manical deities, mostly Saivite. The latter include figures of (Janesa, four-armed 
Farvati seated on a crouching lion, groups of Hara-Gauri seated on their 
respective vehicles, Siva dancing (tandava] and a group, better finished than 
the rest, of the twelve-armed Siva dancing in the midst of his attendants and 
flanked on the right in a separate niche by Biahma and by Vihsnu in the 
boar incarnation on the left (Elate XL1II (c)) These Brahmanical sculptures 
though smaller in dimensions are better works of art than their Jaina neigh- 
bours and some five centuries earlier in date as shown by the accompanying 
inscriptions which date from the middle of the 10th centuiy A. D. 

"About eight miles to the south-east of Chanden is a lull known as Gurila Qunla ka pal. 
ka pahad, crowned with the ruins of two temples of the Digambara Jaina sect 
which stand in an enclosure of coarse rubble masonry One of these consists 
of a cella with an entrance porch facing the east. The shrine which has a 
hemispherical dome contains an image of Santinatha, 11 '9" high but broken in 
twain across the neck. 

" The other tempJe which faces the one just described is an oblong shrine 
with three entrance doors and a pillared verandah in front. It measures 20' x 
17' 3" externally and has a flat roof. There are in ail 26 images of Tirthamkaras 
(some standing, others seated) leaning against the three walls of the shrine. The 
central image is one of Adinatha ; the others cannot be identified in the absence 
of their laiwhhanas or distinctive emblems. The only inscription noticed in the 
temple is a portion of a pilgrim's record dated in V. S. 1307. The temple 
cannot bo later than this date. 

"Forty-eight inscriptions were noticed or copied during the year under Epigraphy 
report. Ot these 28 are in Sanskrit or Hindi, 10 in Arabic or Persian and l 
in French. Classified according to ruling dynasties two of these refer to early 
Hindu kingn, two to the Pathan kings of Delhi, seven to the Sultans of Malwa, 
six to the Mughal Emperors of Delhi, one to the Tonwar Rajput dynasty of 
Gwaliot and Narwar. one to the later Kachhawahas of Narwor, two to the 
Bundelu chiefs of Chanderi. one to the Soindias of Gwalior while the rest men- 



INDIAN STATES 168 

tiwalfor tion no king. They were discovered at Budhi Ohanderi, Chanderi, Khanpur, 

T^khan, Kakhetru and Singhpur (Diatnct Esagarh), Narwar Fort and town 
(District Narwar) and in (T]jain city. Out of these two, being loose slabs and 
not HI *?,*?/, have been removed to the museum while another which came from 
the Mochiwudu gate .it fTjjain dismantled by the City Improvement Trust is 
prewervcd tn the Madhav College, Ujjam. 

" Among the Sanskrit inscriptions one is important. It is incised on a 
rook tablet on the right bank of the river Orr within the limits of the village 
kakhetra, not far from the old site of Chanden. Jt is dated in V. H 999 
and again m V S. 1000 It has not been satisfactorily interpreted so far 
hut apparently it records the construction, at a cost of 95 or 96 crores of 
(coins v ). of some Hort of water works connected with the Orr river by 
Ymayakapaladeva . who wan probably the same UK is mentioned in the 
Diandela inscription at Khnjuroho dated m V. S 1011 1 . This place would thus 
appear to have been included in the diandela kingdom of the time. A king 
of Gopapin (Uwitlior), whose nume is not given, is, however, also mentioned, 
in connection with the works in <|uestion. 

"An inscription dated in V.S. 1124 found at Lakhan mentions a Maharaja - 
dhiraja Abhayadeva and his son prince fhandraditya, but neither of them is 
known so far from other sources. Two fragments of stone found at Ujjam 
appear to belong to a very large Sanskrit inscription of about the 10th or the 
llth century, which must have contained over two hundred verses written m 
the high-flown Kuvya style Unfortunately, however, the fragments discovered 
are too small to give any idea of the purport of the inscription 

k A MuHalmun inscription, which is dated m A. H. 711 (1311 A D.) is 
of importance as it furnishes the earliest date so far known for the new site 
of Ohanderi Altau-d-din conquered the old town or Ohanden in A. 1). 1304 and 
the town appears to have been shifted to its present, site almost immediately 
afterwards as the inscription under reference records the construction of a 
mosque on the new site only 7 years after this date. 

" 1407 coins were examined in the ycai undei report. Of these 5 were 
of gold, 101 of silver and 1301 of copper. All these coins with the exception 
of 95 silver and 229 copper coins winch were received from the State Museum 
as duplicates came from Treasure Trove finds. The gold coins were found at 
Sehora (District Esagarh) and the rest at Pungarpore (District Narwar) and 
Shajapur (District Shaiapur). All the 5 gold pieces, 53 silver and 63 copper 
coins or 121 m all have been acquired for the Archaeological Museum. 

"Of these the & gold pieces, belong to Chandiagupta 11 of the Gupta 
dynasty (A. I). 373-413) and are of the type represented in the Indian Museum 
Catalogue, plate XV. 12. Of the. silver coins 2 are of Shahjahan I (A. H. 
MXU) of the Delhi mint and 10 belong to later Mughals up to Shah AJam 
II. They range in date fiom A. H. 1207 to 1281 and were issued fiom the 
Benares and Bhuj mints. The rest of the silver and some of the copper coins 
were duplicates from the State Museum. Most of these belong to the Soiadia 

* Bpigrapkta Into*, VoL I, pp. 124 ft 



109 INDIAN STATES 

of Gwalior, European powers including England, France, Italy, Portugal . Gwalior 
Austria and America (U. 8. A.). The copper coins belong to the later Muglials 
or rather to the Indian States which were subordinate to them and represent 
Orchha, Bhopal, Kota, Bundi, Jaipur and Dhar. 

"Two stone inscriptions, one Sanskrit and the other Persian, eight stone A i 
sculptures, nineteen old paintings of the Mughal and Kajput schools, live gold, M * rwm 
fifty-three silver and sixty-three copper coins and about eighty minor anti- 
quities mostly brick mouldings unearthed in the excavations at Fawaya (old 
Padmavati) were added to the Museum in the year under report. 

" One sculpture in blank slate stone representing Hara-(iauri seated OH 
their respective vahancts was purchased from outside the Stale The remaining 
seven were acquired in different parts of the State All of them belong to the 
mediaeval period, the most conspicuous among them being the huge sculptures 
of Siva slaying (Jajasura, and his Sakti (Parvati) brought from Oyaraspur 
The specimen of the Matsya or fish incarnation acquired in the year of report 
completes the series of the ten incarnations of Vishnu in the Museum/' 

*' No works ot special repairs were undertaken in the Bhopal State during Bhopal 
the year but the Buddhist remains at ftanchi under the charge of Mr. (ihosal,Mr. B. Ghosal 
the State Superintendent of Archaeology, were maintained m a satisfactory 
manner. A number of small antiquities were added to the Museum," 



SECTION X. 

DEPARTMENTAL ROUTINE NOTES. 

ANCIENT MONUMENTS PRESERVATION ACT AND LISTING OP MONUMENTS. 

Khan Sahib Maulvi Zafar Hasan reports that m the United Provinces six United 
Muhammadan monuments and the Roman Catholic Church at Sardhana in the Province 
Meerut District, erected by the famous Begum Somru, were declared an protected 

during the year. He also states that seventeen monuments in the Province Delhi 
of Delhi were brought under the operation of the Ancient Monuments Preser- 
vation Act. 

In regard to the Punjab, Mr. Hargreaves writes "twelve Muhammadan Punjab 
monuments have been declared protected under the Ancient Monument* Preser- 
vation Act, seven m the Lahore District, two in the Sheikhupura District 
and one in each of the Jullundur, Attock and Hissar Districts. Two monu- 
ments, the Suraj Kund in the Gurgaon District and Man Singh's Haveli in the 
Fort at Bohtas, Jhelum District, which were formerly in charge of the Superin- 
tendent, Frontier Circle, Lave been transferred bo the list of Hindu and Buddhist 
Monuments. 

" The Deputy Commissioner of Hazara having reported the existence of a North- West 

rock inscription in the Agror Valley, Hazara District, the monument was Frontier 
inspected in November 1924 and found to be a large, firmly buried boulder Provlnce 
.lying in a small gtofl a mile to the south-west of Shahdaur Tillage, which latter 



DEPARTMENTAL ROUTINE NOTES 



170 



North-West 

Frontier 

Province 



Bombay 
Presidency 
and Sind 



ifc some four miles east of Oghi. This boulder is inscribed on the top and 
northern face. Photographs and estampages were taken and the latter submitted 
to the Government Epigraphist who reported that both inscriptions Were of 
Kushan dale and though fragmentary yet valuable. The Government of the 
North-West Frontier Province have therefore been requested to bring* this monu- 
ment under the operation of the Ancient Monuments Preservation Act. 

" A list of the protected monuments in the Frontier Province has been pre- 
paied and printed and the charge of all those appearing in the list has been 
accepted by the Central Government. 

" The ( ii aeco-Buddhist sculptures of Gandhara have always been greatly 
bought aftci by amateurs on the Frontier but since the formation of the 
Frontier Circle irregular excavations and traffic in these sculptures had almost 
ceased. Ah a result of the recent icvival in Europe of interest in Indian art 
a firm of dealers in London has been advertising in Indian newspapers 
offering to purchase authentic specimens of Gandhara art. This, has not failed 
to excite the cupidity of dealers and others and the traffic in Gandhara 
sculptures has again revived. In an endeavour to check this a notification 
under Section 17(1) of the Ancient Monuments Preservation Act has been 
issued prohibiting the bringing or taking into or out of the North- West Frontier 
Province any of these sculptures without the permission of the Superintendent, 
Frontier Circle." 

In the Bombay Presidency eleven additional monuments were added to the 
list of protected monuments, viz., the eight gates in the city wall at 
Ahmedabad, the Virabhadra temple at Hanagal in DharWar District and two 
other monuments in the Bi]apur District. 

Mr. Dik&hit reports that " in March 1921, certain wilful damage to the 
Portuguese remains in the fort at Bassein, was done by labourers employed 
by a firm of contractors for collecting stones for building purposes. The case 
was reported to the Collector and the Executive Engineer, Thana District, 
the latter officer taking up the case directed the contractors to make good the 
damage to the satisfaction of the Archaeological Department. The contract- 
ors failed to comply with the demand and the Executive Engineer realised a 
sum of Rf. 1,000 from them. It is hoped that this case may have a deterrent 
effect on other people and assist in preventing the use of ancient monuments 
as quarries for building material." 

With the discovery of an * Indo-Sumerian ' culture extending over Sind 
and the south-west of the Punjab, it has been found necessary to take stock 
of the ancient mounds and sites in Sind. The Collectors of the Districts of 
Karachi, Hyderabad, Nawabshah, Larkana and Sukkur and the Deputy Commis- 
sioner, Tpper Sind Frontier have been furnished with samples of antiquities 
from Mohenjo-daro in order to give them a rough idea of die kind of objects 
that may be expected to be found on the surfaces of ancient mounds, of the 
1 Indo-Sumerian ' period and they have been requested to supply any informa- 
tion concerning such mounds and sites that may be brought to their notice. 
Thus much interesting material has been already collected, but it will be necea- 



171 DEPARTMENTAL ROUTINE NOTES 

ary for an officer of the Archaeological Department to visit at leaat the more Bombay PresU 
important sites, before final action is taken. denc y **& 

In the Bihar and Orissa Province Mr. Page writes " four more monuments Bihar and 
Were notified as protected under the Ancient Monuments Preservation Act.^ r ' IS8a 
These Were three Buddhist images at Haweli Lalbagh near Jajpur in the 
Outtack District, which were notified under Section 3 (2), the famous " Kalinga 
Edict" of Asoka, with its rock-cut elephant, at Dhauli in the Khurda Sub- 
Division of the Puri District, the ancient Vedic burial mounds and the ruined 
fort of Nandangarh at Shikarpur, in the Champaran District and the mound 
known as Kanhaiyaji Mandir, together with an adjacent mound, in the village 
Banderjhulla in the Kishengunj Sub-Division of the Purnea District. 

"' In the Central Provinces and Berar eleven notifications were issued by Central 
the Local Government under the Act. In three of these the previous notifica- Provinces 
tions of protection were withdrawn, the monuments affected being the Temple an " Ber 
of Nilkanthi at Chhindwara, the old temple of Parasnath at Bhandak in the 
Chanda District, and the Old Fort, with its Dahibauda Gate and Fathiburj 
at Akola. 

" Revised notifications concerning these last two monuments were, however, 
issued, the revision being dictated in the former case by the fact that the 
old temple had been dismantled by the owner (who, since he used it. for re- 
ligious purposes and had entered into no agreement With Government under 
Section 5 of the Act, was thus free to do as he willed with the monument), 
and a new shrine had been erecled on its site. The revised notification Was 
issued under Section 18, and merely affects the fine image of Parasnath that 
had been re-installed in the new shrine. The revised notification respecting the 
Akola Fort was necessitated through the Municipality's demolishing one of the 
items of the original notification, the Fathiburj bastion. It re-affirms the pro- 
tection of the Dahibanda gate, the Hawa Khana bastion, a khirld gate below it, 
and another well-preserved bastion in its vicinity. 

" Notifications issued under Section 3 (3) confirmed as protected the city 
walls and the citadel of the old Mughal Fort of Khimlassa in the JSaugor Dis- 
trict, the city wall of Nawab Ismail Khan, together with its Haripura, Jiwan- 
pura and Dula Gates, and the Hauz Katora pavilion, at Kllichptir in the 
Amraoti District and in the Akola District the Arnbar Mahall, now used as 
a Dak Bungalow, in the Nam all a Fort. 

" In a notification dated 23rd November 1924 guardianship was assumed 
by the Commissioner, under Section 4 (C) of the Act, of the Ganpati Temple 
at Chanda, the Maroti Temple at Maroda, the Mahadeo Temple at Mahadwari, 
and an old temple at Palebaras, all in the Chanda District ; and the protection 
of the following temples in the same district was confirmed in a further notifica- 
tion under Section 3 (3) issued on the same date. The cave-like Temple at 
Maroda ; an old temple at Dhanora ; the Ekvira Temple at Ekoripura, Chanda ; 
the Someswara Temple and the Sankh-shaped well in Dadmahalpura, Chanda ; 
the Maroti Temple in Bhiwapurpeth, Chanda ; the Bam Tirtha rock-temple at 
Ballarpur ; the Mahadeo Temples at Naleswar, and at Warha, the two temples 

2A2 



DEPARTMENTAL ROUTINE NOTE8 



172 



Central 
Provinces 
and Bow 



Bengal 



Assam 



Burma 



to that deity at Gbosn, one of which contains an image of KeshvaBwamii 
the JKahadeo Temples at Bhejgaori at Rajgarh, and at Chandapur the Keshava- 
nath Temple at Chural ; the old tank with the remains of an ancient palace 
at Jnnona ; the group of cromlechs at Chamursi ; the Bhadranath Temple, the 
Bhawani Cave, the knoll with the rums of a carved temple, and the ruined 
temple and images on the side of the masonry tank, all at Bhandak ; the 
Mahadeo Temples at Kadholi, at Waghnakh, at Amdiliarba, and at Diwalwada ; 
the icniainn of several temples on the low hill at Gaoiara ; and the Earn dig 
temple and pool in the Nimdehla Forest." 

Three new monuments were added to the list of protected monuments in 
Bengal during the year and four Were removed from it. Mr. Banerji reports 
that " the former were the stone temple at Garui in the Burdwan district and 
two ancient mounds, containing ruins of the later Gupta period at Biharail 
and Dhanora in the Rajshahi district. Two modern buildings removed were 
the Hussaini Dalan and the tomb of Colombo Saheb in Dacca city. The 
owners of the mosque at Gurai in the Mymensing district having refused to 
allow the Government to repair this monument, it was removed from the list, 
and the mined temple at Devagram in the Nadia district was also removed 
as it has been practically rebuilt in recent times and is now to all intents 
and purposes no longer an ancient monument. 

" In Assam " Mr. Banerji continues " the temple of Hayagriva Madhava at 
Hajo in the Kamrup district was removed from the list of protected monu- 
ments owing to the refusal of the owners to enter into an agreement with the 
Government. A stone boundary pillar of the Ahom kings of Assam discovered 
near Sadiya on the north-eastern Frontier and described by Mr. K. N. Dikshit 
on page 1 57 ante was added to the list together with three guns, one of which 
bears an inscription concerning its manufacture in the reign of the Emperor Sher 
Shah. The remaining guns belonged to the river flotilla of the Mughal Empire 
and are of the swivel type." 

" In the Report for last year,'' writes Mon. Duroiselle, " reference was 
made to steps that were being taken for the declaration of certain inscription 
sheds as protected under the Ancient Monuments Preservation Act. These sheds 
have now been finally declared as protected and to the list have now been 
added during the year : 

(1) Andaw pagoda at Mrohaung, (2) Dukkanthein temple at Mrohaung 
and (3) Ratanabon pagoda at Mrohaung, all in the Akyab District. 
Steps are also being taken to add the following monuments at 
Pagan in the Myingyan District :-- 

(1) Shitthaung pagoda, (2) Thetkyamum temple, (3) Kondawgyi 
temple, (4) Pebingyaung pagoda, (6) Shinbinthalyaung, the 
recumbent image of the Buddha within the precincts of the 
Shwesandaw pagoda, (6) Patothamya temple, (7) The Than- 
dawgya image, (8) Kubyauk-gyi temple, (9) Abeyadana temple, 
(10) Payathonzu temple, (11) Thambula temple and (12) Nanda- 
manya temple. 



173 DEPARTMENTAL ROUTINE NOTES 

" Owing to their being inhabited and as a result always in danger of being Burma 
burnt down, the following wooden monasteries at Mandalay, which were on 
the list of protected monuments have been removed from that list, and the 
annual Government subsidy of Rs. 1,000 for their upkeep and maintenance 
has been withdrawn : 

(1) Shwensandaw Kyaung, (2) Thudama Kyaung, (3) Salin Kyaung, (4) 
Myadaung Kyaung or Queen's Monastery, (5) Sangyaung Monastery and 
(6) Taiktaw Kyaung. 

For the same reason the Sangyaung Monasteries at Amarapura have also been 
removed from the list. The Sandamani pagoda at Mandalay, which contains 
the tombs of King Mindon's brother and two other princes all oi whom lost 
their lives in the Myingun rebellion of 1866, and which is looked after by the 
hermit U Kanti has been removed from the list of monuments in Burma 
that are maintained by the Central Government." 



PUBLICATIONS. 

The following publications were issued by the Department during the year 
1924-25. : 

1. Urdu Translation Guide to Taxila, by Mohammad Hamid Kuraishi, 

B.A. 

2. Memoir No. 16. The Temple of Siva at Bhumara by Mr. R. D. 

Banerji, M.A. 

3. Memoir No. 17. The Pallava Architecture, Part I (Early Period) 

by Mr. A. H. Longhurst. 

4. Memoir No. 18. Hindu Astronomy by Mr. G. R. Kaye. 

5. Annual Report of the Archaeological Survey of India for 1921-22 by 

Dr. D. B. Spooner, B.A., PH.D. 

6. Index to the Annual Report of the Director General of Archaeology 

in India, Part II, 1902-3 to 1915-16 by Mr. G. R. Kaye. 

7. Archaeological Survey of India, New Imperial Series, Vol. XL1V. 

South Indian Inscriptions (Texts), Vol. IV by Rao Bahadur H. 
Krishna Sastri, B.A. 

8. The Siddhantas and the Indian Calendar by Mr. Robert Sewell, 

M.R.A.S. 

9. Guide to the Buddhist Ruins of Sarnath , 3rd edition by Rai Bahadur 

Daya Ram Sahni, M.A. 

10. Annual Progress Report of the Assistant Archaeological Superintendent 
for Epigraphy, Southern Circle, for the year ending 31st March 1924. 

11. Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XV, Part 8. 

12. Epigraphia Indica, Vol. XVII, Part 7. 

13. Annual Progress Report of the Superintendent, Archaeological Survey. 

Burma, for the year 1923-24. 

14. Epigraphia Indo-Moslemica for the year 1921-22. 



DEPARTMENTAL ROUTINE NOTES 



174 



In addition to the above there are several Memoirs and Monographs in the 
Press and efforts are being made to bring them out as soon as practicable. 

PHOTOGRAPHS. 

Director In the photographic section of the Director General of Archaeology's office 

General a tota i O f 5 $ negatives were taken. These consisted to a great extent of 

views of excavation sites and antiquities unearthed therefrom. 71 photographs 
* Were taken of antiquities from Mohenjo-daro, 36 of antiquities from Harappa 

and of the sites there and 145 of sites and antiquities including a hoard of 
jewelley and punch marked coins found at Taxila. Besides these over a 
hundred photographs were taken of the specimens of calligraphy in the Delhi 
Fort Museum concerning which Khan Sahib Maulvi Zafar Hasan is writing 
a monograph. About fifty photographs of representative monuments and 
sculptures at Sanchi and a hundred views of the monuments at Dhar and 
Mandu were also prepared. Over a thousand photographic prints received 
from the Archaeological Superintendents have been mounted in the albums 
kept for reference in the Central Archaeological Library. 

Northern Circle The Superintendent, Muhammadan and British, Monuments, reports that 
Agra his photographer exposed 154 negatives during the year and that the photographs 

consisted chiefly ot the ancient monuments at Kalpi, Irich and Lahtpur in the 
United Provinces, and at Delhi. Photographs were also taken in connection with 
conservation works at Delhi and Agra and 29 were of plans of certain monu- 
ments at Delhi prepared by his draftsmen. 

Lahore 105 negatives were exposed by the photographer of the Superintendent, 

Hindu and Buddhist Monuments, and consisted mainly of views of the excava- 
tions at Harappa which were under his supervision. A few photographs were 
also taken at Kasia and Sarnath and of the unexplored Buddhist mounds at 
Piprahwa in the Gorakhpur District, United Provinces. This office supplied 113 
photo-prints to the public on payment and 192 gratis to officers of the De- 
partment. 

'Frontier l n ^ ne Frontier Circle eighty-three negatives were prepared. Thirty-three 

Circle O f these were taken to record the condition of the Lahore Fort before 

conservation and twenty-five in connection With excavations at the Sampur 
Mound, Mastung, Baluchistan. The photographer also prepared for the office 
records six hundred prints from the negatives transferred to this circle from 
the Agra Office in 1923-24. Forty-six photographic prints to the value of 
Us. 18-7-0 were sold to private persons. 

Western Of the 397 photo-negatives added to the photographic collection of the 

Circle Western Circle, during the year, 223 were of the excavation works and anti- 

quities found at Mohenjo-daro and the remaining 174 concerned other monuments 
and antiquities in the Bombay Presidency. 588 photo-prints Were supplied to 
the various officers of the Survey during the year and a set of 205 prints 
representing the work of the previous year was submitted to the Government 
of Bombay by ^hoee instructions it was made over to the Prince of Wales 
Museum in Bombay for exhibition. The number of prints sold to the public 



175 DEPARTMENTAL ROUTINE NOTES 

during the year was 109, the sale-proceeds of which amounting to Ks. 60 being Western 
credited to Government. Circle 

In the Bihar and Orissa Province 164 photographs were taken during the Central Circle 
year, and 55 in the Central Provinces and Berar. Of the former the principal 
were those of the excavated remains at Nalanda, in Bihar, and the minor 
antiquities recovered on that site ; and a few more records were made of 
the Black Pagoda at Konarak, in Orissa. In the Central Provinces and Berar 
photographs were taken oi the somewhat inaccessible hill fort of Deogarh 
in the Chhmdwara District ; and of those monuments at Asirgarh and Burhanpur, 
in the Nimar District that were under repair. In addition, 971 photo-prints 
were made, of which 155 were supplied to the public ; and 126 estampages 
Were prepared of inscriptions, mostly at Nalanda. 

One hundred and eight negatives were added to the Eastern Circle collec- Eastern Circle 
tion. Of these, sixty-nine were taken in Bengal and thirty-nine in Assam 
The photographs taken during the year include a set of the specimens collected 
at different times by the Curator of Dacca Museum and now deposited in that 
Museum and of the later Mughal buildings in the Dacca city. A set of now 
photographs was taken of the oldest mosque in Bengal, i.e., that of Zafar Khan 
Ghazi at Tribem in the Hoogly District. In Assam the photographer was 
mainly occupied in taking photographs of the pre-Ahom sculptures at Tezpur 
and Gauhati. The revision of the list of photographic negatives belonging 
to this Circle was commenced but little progress was made owing to the sanction 
of privilege leave for three months to Mr. Iv. N. Dikshit and to his subsequent 
transfer to the Western Circle. 

In the Southern Circle only 21 new negatives were required as most of Southern 
the monuments inspected during the year had already been photographed during Circle 
previous tours. Altogether, 445 prints were prepared and of these 379 prints 
were supplied to the public at a cost of Es. 290 which amount has been remit- 
ted into the Local Treasury. The photo-albums are in good order and being 
kept strictly up-to-date. 

To the list of photographs prepared by the Superintendent, Archseological Burma Circle 
Survey, Burma Circle, there have been added 156 new photographs. They 
comprise amongst others views of the mounds excavated at Hmawza during the 
year and the * finds * made there. A large number of copies were taken of 
photographs of the members of the late Burmese Royal family, which were 
found in the possession of some of their descendants, and which Maung Maung 
Tin, a pensioner of the Burma Provincial Service, kindly procured on loan 
for this Department. Many of these photographs were taken on the Palace 
platform during King Mindon's time (1853-78), a special feature of them 
being that, they show the particular mode of dress worn by Burmese royalty 
in those days, in private as well as on state occasions. It is proposed to have 
enlargements made of the most important of these photographs and to hang 
them on the walls of the Museum on the Palace platform. 

In the Archaeological Section of the Indian Museum 61 photographic ne- Indian 
gativea were prepare and include seven of antiquities in the Maynrbhanj State. Museum 



DEPARTMENTAL ROUTINE NOTES 



170 



Assistant 79 photographic negatives were exposed by the photographer attached to 

Superintendent the office of the Assistant Superintendent for Epigraphy, Southern Circle, Madras. 

for Epigraphy, 

Southern 

Circle 

DRAWINGS. 



Director 
General of 
Archaeology. 
Northern 
Circle 

Agra 



frontier 
Circle 



Western 
Circle 



Central Circle 



The draftsman of the Director General's Office prepared eleven large draw- 
ings of the diggings and excavations at Taxila. 

The Superintendent at Agra reports that the survey of the monuments 
at, Delhi was still in progress. The two temporary draftsmen with the assist- 
ance oi the head draftsman of his office completed during the summer nine 
drawings of Wildings for which measurements had been taken during the 
previouh cold weather. In addition measurements of ten other buildings Were 
taken and thirteen pencil drawings of plans and sections made. Amongst 
these latter may be mentioned the tombs of Ghiyasu-d-Dm Tughlaq, Shah 
Alum, including the mosque attached, Kabiru-Din Auliya and Bahlol Lodi , the 
Satpula sluice and that with the bridge near Shah Alam's tomb and the bridge 
near Sikhandar Lodi's tomb. The second draftsman of the Agra Office was kept 
fully employed in the preparation of working drawings lequired for conserva- 
tion purposes. 

The draftsman in the Lahore Office made seven drawings of the excavations 
undertaken by the Superintendent at Harappa in the Montgomery District 
which he has described in the Exploration section of this Report. 

The Superintendent, Archaeological Survey, Frontier Circle, states that his 
draftsman was employed throughout the summer and autumn at the Lahore 
Fort in supervising the trial excavations there and preparing drawings of the 
archaeological buildings, courtyards and excavated areas. In order to obtain 
at an early date complete records of the archaeological buildings and their 
modern additions a temporary draftsman was appointed for seven months. 
Thirty-eight drawings in all were prepapred thirty-four being of Lahore Fort. 
Later the draftsman was engaged at the excavation at Mastung in Baluchistan 
(vide page 51) in connection with which he made the necessary drawings, two 
in number. 

Mr. Dikshit writes in respect of the Western Circle " during the year thirty 
new survey drawings were taken in hand, of which thirteen consisted of 
plans and other details of the buildings excavated at Mohenjo-daro in Sind, 
four plans of buildings exposed in the Shanwar Wada Palace at Poona and 
the remainder detailed plans of the group of temples at Un in the Indore 
State, Central India. These latter were required as illustrations for Mr. R. D. 
Banerji's Memoir on the Un temples. One unfinished drawing connected with 
the excavations at Mohenjo-daro in previous seasons and two of the buildings 
at Satara ataited last year were completed. Besides, several working plans 
were prepared in connection with conservation works in progress.' 

The drawings made in the Central Circle were of the excavated remains 
at Nalanda in Bihar, where the survey work of the previous years was con- 
tinued, and further sectional records and plans made of the several strata oi 



177 DEPARTMENTAL ROUTINE NOTES 

occupation" disclosed in Monastery No. I and of the monastic sites Nos. 4 and Central Circle 
5 to its north. Detail sections to a larger scale were also prepared of the 
walls and other features revealed through the sinking of pits to the bottommost 
foundations ; records being made in this way of the levels of the several struc- 
tures disclosed in the sanctuary of Monastery No. 4. Similar large-scale records 
were made of the earlier strata disclosed beneath the chaitya in Monastery 
No. I, as well as the later entrance gateway at the uppermost level between 
that monastery and site No. 5 adjoining it. 

Survey of this nature is indispensable for the elucidation of the remains, 
which are often so complicated m their incidence that they can only be rendered 
intelligible by careful correlation in plan, elevation and section ; and it is 
unfortunate that the work has been impeded through the lack of an adequate 
staff. However, the vacancy for a second draftsman, which remained open 
through tjie difficulty of obtaining a suitable man, has now been filled, and 
it is hoped that greater progress will be possible in future. 

In the Eastern Circle office the draftsman began a detailed plan of the Eastern Circle 
palace of the Ahom rajas at Garhgaon in the Sibsagar district of Assam. 
The plans of the temples of Siddeswar at Bahulara and Shyam Ray at Vishnu- 
pur in the Bankura district along with a plan of the area to be acquired at 
Paharpur for further excavations were completed by him. He also enlarged 
three sketches made by Major Mockier in 1871 of the dambp of Baluchistan 
for the purpose of illustrating Mi. R. B. Banerji'b Memoir on the first excava- 
tions at Mohenjo-daro. Plans of the rums at Tribeni and of the Lalbagh fort 
at Dacca Were begun during the year but could not be completed. 

In the office for Madras eight new drawings were prepared and a few plans Southern 
and tracings made for office record. The drawings are to serve ah illustrations Circle 
to Part II of Mr. Longhurst's Monograph on Pallava Architecture now under 
preparation. 

Nine drawings were added to the collection of drawings m the office of Burma Circle 
the Superintendent, Archseological Survey, Burma. They consisted of plans 
and sections of the Dhammayazika pagoda at Pagan, and additional plans and 
sections of the Ananda temple also at Pagan. A list of these is given in his 
Annual Report for 1924-25. 

PERSONNEL. 

Mr. J. F. Blakiston continued to officiate as Deputy Director General 
of Archeology vice Dr. D. B. Spooner, who remained on leave till the 15th 
July 1924, from which date Mr. Blakiston reverted to bis substantive appoint- 
ment as Superintendent, Archaeological Survey, Muhammadan and British Monu- 
ments, Northern Circle, and Khan Sahib Maulvi Zafar Hasan, who had been 
officiating for him, returned to the Director General's Office as Assistant Superin- 
tendent for Central India and Rajputana. Owing to the sudden illness of Dr. 
Spooner, Mr. Blakiston was again appointed to officiate as Deputy Director 
General 'from 12th January 1925, Mr. Dhama taking over the office of Superin- 
tendent Archaeological Survey, Muhammadan and British Monuments from him 

2 B 



DEPARTMENTAL KOTJTINB NOTES 178 

for a month until relieved by Khan Sahib Maulvi Zafar Hasan, who 'had beei* 
granted a few weeks' leave. On account of the untimely death on the 30th- 
Jlsnuary 1925 of Dr. Spooner, by which the Archaeological Department has 
suffered an almost irreparable loss, the officiating appointments above referred 
to were made permanent and Mr. B. L. Dhama, Excavation Assistant, was 
appointed Assistant Superintendent for Central India and Rajputana. 

Sir Aurel Stein, who was on six months' leave from February 1924, was after 
the expiry of this leave placed on deputation in England for a period of ten 
months in connection with the preparation of his book on Innermost Asia. 
Khan Bahadur Wasi-un-Din continued to hold charge of the Frontier Circle 
until relieved by Mr. H. Hargreaves on return from leave on the 31st October 
1924. There were no changes m the gazetted personnel of the Northern 
(Hindu and Buddhist Monuments), Southern and Burma Circles nor in the Indian 
Museum and Epigraphical Branch ; but Mr. R. D. Banerji on the expiry of 
his leave on medical certificate was transferred from the Western Circle, Poona, 
to the Eastern Circle, Calcutta, with effect from the 10th June 1924, and Mi. 
K. N. Dikshit the Superintendent, Eastern Circle, proceeded on three months* 
leave on the expiry of which he was appointed Superintendent of the Western 
Circle thereby relieving Mr. G. C. Chandra who had been officiating as 
Superintendent during the period Messrs. Banerji and Dikshit were on leave. 
Mr. G. C. Chandra then reverted to his substantive appointment as Assistant 
Superintendent m the Western Circle, Mr. M. S. Vats, who had been officiating 
for him, returning to his appointment of leave reservist. 

The titles of Khan Sahib and Rai Bahadur were conferred respectively 
upon Maulvi Zafar Hasan, Superintendent, Muhammadan and British Monu- 
ments, Northern Circle, Agra, and Mr. Ramaprasad Chanda, Superintendent^ 
Archaeological Section in the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 

,7. F. BLAKISTON. 



179 



APPENDIX A. 

t(a) SUMMARY OF EXPENDITURE ON ESTABLISHMENT, ALLOWANCES, ETC., EXCLUDING CONSERVA- 
TION. 



Original 
Allotment* 



Expenditure. 



(a) Director-General of Archaeology ....... 

(6) Superintendent, Muhammadan and British Monuments, including 
Delhi Museum and Fort Garden Staff. 

(c) Superintendent, Hindu and Buddhist Monuments 



(d) ,, Frontier Circle ..... 

(e) Western Circle 

</) Central Circle 

(g) Eastern Circle 

(A) Southern Circle 

() Burma Circle ..... 

()) Government Epigraphist for India .... 

(*) Assistant Superintendent for Epigraphy, Southern Circle 
'(0 Arolwsolofncal Chemist m India ..... 

(TT) Central Asian Antiquities Museum, Delhi 

(n) Superintendent, Archnological Section, Indian Museum . 



Bs. 

2,07,340 
52,480 
45,100 
30,680 
48,440 
44,050 
22,320 
29,090 
46,810 
49,340 
29,410 
10,550 
39,390 
28,510 



Rs. A. P. 

1,98,801 8 

50,629 12 5 

52,440 3 

26,946 9 

61,694 15 } 

39,343 2 6 

25,879 11 

24,366 10 

38,957 6 

43,578 14 )] 

27,919 1 

16,608 4 

20,581 11 

31,912 4 



6,90,110 



6,59,649 7 9 



180 

APPENDIX A contd. 

(a) EXPENDITURE ON ESTABLISHMENT, ETC., EXCLUDING CONSERVATION. 
Director-General of Archaeology *n India. 



1. Establishment 

() Pay of Officers 

Director-General, Deputy Director-General, Assistant Superintendent 
and Moslem EpigraphiKt. 

(6) Pay ot establishment- 

Superintendent, Excavation Assistant, Accountant, Clerks, Steno- 
Hiapheis, Librarian!*, Modeller, Photographer, Photo-printer, 
Draftsman, attendants and servants, Excavation coolies and 
temporary establishment. 

(C) Archaeological scholarships ........ 

2. Publications 

(a) Annual Report 

ffc) Epigiaphia Indo Moi-lemica ........ 

(c) Memoirs and other arrhcoloiptal publications ..... 

(<f) Sanchi Monograph 

3. Photography 

Photographs and phrtto-mntenals 

4. Library 

Purchase of booka .......... 

5. Contingencies-* 

Petty Bupplie* and servicea, IJveries and warm clothing, Kent, rates and 
taxes, Service postage and telegram charges, Conveyance of tents, 
stores and records, Office expenses and Miscellaneous. 

6. Purchase of antiquities ...... ... 

7. Allowances 

(a) Travelling allowance to officers ....... 

(6) Travelling allowance to establishment ... 

(c) Winter allowance 

(d) Oononensation for df-arnefis of provisions . ... 

8. Excavation at Taxila ... 

0. Special charge* 

Dr. KJHOW'B viwt to India 

TOTAL . 



07,420 



2,000 

7,800 
1,300 
3,000 
19,140 



14,400 



11,000 
13,800 
3,290 
910 
] 1,000 



2,07,840 



61,057 5 



41,574 3 0* 



13,112 10 0* 

246 
19.316 ff 6* 



2,360 15 



14,918 11 0* 



9,488 13 

8,921 10 

2,108 10 

11,000 



1,98,891 8 



* EMMA expentLtnre met by re-appropriation. 

t Re-appropriated lor Annual Report, Memoir* and other archaeological publications, excavation, 
travelling allowance. 



contingencies and 



181 

APPENDIX A oontd. 

(a) EXPENDITURE ON ESTABLISHMENT, arc., EXCLUDING OONSEBVATION-- contd. 
Northern CwcU(Muhammi*dan and British Monuments). 



Head*. 


Allotment. 


ExDenditore 


1. Establishment 


R*. 


He. A. r. 


(a) Pay of officers 






Superintendent ......... 


J 2,732 


11,412 14 


(6) Pay of Establishment 






Conservation Assistants, Munshl, Clerks, Accountant, Photographeis, 
Draftsmen and attendants 


15,040 


]fl,017 12 


(c) Pay of Superintendent, Historical Building!, Delhi FrrL and his stafl . 


7,800 


7,380 


2. Museums and Dak Bungalows 






(<i) Delhi Museum 






(i) Establishment 


3.620 


3,352 12 


(ii) Contingencies . ...... j 
(iii) Compensation for dearncss of provision* J 
(ft) Taj Museum, Agra , 


2,130 
+668 

100 
100 

250 

+100 


V 2,797 7 6 
^ Ntl 
1 39S 13 6 


(c) Dak Bungalow at Sikandra, Aura . .... 


250 


251 15 


3. Photography- 
Photographs and Photo materials ..... j 


750 
-|230 


? 939 12 


4* Library 
Purchase of books j 


200 

-I 560 


J ] 259 12 


5. Contingencies- 






Petty supplies and services 


50 

no 


38 12 
13 6 


Rent, rates and taxes . ...... I 


410 
100 


I T07 1 8 


and tele am char s ( 


800 
-200 


V 003 4 




000 


) 
518 1 




1,500 


1,366 1 9 


6. Allowances 
(a) Travelling allowance to officers . ....-] 

(61 Travelling allowance to Establishment 1 
(e) Compensation for dearness of provisions ... j 


2,800 

+WXJ 

2,540 

30 

30 


| a.OSfl 
! 1,085 1ft 


TOIAt . 


02,4RO 


50.829 12 ff 



182 
APPENDIX A contd. 

<o) EXPENDITURE ON ESTABLISHMENT, ETC., EXCLUDING CONSERVATION contd. 
Northern Circle~(Hindu and Buddhist Monuments). 



Head* 


Allotment*. 


Expenditure. 


1 Establishment 


R*. 


Rs. A. r. 


(a) Pay of officers 






Superintendent ......... 


16,430 


11,425 


(6) Fay of establishment 






Conservation Assistants, Pandite Mid Munehie, Clerks, Photographer, 
Draftsmen and Attendants. 


12,980 


12,874 3 


2. Museums 
Sarnath .... 5 


2,000 
4-859 


J 2,804 14 


3. Photography 
Photographs and photo materials . - j 
4. Library 


400 
-4-102 


> 822 2 


Purchase of books ...... 


300 


277 15 


6. Contingencies- 






Liveries and warm clottiing .... .... 


100 


Nil 


Rents, rates and taxes . . . 


2,190 


2,190 


Service postage stamps and telegram charges 


300 


313 3 


Conveyance of tents, stores, etc. . . ... 


800 


53 12 


Menml establishment char|tt . ... 


310 


336 


Purchase and repair of office furniture ...... 


7/50 


640 2 


Petty supplies and services .... ... 


150 
300 
-f 100 


116 4 
C 499 ft 


6. Allowances 






t) Travelling allowance to officers | 
(6) Travelling allowance to establishment .... 


2,400 
+1,000 
3,440 


} 3,238 2 
3,438 3 


( 


150 


f yn 


<> f J 


102 




<d) Componftatiojt for dee mess ol provisions ... j 
7. Exertion- 


100 
100 

2,000 


1 NU 
674 


f**itni . .... j- 
DeogaA - j 


1,800* 


24 4 


HMapp* 


4-ItJflO 


12,620 7 


Tor*r , 


MOfl 


82,440 8 



R^ppropztatedtoHarapp*. 



183 

APPENDIX A contd. 

(a) EXPENDITURE ON ESTABLISHMENT, ETC., EXCLUDING 
Frontier Circle. 



CONSERVATION COntd. 



Head*. 



Expenditure. 



1. Establishment 

(a) Pay of officers 

Superintendent ... . 

(b) Pay of establishment 

Clerks, Draftsman, Photographer, Modeller, Peons, etc. 

2. Photography 

Photographs and photo materials 

Petty supplies ... ... . 

3. Library 

Purchase of books 

4. Contingencies 

Purchase of stationery 

Liveries and warm clothing 

Service postage and telegram charges 

Conveyance of tents, stores and records 

Hot and cold weather charges 

Purchase of furniture 

Menial charges 

Office expenses and miscellaneous 

5. Allowances 

(a) Travelling allowance to officers s 

(b) Travelling allowance to establishment 

(o) Compensation for deameas of provisions 

6. Excavation 

Bampur (Martuog) Katat State, Baloohistan 



14,900 



0.140 



400 
100 



40 
350 
600 

60 

70 
760 



2,400 



TOTAL 



1,600 
+ 1,000 



+2,600 



30,230 



510 ,1 0- 

Nil 



20 12 O 

40 

350 

262 2 

141 11 

00 14 

73 

587 10 



3,353 9 

2,482 7 

Nil 

8,600 

20,946 



184 
APPENDIX A contd. 

(a) EXPENDITURE ON ESTABLISHMENT, KTO., EXCLUDING CONSERVATION COIlld. 

Western Cvrcte. 



Heads. 



Allotment*. 



1. Establishment- 

fa) Pay of officers 

() ^Superintendent 

(ii) Assistant Superintendent 

Leave salary ... 

(h) Pay of establishment- 

Clerks, Stenographer, Draftsmen, Photographer, peons, etc. 

Leave salary ........ 

2. Photography- 

Photographs and photo materials 

3. Library 

Purchase of books ........ 

4. Contingencies 

Liveries and warm clothing ...... 



Service postage and telegram charges . 
Conveyance of tents, stores and records 
Office expenses and miscellaneous 



l*urchase of furniture .... 
Purchase and repair of tents 
Petty supplies and services . 
C. Allowances 

(a) Travelling allowance of officers 
(i) Superintendent 
(ii) Anmtant Superintendent. 
(6) Travelling allowance oi Establishment 



(e) Hou^ rnt allowance 

(d) Compensation for dearnens of provisions 



R*. A. r. 

16,310 
6.260 
249 



10,730 

+249 o 

450 



1,000 
-f-496 10 



300 (i 
4-305 5 6 



130 

67 13 9 

1,200 

447 3 

2.000 

+ 217 1C 9 

400 

-| 786 1 6 

100 

+ 40 

+2,000 

100 

100 



4,000 



2,400 
+ 1,600 








2,000 
+ 17,257 11 6 



71,687 11 6 



12,728 8 



11,044 10 



oor> 5 c 

62 2 3 

752 13 

2,217 15 9 

1,182 4 3 

140 

2,000 



} * 



6,623 11 
3,983 4 
600 



19,267 11 6 



61,604 15 3 



185 
APPENDIX A contd. 

(O,) EXPKNIMTURTC ON KSTABLTSHMENT, ETC., BatOLDBlNO OONSKBVATION - COHtd. 

Central Circle. 



, 1, Establishment 

(a) Pay of offioei* - 

(i) Superintendent ^ 

(ii) Aaifetant Superintendent J 

Leave salary .......... 

(6) Pay of establishment 

Excavation Assistant, Accountant, Clerks, Photographer, Draftsmen, < 
Peons, etc I 

2. Photography 

Purchase of photo mater tab 

3. library 

Purchase of books 

4. Contingencies 

Telephone charges 

Liveries and warm clothing 

Kent*, rate* and taxes ......... 

Service, postage and telegram charges . ... 

Conveyance of tent*, stores and records . ... 

Office expense* and miaoellaneouw 

Menial charges ........... 

1'uMhase of furniture . 

Petty supplies and services ......... 

5. Allowances 

(a) Travelling allowance to officen . 

(6) Travelling allowance to establishment 

(o) House rent and otlier allowances 

(d) Compensation for dearnew of provisions 

0. Excavation- 

Exoavation at Nalanda, Kumrahar and Bafeadibagh 1 



TOTAL 



Allotments 



Kxpenditnm. 



12,100 
5,668 4 
241 3 (a) 



10,870 
1,000 (6) 



9,291) 



150 
100 
(WO 

1,200 
600 
90 
400 
100 

3.040 

2,800 

1,000 

50 

2,000 
+200 (rf) 



226 

158 

586 12 

454 

1,234 8 

428 5 

152 

53 8 

24 15 

2,891 g 

2,498 14 

mi ( 

21 11 O 

2,192 I 



43,3flO 



39,343 2 6 



(a) Leave ouarvmge pay for 17 days from 4th March 1094. 

(A) Ro-appropriated for oonervation and maiotaoMwe at Nalanda. 

(o) B0-o.pproprlfl.ted for oonaervatton and maintenance at Kalaada. 

(d) Be-apptvp-iated from tin head Upfewsp of Museum and bungalow aft Nalanda. 



2o 



186 
APPENDIX A contd. 

(a) EXPENDITUBK ON hSTABLISHMJSNT, ETC., EXCLUDING CONSERVATION CWltd. 

Ecmtern Circle. 



Heads. 



Expenditure. 



1. EHtabliBhment 

(a) Pay of officers 

Supermtendwnt ... ..... 

(6) Pay of establishment 

Clerks, Draftsman, Photograph**, Dnftri and Peons 

2. Photography 

Photograph* and photo materials ....... 3 

3. Library-- 

Purchase of bookn, etc. ....... 

4. Gontingeuoifw 

Telephone charges 

Liveries and warm clothing ......... 

Service portage and telegram charges 

Conveyance of tontu, stores and reoordfl ..... < 

Office expenses and miscellaneous . . . . . ] 

Purchase of furniture . 

Rents, rat* 1 *!, te. ........ 

Petty supplies and cervices ... . . . 

6. ADowaaoes 

(a) Travelling allowance to offi<wf. ...... 

(6) Travelling allowance to establishment ) 

(c^ House rent allowance to Superintendent ..... 



9,150 



6,180 



600 
+ 300 



7fiO 
^300 



690 
200 



600 
-100 



400 
160 



1.600 
+ 1,676 



640 
+924 



1,000 



10,46o O 



5,110 11 



187 8 

60 

300 

1,028 

349 2 u 

314 S 

266 7 O 

78 

3,276 

1,564 

1,505 Q 



24.920 



25,879 11 



187 
APPENDIX A contd. 

() EXPENDITURE ON ESTABUSHMBNT, KTO., EXCLUDING OONSBRV \TlON COVtid. 

Southern Circle. 



1. Establishment 

(a) Pay of officers 
Superintendent 



(6) Pay of the estabUshmenfr- 
Clerks, Draftsmen, peona 



2. Photography 

Put chase of pho'to-nmtenal 



Purchase of books 

4. Contingencies 

Liveries and warm clothing . 
Rente, rate* and taxes .... 
Service postage and telegrams 
Conveyance of tents, stores, etc. 
Office expenses and miscellaneous . 
Gleaning charges .... 

Purchase of furniture 

6, Purchase of antiquities .... 

-6, Allowances 

(a) Trv*Uin* allowance to offloen 

(fr) Tmvelling a9owaoe to estabUskne&t 



Allotments. Expenditure. 



15,600 



260 
960 
300 
400 
1,500 
100 

260 



1,800 



29,690 



3,704 8 



219 7 

960 

180 

136 14 

763 6 

96 

33 4> 



1,616 
714 



24,366 10 6 



2c2 



188 

APPENDIX A contd. 

(a) EXPENDITURE: os ESTABLISHMENT, ETC., EXCLUDING CONSERVATION contd. 
Burma Circle. 



Allotments. 



Expenditure. 



(a) Pay of offii 



Leave salary .......... 

(fr) Pay of establishment 

Aroh*olOjgioal scholarship . . 

Archaeological Assistant, Architectural Surveyor, Clerk*, Pandit, 
Draftsman, Artist, Photographer and Peons. 

Leave salary 

2. Publications 

3. Photography- 

Purchase of photographs and photographic materials 

4. Oontingencjoa 

Contract contingencies 

Rente, rates and taxes 

Petty suppliei and aarrioea 

5. AflowanoRB- 

() Travelling allowance to officer ....... 

(6) Travelling; allowance to establishment 

(e) Contingent allowance to Honorary Archaeological officer for Arakan and 
other aBowanou 

<tf) Honorarium 



16,200 
3,000 

1,930 
11,740 

300 
1,000 



ToTAt 



2,860 
960 
200 

2,400 
1,600 
*,**> 
1,000 

46,810 



[15,700 



876 

11,689 

82 11 

1,000 



2,712 15 

960 

180 

1,063 12 

1,872 15 

2,810 
fl*l 

38,957 ft 



189 

APPENDIX A cuntd. 

(a) EXPENDITURE ON ESIABLIBHMENT, BTC., EXOLUD^G OONBKXYAIIO:N 
Government Eytigraphtst. 



Heads. 














Rs. 


Ka A. P 


1. Establishment 








(a) Pay of officers 








(i) Government Epigraphwt 




27,430 


26,927 3 


(111) Assistant Superintendent for Epigraphy 




2,860 


1,3C1 IS 


(fr) Pay '.f establishment- 








Clerks ... ... 


. 


4,860 


3,880 6 10 


Attoadors and servants .... 




1,260 


1,163 1 


Leave salary . . 




260 


92 2 I 


Temporary establishment 




240 




2. PubUoations- 








() Honorarium to contributors 
(6) Reproduction of plates ... 


( 

( 


4,600 
l.OOOf 


f 1,079 14 4 
( 2,084 8 


. Library- 
Purchase of books, etc. .... 


1 


560 

-f-845 


878 14 1 


4. Contingencies 








Service postage and telegram charges . 




300 


208 4 6 




t" 


1,200 
1,000 


' 100 8 6 




J 


600 
200 


308 8 


oe pe 


I 








c 


500 
05 


404 8 




* 


2,400 


2,400 






180 


180 ft 




\ 


160 
100 




5. Allowances 


I 


1,200 

4-1,000 


2.044 7 


(b) Travelling allowance of establishment 


{ 


800 
450 
90 


907 IS 












TOTAL 


48,340 


43,578 14 11 



t Utilised by the Director-General. 



100 
APPENDIX A oontd. 

(a) EXPENDITURE ON ESTABLISHMENT, ETC , EXCLUDING CONSERVATION contd. 
Su'jterintendent for Epigraphy, Southern Circle. 



Head*. 


Allotments. 


Expenditure. 


1. BBtabliahmont- 


R, 


Rs. A. v. 


(a) Pa> of officers 






4ssi8tant Hupermtendent ...... 


0,360 


6,354 13 


Leave salary ........ -j 


f,60 


1 


(6) Pay <>t establishment 






(talk* 


1 2,520 


11.870 


Lnave salftiv . .... J 


f S 


( 758 10 


L 


0,280 


) 




100 


f 0,011 


m ** nrU * 




) 




450 


) 


Petty supplies and services . . J 


-] 100 


> r,4<5 15 


3. AttowanoeH 






C 


1,200 


\ 


(a) Travelling allowance of Assistant Superintendent J 


500 


f 499 3 


( 


] ,400 




(ty Travelling allowance of eeUbhshment j 


+.WO 


f 1,869 3 


TOTAL 


29.410 


27,919 1 



Archaeological Chemist 



Headn. 


AUotmentB. 


Expenditure. 


I. EBtabUhme^- 


Rs, 


RB. A. P. 


() Pay of offioera 
Arohteolngicnl Chcmiat ...... 


8 980 


8 982 4 


<*) Pay of eatbklwient 






Clerk. Laboratory Assistant and menial establishment 


2,020 


2,449 11 


2. Ufcrary- 

Purchasft of books, etc. ' 


200 

f 82 


> 282 




2,550 


f 1 966 


Purchase of, a4 freight of Chemicals and Apparatus, etc. ] 


1,000 
+350 


> 1,349 11 


(a) TrroHin KlbwMMe to Archseologic&l Chemist \ 


yoo 

+390 


> 1,319 3 


(my.raUi-J^^oetoe^bi.Bhmeut J 


240 
+60 


S26H ? 



( 






TOML . 




"** 4 < 



191 

APPENDIX A contd. 

(a) EXPENDITURE ON ESTABLISHMENT, ETC., BJMJLUDINO CONSERVATION 
CollecMffn and arrangement of the Central Asian Antiquities at DeUi-i. 



Heads. 


Allotment*. 


Bxpenditur* 


1. Establishment - 


R. 


R0 A. P. 


(o) Pay of officers 






1. Fiir Aurel Stem, K C.I.E. . ... 


17,480 


* 


2 Mr. F. H. Andrews . 


5,000 


5,000 


(b) Pay of establishment- 






Temporary establishment and craftsmen .... 


1,600 


1,015 2 


2. Contingencies 


12,810 


12,06ft 9 


3. Allowances 






Passage of Mi F. H. Andrews from England to India and back 


2,500 


2,600 


TOTAL . 


39,890 


20,581 11 



Indian Museum. 



Heads. 


Allotment*. 


Expenditure. 






Ra. 


Rs. A. 


p. 


1. Establishment 








(a) Pay of officers 


7,780 


7,064 8 





(6) Pay of establishment 


12,500 


12.605 5 





2. Purchase and acquisition of antiquities 4 


l.oOO 

+2RO 


] 1,748 10 


6 


8. C*ontingencioi ..... ... < 


3,000 
+2,000 
+390 
266 


t 6,133 H 


6 


4. Allowances 


l,ftOO 
390 


1 1,194 13 





(6) Travelling allowance for eaUbliahment \ 


640 
+21 

1,510 


5 
| 60 4 
1,505 





Grant notion6d for the oonatonotion of how-*^ ... 


+2,000 


2,000 





TOTAL . 


32,510 


31,912 4 






192 
APPENDIX A contd. 

(b) EXPENDITURE ON CONSERVATION. 
Ftumwary of expenditure on conservation works, etc., 1924-25. 



Provinces. 


Original 
Allotments. 


Expenditure. 


United Province*- 


Ks. 


Re A. r. 


Muhttmmadan and British Monument* . ... 


1,26,000 


1,32,033 


Hindu and Budtlhwt Monuments . 


25,887 


19,03ft 2 


Delhi . . . . 


92,800 


83,861 


Punjab 






Muhammadan and Bntish Monuments . 


60,289 


57,162 0{) 


Hindu and Buddhist Monuments . 


fiO,632 


32,922 3 


Murth-Wmt Frontier Pi ovmco ... ... 


9,670 


3,901 3 


Bombay . . - 


80,000 


84,221 


Bihar and Onssa 


17,387 


18,099 


Central Provm<*s and Beiar . . 


26,481 


24,799 


Bengal .... . 


24,000 


25,521 


AMMII . . . - .... 


9,349 


7,684 3 


MaJra. . . 


24,920 


21914. 13 


Coorp; ... .... 


600 


322 


Burma .... 


64,997 


(53,100 


Ajmer . . 


6,041 


6,642 3 6 


Chhatarpur State .... 


3,000 


3,000 


Reserve . ... 


30,247 (6) 




TOTAL 


0,62,200 


5,84,267 12 



(a) Excludes Rs. 20,550-4-6 grant foi gardens fiom Provincial Government. 
(6) Distribution from the Beaerv. 

Original Reserve 

Supplementary Reserve by sunenders ... , 



Nummary of Sxj>end*ton of St. 60,302. 



30,247 
30,055 

00,302 



(1) Conservation. 


Amount. 


(2) On other head*. 


** 




Ri. 




KB. 


United Province,* 


11,581 


1. Show-oaaeH, Indian Mutteum . 


2,000 


Punjab 
Bombay 
Bihar and Oti^a 
Central Provinces 


2,184 
8,430 
1,088 
1,200 


2. Annual Report and other Aroheo- 
logioal Publication.,. 
3. Photography 
4, Library . . 


lft.076 

400 
800 


Bengal 
Aiam 


2,897 
098 


5. Contingencies 
6. Purchase of antiquftteB 


73S 
2,500 


Madro- 
Ajrnor 


370 
189 


7. Travelling allowance 
8. Excavation . 


IJMO 
13,000 


TOTAL 


28,712 


TOMX, 


*M07 






GRAND TOTAL 


60419 



103 

APPENDIX A contd. 
(b) EXPENDITURE ON CONSERVATION. 
Northern Circle, Muhammadan and British Monuments. 



District. 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25. 


Amount spent 
year 1924-20. 


REMAKKS. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


fl 


7 








Ba. 


RB. 


Rs. A. p. 








OUCH. 














Special Repair* (non-recurring charge*) 
carried out by the Public Works 
Department. 










Agra . . 


Sikandra 


Conducting a tube -well at tho Ranch 
Muhal 


37,194 


2,005 


2,004 


In }?rogre- 


Do. . 


Tajganj . 


Replacing Uie existing underpiound 
road lighting cable at the Taj. 


0,304 


6,304 


5,400 


Completed. 


Meerut . 


Sardbana 


Special repairs to the cemetery . 


254 


2fi4 


219 


D... 


iLuoknow 


Lucfcmvw 


Special repairs to Raura-i-Kasmaui , 


7,fi27 


4,28fi 


5,487 


Completed. Tlia 
extra expenditure 
of RB 1,202 ha* 
bopn met oat of 
contribution grant 
of the Luck- 
now Huaawabad 
Trust 


Do. 


Do. . 


Renewing the w heels of one of the can- 
non at the Residency. 


132 


132 


112 


Completed 


Do. 


'Do. . 


Providing iron railings around the 
residency. 


9,839 


3,000 
(-8,000) 


} 


The work wa* not 
carried out and 
the allotment re- 
appropriatcd fo' 
special repaire to 
certain monu- 
ments at Lucknow 
damaged by flood*. 


Do. 


Do. . 


Special repairs \o certain monuments 
damaged by floods. 


4,783 


(+3,000) 


| 3,002 


In progreaa. 


Etawah 


AJitmal . 


Dismantling and rebuilding the front 
arch of the Ajitmal gateway. 


511 


fill 


498 


Completed. 


Do. 


Ekdil 


Special repair* to the gateway at 


132 


132 


127 


Do. 


JBenarea 


Benares . 


Certain improvement* in Aurangzeb'g 
mosque 


202 


202 


102 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. . 


Certain improvements to Battees 
Kharaba 


65 


65 


63 


ito. 






TOTAL . 




16,950 


17,104 








Agency charged @ 1ft per cent. 




3,218 


3,281 








TOTAL 




40,168 


20,426 





194 
APPENDIX A contd. 



DiiWoU 


Locality 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25. 


Amount spent 
daring the 
year 1924-25. 


REMARKS. 


i 


2 


3 


4 





6 


7 








Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. A. r. 








Tin t'Minj PUOVIM i>>- 01 \OIA AM> 










Agra . 


Ailta l-oil 


Ccttam woik- in the \Joti Masjul, 
Muohlu Hhuwtaii nivl .laluuigin 
Mahal 


UV,7 


(626) 


, , 


In progress. 


Do, 


KatchpurSikn 


Providing a pa\(d patlvwav TO the Harm 
Mahal 


r> or, 7 


l,0l 
( 4 l.Od'l) 


|j 101 


Completed 


Do. . 
Do 




Certain additions to ln> Office building 
of the Superintendent, Aichspoloaienl 
SuiVf\, Muhammadnn and British 
Monuments Northein Uule 






(>.(i07 


D<> 






of the platform of AkbaiS tomb and 
ntpp 1 -, sulmiM and we&t end of the 
uest <auf.e\vav 




( 2,060) 


j vuo o o 


Do 


Do. . 
Do. . 


Tojganj . 
Agta 


Acquisition of shops attached to Katra 
Kosham 

Hpecial repaus to the damage caused 
by flood and heavy rams to certain 
arehenologieal buildinfrs 


403 

fi.UOO 


4(>:t 

(408} 

5,000 

(+52II) 


] 5.020 


The work was not 
i an led out. 

Completed. 


Do. . 


Jagner . 


&lecial rejiaiio to the Jaunei Fort 


C.S8 


(4-088) 


| <i.'59 


Do. 


Meerut . 


Surdhana 


Flepans carried out by the Archbishop 
of Apia to the Roman Catholi* 
Church 


0.8JJ7 8 


2.SOH 


2,38 


Do. 






Pro\ idm enamelled notice boards f<r 
the Pioteoted monuments m the 
United Piovmces 


72--. 


(-1 725) 


> *1S>9 


Do 






To,,, . 




22.I8S 


22. 1, Ti!) 






















Annual Ropatri< (rtCuinnq charges) 
carrif'l out by Ihf /'ifWic Works 










Agra . 


ASIA 


Maintenance of elect) ical .nstallation 
at Tuj 


1,000 


1,900 


1,594 




Meerut . 


Meerut . 


T'unWShahpir .... 


130 


ISO 


91 




Do 


D.I. . 


Tomb of Abu Muhammad Khao 


100 


100 


100 




D.< 


Sarc'Lnna 


Cemrterj ..... 


244 


2U 


844 




Ahffarh . 


Tappal . 


Gnte\\n\ of the Fort 


10 


in 


11 








Currie'l -.ner 




2.390 


2,040 





195 
APPENDIX A c 



District. 


Locality. 


Name of work and description 


Amount 
of ganc- 
tioned 
estimate. 


Allotmen 
for the 
year 
1924-25 


Amotint Bpent 
during the 
y r 1924-20 


RBMUBKS, 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


3 


7 








Rs. 


Rs. 


Us. A. r. 








Brought forward 




L',390 


2,040 








THK VMT i.i> PROVISOES OF \OUA ASI> 
Odtm contd 














Annual Repairs (iecu nng charges) 
carried out l>y the Public Works 
Department- LtmUL 










.Mu7affarnay;ar 


Majheia . 


Tomb of Savyid Saif Khan and his 
mother Tomb of Diwnn Kayvid 
Mohammad Khan, Tomb of 8ay.\ul 
Husam. aNo ailed Savvid Hiajju 
Khun, Tomb uf Sa\ V id Umar Nm 
Khan and ()rtnonal well 


ISO 


100 


14H 




Bijnor 


Nnjibabad 


Xawab Najibu-d daubh's tomb 


144 


144 


144 




Allahabad - 


Allahabad 


Tomb of Kultivn Khutro, Tomli of 
KhnnroN mothci. Tomb of Khuwo'ij 
NHtii.Torobof Bibi Tamnlan Fn 
closure -wall ami ^atcwav oi Khu'.ro 


400 




400 




Do 


Do. 


/aniim Palace m the Fort 


-UK) 


3(Mr 


222 




Mirzapur 


Chimar . 


Iftikhat Khan'H t.>ml> 


300 


AlKi 


47 r> 




Benares 


Jionarcs . 


Auinntrob'a nx^que 


112 


11? 


111 




Ghimpur 


lliutn . 


St'inc lindyo 


15 


]r, 


15 




Jaunpur 


Jaunpnr . 


JamiMasjid 










Do. 


Do . 


Atala Masjid ..... 










Do 
Do 


Do 


Lai Darwara Mnjid 










Do. 


Do 


Jhinjri Masjid 










Do 
Do. 


Do. 
Di. 


Sharqi Kings' Tomb near .Tami \Janjid 
Hamnmm or TurUinh Bath 


> 1,200 


'* 


1,200 




Do. 


Do. 


firoz Shah's Ma^bara 










Do. 


Do 


Stone B-id^c over Gurati . 










Do. 


Do. . 


Rausca of Sher Zaman Khan 










Do. 


Do. 


Kings' Tomb at Macharhattn . 










Do. 


Do. . 


Stone lion 










AzJtmgarh 


Mchnajjar 


Daulat'jiTomb 


75 


75 


61 




Jalftun 


Kalpi . 


ChnurasiGumbDd .... 


4.W 


450 


419 




Cawnporw 


Cawnporo 


Savda Kothi monument 


90 


DO 


?8 




Farrukhftbad . 


Mau Baabida- 
bad. 


Tomb of Nawab Rachid Khan . 


15 


in 


15 








Carried over 




S.fttl 


5,32 s ; 



















196 

APPENDIX A contd. 



District. 


Locabty 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 


llotment 
for the 
year 


mount spent 


RHXAAKS. 








stimate. 


1924-25. 






1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 








Be. 


Rs. 


RS. A. F 








Brought forward 




5,841 


5,325 








'HE UNIT* D PHOVINOKS or AOXA AND 














UD ii -contd. 














Annual Repairs (recurring charges) 














earned out by the Public Work* 










FarruZthabad 


Curhar 


Department conoid. 
Well . . 


1C 


15 


10 




Do 


'haudhanapnr 


Tomb . ... 


If, 


15 


1400 




Fy/sbad 


Akhaipnr 


Mosque in the Fort 


jr. 


25 


J4 




KoJtanpur 


Haul. 


Mosque . ... 


00 


150 


51 




Locknow 


jucltnnw . 


Alain bagh House .... 


7(50 


7. r iO 


7.10 




Do. 


Do. . 


Chhatar Manzil palate fur Queens and 


3,800 


8,800 


3,780 








platforms 










Do. 


Do . 


'^arhat Baksh station Library 


1,2(M) 


1 ,200 


1,199 




Do. 


Do . 


tfrnl'sgate . ... 


16 


15 


12 




Do 


Do. 


Sikandar Bagh Buildings . 


300 


300 


27.'J 




Do. 


D . 


Kaiaai bagh gates 


HOO 


HOO 


800 




l>0. 


Do. 


Nadan Mahal and Ibrahim C!hishti' 


300 


300 


277 








Trtntb. 










Do. 


Do . 


Nasiruddm Hyder's Karbala . 


300 


300 


298 




Do. 


Do . 


Janab Aliya's tomb .... 


300 


300 


300 




Do. 


Do. . 


Qullstan.Mram .... 


540 


500 


459 




Do. 


Do. . 


Residency buildings and Caretakers' 


1,650 


1,650 


1,580 








quarters. 










Do. 


Do. . 


Bibiapur House .... 


300 


300 


263 




Da. 


Do. . 


Dilkusha palace .... 


300 


300 


299 




Dehi Dun . 


Dehra Dun 


Katanga monuments 


15 


15 


15 




fcUrdol . 


Malawaa 


Wells 


22 


22 


15 




Do. 


Shahabad 


Maqbara of Nawab Diler Khan . 


295 


295 


266 








TOTAL 




16,603 


16,025 








Agency charge* @ 19 per cent. 




3,193 


3,045 








TOTAL 




10896 


19,070 




Fyzabad 


Fyeabad 


Qulab Ban .... 


776 


500 


500 


The total erpendK 














ture incurred on- 














the annual repair* 
to Gulab Bar! 












TOTAL 




20,496 


19,570 


tomb at Fytabad 














amounted to Ba. 














776. the extra 














amount of Bt. 370 














baring been paid 

SrsSS 



197 
APPENDIX A eowfcL 



District. 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of sane* 
tioned 
estimate 


Allotment 
fur the 
year 
1924-25. 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-25. 


RmABXS. 


1 


2 


3 


4 





6 


7 








Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. A. r. 








THE UKTTKD PROVINCES or AGRA AWP 
OUDH contd. 














Annual Sepatra (recurring charges) 
earned out by the Archaeological De- 
partment. 










Agi* . 


Agra 


Roman Catholic cemetery 


600 


300 
(+250) 


\ 713 




Do. . 
Do 


Tajganj . 


Taj Buildings including gateways 


4.050 
9,950 


4,050 
6,800 


4.153 






gra 






( + 3,150) 


| 9,833 




Do. . 


Sikandra 


Akbar'sTomb .... 


2,800 


2,80Y> 


2,38 > 




Do. . 


Do. . 


Marjam'sTomb .... 


700 


700 


402 




Do. . 


Do. . 


Ranch Mahal 


70 


70 


59 




Do. . 


Agw 


Itimaduddaula's Tomb 


700 


700 


683 




Do. . 
Do. 


Do. . 
Do. 


Chini-ka-Rauza .... 


150 
6,150 


*150 
050 


163 




Do. . 


Do . 


Delhi Gate . ... 




(+4,500) 
(3,500) 


> 5,184 

(-^,557)* 

900 


Sale ptooeoda of 
old materials 
credited to the 
work. 


Do. . 


Do. . 


Kanagate Pulohanga Modi 


100 


100 


108 




Do. . 


Do. . 


Itban Khan's Tomb 


100 


100 


47 




Do. . 


Do. . 


Itbari Khan's Mosque 


20 


20 


12 




Do. . 
Do, 


Do. . 

Atrra Muttra 


Salabat Khan and Sadiq Khan'u Tomb* 


200 
50 


200 
50 


328 


- 




Road. 












JX>, . 


Agra . . 


Dhakri-ka-Mahal .... 


50 


50 


53 




Do, . 


Kachpura 


Humayun's Mosque 


50 


50 






Do. 


Agra . 


Jodh Bai's Chhattri. 


10 


10 






Do. 


Agra Muttra 
Road. 


Small Chhattri 


10 


10 






Do. . 


Ara . . 


Firoz Khan's Tomb .... 


300 


300 


266 




Do. . 


Do, . 


Office of Superintendent, Archaeological 
Survey, Mohammedan and Buddhist 
Monument*, Northern Circle. 


300 


350 


311 




Do. . 
Do. . 


Ffttehpnr Sikri. 
Itmadpnr 


ArohcBologioal Btuldingi . 
Barhia.kft.Tal 


6,500 
100 


5,500 
(+1,000) 

100 


] 7,191 
91 








Carried over 




28,460 


28.465 





198 
APPENDIX A contd. 



District. 


Locality 


Name "f work and description 


Amount 
of nanc- 
tioned 
estimate 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25. 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-25 


RSMASKS. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 








Rs 


Rs. 


Rs. A P. 








Brought forward 




28,460 


28,4 '16 o 








THE UNITED PROVINCES OF AQEA AND 














OUI>H crmtd. 














Anniud Repairs (recurring charges) 














carried nut by the Arfhmologieal 














Department contd 










MMTUt . 


Sardhana 


Roman Catholic Church . 


160 


IfiO 


160 




Cav.-npore 


Cawnpoie 


Memorial well ..... 


238 


238 


238 




Agra 


AJ a 


SiipnK "f uniform* to the Khaditna at 


200 


200 


200 n 








Taj, Sikandra and Itimad-ud-daulah. 














TOTAL 




29,048 


29,043 








GRAND TOTAL AITNUAI. BBPAIKS 






48,613 










Allotment for 


Amount spent 




District. 


locality. 


Name of work and description 


the year 


during the year 


REMARKS. 








1924-25. 


1924-25 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 








Rs. 


Rs. 








THE UNITED PROVISOES OK AQRA AMD 












OUDH concld. 












Maintetuince of gardens (recurring 












charges). 








^gra . - 


Agra . . 


Taj, Khau.i-Alam, Agra Fort, Itimad- 
ud-daulah, Chim-ka-Rauza, Earn 


1 










Bagh and Roman Catholic Ceme- 


| 










tery. 














}- 40,813 


29,126 




Do. , 


Sikandr* 


Akbar'stomb .... 


f 






JLuokuow 


Laoknow 


The Residency, Nadan Mahal and 
Ibrahim Chlahti's tomb. 


! 


7,b97 




AlUhsbad 


Allahabad 


Klmsro Bagh ..... 


3,000 


3,013 




Cawnpore 


Cawnpore 


Wheeler's entrenchment . 


1,000 


1,000 








TOTAL GARDEJTS 


44,813 


40,836 





SUMMABY. 

Speoi&l repaint earned out b\ the Public Works Department 
J>itto ditto Archaeological Department 

Annual rwp n carried oui by the Public Works De]>artmeiit . 
Ditto ditto Archwolopioal Department 

Gardonu ......... 



R0. 
20,425 
22,159 
19,570 
29,043 
40,836 



GRAND TOTAI WOK THIS UNITED PHOVISOKS o AGRA ASD OITDH 



190 

APPENDIX 



Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


Amount of 
sanctioned 
estimate. 


Allotment for 
the year 
1924-25 


Amount spent 
during the year 
1924-25 * 


REMARKS. 


1 


2 





4 


-> 


6 






KB. 


HH 


H,. 






DKLHT PKOVISOH 












Kpe(,ial Sequin* (nri recurring 












rktirfet) rarrifd out hi/ the, Public 












Work* Department 










Delhi 


C<mn<M'tlng tort with permanent 


t>,r.oo 


:v>o<> 


3.r,oi 


Completed 




irrigation M'ater supply 










Do 


Ocmsnrvation work at Shcr Shah'n 


10,000 


P,noo 


(> 38.', 


la piogiciw. 




patow ay 










Do 


Pro\idm teak wood doors to Shci 
Shah's mosque m Purana Qila 


1.0/>0 


i .or>o 




Not undertaken 


Do 


Pro M ding an olevatoi to replace the 
Htr'ani pump at Qutb 


B.4WI 


4,81 :t 


D.071 


Citiinpletod 


DC, 


Retired lav out and grassing ot the 
Saldaijan^ garden, 


8.050 


1 ,4J5 ) 

(4818)) 


2,031 


In progress 




TOTAL 




19,220 


,,, 






Agency charges (Uj 10 per cent. 




1,923 


1 ,501 






GBAND TOTAL SPECIAL REPAIRS. 




21,149 


,T., 






Annual Repairs (recurring charges) 
carrted out by the Publtc Works De- 












partment. 










Delhi 


1 Delhi Fort .... 










Do. 


2. Baradari in Roshanara Garden 










Do. 


3. Mutiny Memorial 










Do. 


4, Baoh near Pirgaib . 










Do. 


5 Chauburji mosque . 










Do. 


0. Gateway and mosque in Qudsia 












garden 










Do 


7. Kashmir gate 


14,340 


14,341 


14,070 




Do. 


8. Kotla Firo? Shah . 










Do. 


9. Abdul Nabi's mosque 










I>0 


JO, Kbairul Manazil 










Do. 


1 1. Purana QiUv .... 










J'U. 


12. Nili Chhatri .... 










JJo. 


1 3. Lai Bungalow 










Do, 


14. I*aKhan'*tomb . . . 


- 









200 
APPENDIX A contd. 



Lo0lty. 


Name of work and description 


Amount of 
sanctioned 
eatimate. 


Allotment for 
the year 
1924-25. 


Amount spent 

< " m &&r' 


E 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 






Ra. 


Us. 


R B . 






DJBLHI PHOVIVCE contd 












Annual Repair* (recurring charges 
earned a*t by the Public Work* 
Departmentr contd. 










Delhi 


15. Gateway Eu Halmia 


-> 








Do 


16. Humayun'ts tomb 










Do. 


17. Chaunsatb Khamba 










Do 


18. Lodi tombs 










Do 


19. Safdaijang's tomb . 










'Do. 


20 Moth ki-MaRjid 










Do 


21. Dome in Mubarak pur Kotla 


14,340 


14,341 


14,070 




Do. 


22 HaurKhaH 










Do. 


23 BijaiMandal 










Do 


24. Qutb buildings 










Do. 


25 KmrkiMasjid 










Do. 


26. GhiaHuddin TuRhlaq'a tomb 










Do. 


27. Koftd front of Taghlaqabad 
TOTAL . 












14,341 


14,070 




Agency chargrh (a~ 1 per rent . 
TOTAL ANKUAT, REPAIRS . 




1,434 


1,407 






15,775 


15,477 




Rs. 


B& 




Annual Repair* and maintenance earned out by the 
Archoxilogical Department 








IHtbi 


Two Temporary Draftsmen for survey work, at Rs. C5 
per mensem, for 12 months. 


1,320 


1,320 




Do. 


Travelling Allowance for above .... 


fiOO 
(-68) 


422 




IVo, 


Contingencies 1 or above ...... 


250 


248 




Do 


^rploration of the tomb of Ghiasuddin Toghlaq . 

TOTAL AKWUAL BBPAIBB . 
GUAUD TOT a AirsrrjAL REPAIBS . 


250 


244 




2,252 
18,07 


2,234 


17,711 



201 

APPENDIX A contd. 







Allotment 


Amount spent 




Locality. 


Name of work and description 


for the year 
1924-26. 


during the year 
1924-26. 


RUAIUU. 


1 





3 


4 









R. 


Rs. 






DMLHI PROVINCE rancid 










Maintenance of Gardens (recurring charges) 








-Delhi 


Kotla Firo Shah . . . 








Do, 


PuranaQila . ... 








Do. 


Humayun's tomb, Bu Hauma garden, laa Khan's tomb 
and Arab Serai 


. 40,000 


36,142 




Do. 


Safdar Jang's tomb 








<Do. 


Ham Khas . .... 








Do. 


Qutb gardeas ....... 


J 








Agency charges @ 10 per cent, on above . 


4,000 


3,614 






Unhltered water supply to tho Delhi Port Gardens . 


3,000 


3,060 






Delhi Fort Gardens. 










Pay of Mahs and other Horticultural expenses . 


3,106 


3,090 






Garden contingencies . ... 


1,000 


425 






Captain T. J. Campbell's contingent lea 


f 2,400 ) 
1 (-1,400) ) 


1,750 * 


* Thin includes Re. 
900 paid to Captain 




Bonus to Captain T J Campbell for the vear 1 924 


fiOO 


500 


T J Campbell and 
his staff on account 




Bonus to Captain T. J Campbell's staff for the year 1 924 


400 


400 


of their bonus tor 
the year 1923. 




TOTAL GARDENS . 


53,056 


48,981 





SUMMARY. 

Special Repair** carried out by Public Works Department . 

Annual Repairs earned out by Public Works Department . 

Annual Repairs and Maintenance carried out by the Archaeological Department 

Gardens 



GRAND TOTAL FOR THR DELHI PROVWOB 



Be. 

17,169 

15,477 

2,234 

48,981 

83,8(J1 



Summary of Expenditure on Conservation in the Northern Circle , Muhammadan and British Monuments. 



Frovince. 


Total amount, 
spent on 
Special Repairn 


Total amount 
spent on 
Annual Repairs. 


Total amount 
spent on the main- 
tenance 01 gardens. 


TrwAu. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


Cnited Prov*acs 
.Delhi Province 


Es. 

42.5M4 
17,19 


Rs, 

48,613 
17,711 


Bs. 

40,3 
48,981 


Ra. 
1.W33 

83,861 


TOTA1 . 


59,753 


66.324 


S9.817 


2.15,984 


GRAND TOTAL 








2,10,894 













202 

APPENDIX A contd. 

(6) EXPENDITURE ON CONSERVATION. 

Norfhnn Circle, Hindu and Buddhist Monuments. 



District 


Locality. 


1 
Name of work and description 


of sanc- 
tioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924.25. 


RKUAJUCB. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 








Ba. 


R s . 


Rs A. P. 








THE PUNJAB 














Spcnnl Mepatr/t (nan-recnrrtng charges) 
earned out by the Public Works 
Department 














Special repirn to 










Qurgacn 
Kangra 


Tughlaqto.d . 
Baijtiath > 


Surajkund 


10,570 
453 


2,000 
273 


1,405 
135 


Work stopped 

Completed 


Juelutn . 


Kat*8 . 


Satflbfiru temple? .... 


10.448 


5,000 




Funds re-appro- 
priated. 


EUngra 


Ambibeshwar . 


Temple ..... 


400 


400 






Do 


Nadu 


Gateway and temple 


140 


140 






Rawalpindi 


Taxila . 


Construction of Museum 


1 at ,784 


80,000 


16,798 


In progress 


Do. 


Do. 


Construction of a petrol and oil 

godown. 


334 


334 


2(13 


Bo. 






TOTAL 




38,147 


1 8,601 








Apenoy charges @ 19 per cent. . 






3,534 








TOTAK. 




88,147 


22,1 SB 








Special Htpaira (iwn-recvrring cJutrgt*) 
oarri4 ovt by eke Ankmohgieal 
Department 










Rawalpindi 


Taxila 


Maintenance of Police Guard 


1,617 


1,617 


1,617 




Lahore . 


Inhere 


Puu haec of Notice Board* 




700 


645 3 


In progre*fe 


Rawalpindi 


Taxila 


Special Connervation work (Director- 
Gonetul) 




3,000 


3,000 


Do 






TOTAL 




fi,817 


5,262 8 








QBAJTD TOTAL SPXOIAI, BBVAIRS 




5,817 


27,397 3 





203 

APPENDIX A contd* 



District. 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-26 


Amount spent 
doting the 
year 1024-25. 


RmtABK*. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 






THE PUNJAB concld. 


Rfl. 


Rs 


Its. A. * 








Annual Bepaws (recurring charge*) 
carried out by the Pubhc Works 
Department, 










Shahpur 
Do. 


Vijbi 
BLiora 


Ancient site . . 
Ditto .... 


} { 


50 
30 


i 74 




Do. 


Amb 


Temple in the Fort .... 


230 


350 


225 




Sialkot . 


Sialkot . 


TibhaJahan .... 


150 


150 


140 




Rawalpindi . 
Do. 


Mankiala 
Bballar . 


Buddhist Tope .... 
Ditto .... 


} "{ 


ir. 

10 


1 
X 22 




Jhelum . 
Do. . 
Do. . 
Do. . 


Katas . 
Malot . 
Rohtas . 
Katas . 


Satghara temple .... 
Temple ..... 
Raja Man Smgh'a Haveli . 
Sardar Han Singh's Haveli 


!- MlJ 

j I 


r>o 

300 
SO 

70 


1 

X W)8 




Gurgaon 


Taghlaqabad 


Surajkund 


250 


200 


182 




Do. 


Anekpur 


Masonry tank ..... 


100 


100 






Karnal . 


Thanesar 


Kaja Kara Ka Mound 


30 


30 


25 




Do. . 


Kaithal . 


Baoli ... . 


185 


180 


180 




Kangra 


Kangra . 


Temple in the Fort 


347 


340 


261 




Do. . 


Nurpur . 


Ditto .... 


19 


19 


19 




Do. . 


Bajaura . 


Basheshwar Mahadeo temple 


35 


32 


10 




Do . 


Kanhinra and 
Pathiar. 


Rook inscriptions .... 


10 


10 


10 




Lahore . 


Lahore . 


Maintenance of Electric installation in 
Aroheolofdcal Office. 
TOTAL 


4 


4 


400 






1,997 


1,086 


Rawalpindi . 


Tawla . 


Agency charges 19 per cent. . 

TOTAI, 

Annual maintenance of Museum, Monu- 
meate, etc. (Director General of 
Archeology). 
TOTAL ANNUAL BEFAIRB 






320 






.. 


2,006 




3,020 


3,520 




5..-517 


5,525 



SUMMARY. 

Special rflpaire carried out by the Public Work* Department . 

Special repairs earned out by the Archwologloal Department , 

Annual repaka carried out by the Public Work* Department . 

Annual repair, carried out % the Arohwological Department . 



TOTAL FOR THE PUNJAB 



Ha. A r. 

22,13f 

5,202 3 

2.005 O O 

*520 

82,922 3 

2*2 



204 
APPENDIX A- - contd. 



Dktriot. 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


of aanc- 
tioned 
estimate 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-26. 


REKABK& 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 








R. 


Rs. 


Rs. A. F. 








OUPCT 














tipetutl B'pairn (ncni -recurring charge*) 
Carried out by the Pnt>ln Work* 
Department 










Allahabad 


(3arh\va 


Special impairs to Fort and Monuments 


20,387 


5,000 


9, r ,8 1 


In progress 






Conservation of 










Almorn . 


Dwarahat 


Antiquitmtf 


13,780 


(5,845 


fi.842 7 


Completed 


Do . 


Do 


Minor antiquities 


9fl 


9fi 


90 O (i 


Do. 


Bonaros 


Sarnath 


Contitruition of a surface drain 


1 ,47fi 


714 


(iOt 


Do 


Etah . 


Bilsar . 


Conservation of Gupta rehcn 


1 ,03 


{ (-'iao'l 


| 382 


In pi ogress. 






TOAL 




13.555 


8,972 8 








Agency charges (3} 19 per eent 






1.705 








TOTAL 






10,677 8 




BeanreF 


Sarnath . 


Special Repairs (non -return ng charge*) 
carried out by the Archaeological 
Department 

Conservation of Buddhwt remains 




{ {-'859 


] 2,939 b 


In progress- 










ajid 
500) 
- 4,641 






Gowkhpur 


Kama 


Ditto ditto 




2,758-12 


1,029 8 


Do. 






Punhaso of Notice boards for Hindu 
and Buddhint MonumantH in Umt^H 
Provm- CH 




( 1,000 
( -f-136 


] 1,069 1 


Do. 






TOTAL 




12,904-12 


5,027 15 








ORAKD TOTAL SPKCIAL RT-PAIRS 




26,459-12 


15,706 7 








Annual Rtpatr\ (recurnnq rhargc*) 
oirnttl out 6f/ the PiMir WorLt 
Dejxtrtmfnt 










Dohra Dan 

Agrii 


KalM 
Agra 


JaHM^ant Sin^h ki Chhatri . 


00 
150 


37 
4-23 

150 


60 
128 




Wuttra . 


Bnndaban 


(Jo bind Deo temple . 


360 


360 


137 




Do . 


Do . 


Radha BallaW, t.-mplo 


120 


120 


56 




Do 


Do. 


Jugal Kishore temple 


120 


120 


78 


/ 






Canted over 




810 


469 


/ 



205 

APPENDIX A- contd. 



Dwfcriot. 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of aano- 
tioned 
estimate 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-25 


REMARKS. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 








R B 


RH. 


Ea ,A. P 








Brought forward 




810 


450 








UNITED PROVINCES OP AOHA AXD 
OUDH condd 














Annnil JBejwtrs (rmumng charges) 
earned ovl by the, Public Works 
Dppartme n t conoid 










Hamirpur 
Do. 
Do. 
Do 


Mahoba . 
Saknrn. . 
Do 
Do 


Tlahilva temple 
Jain temple 

Four Ohandolln tomples and small . 
masonry tank 
iirahmaniral temple 


37 

4 

:$ 


37 
4 

J 


^ 
k 55 A 

J 




Oorakhpur 


Kasia 


Buddhist remains 


172 


]72 


137 S 




Oonda, . 


Sahrth Maheth 


Ditto 


650 


550 


533 




Benares 


Rarnath . 


Ditto .... 


01 8 


918 


909 R 




Jhangi . 


Talhchat 


Fott , ... 


184 


184 


177 2 




Do. . 
Benares 


Chandpur and 
Dudbai 
Hhitri 


Tomples 
Asoka pillar 


400 


400 


40O 

12 




Do. 


Oo. 


Stone bridgn 






l. r > 




Hurdoi . 


Sandhi . 


Phnlmat i temple 






500 




Allahabad 


Carhwn . 


Fort 

TOTAL 
A.jrenoy charjzrB ^19 por cent. 
TOTAL AWNTTAI. BBPAIHS 






94 4 






3,100 


2,797 11 






532 






3,329 11 



SUMMARY. 

Special repairs carried out by the Public Works Department . 
Special repairs earned out by the Archaeological Department ' 
Annual repairs carried ont by tho Pnblin Works Department . 



Ks A P. 
10,077 8 
5,027 15 
3,329 11 



ORAND TOTAT, ro THK UNITED PROVINCE** OF Aon A AND Otfon 



10,030 2 



Summary of Expenditure on Conservation in the Northern Circle, Hindu and Buddhist Monuments. 



PovixrK 


Total amount apont on 
special repairs 


Total amount *pent on 
annual repairs. 


TOTAL. 


Punjab 


Rs. A. P. 
27,397 3 

15,70fl 7 


R.8 A. P. 

5,/52fl 
3,329 11 


Rs. A. r. 
32,922 3 

19.0.W 2 


TOTAL 


43,102 10 


8,854 11 


81.987 ft 


GRAND TOTAL 






Kk.Wl 5 



206 

APPENDIX A contd. 
(b) EXPENDITURE ON CONSERVATION. 
Frontier Circle, Muhammadan and British Monuments. 



District. 


Locality. 


Name of work and description 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25. 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1024-26. 


KEMAKKS. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 








Ra. 


Us. 


Ra A. r 








PUNJAB. 














Special Repairs (non-recumng charges) 
earned out by the Public Works 
Department. 










Shaikhupura . 


Shahdara 


Improvement to Asaf Khan'e Tomb . 


41,020 


1,050 


1,060 


Completed. 


Lahore . 
Do. . 


Lahore . 
Do. 


Making a syphon drain at Gulabi Gate- 
way. 

Purchasing of uniforms for chowkidare 


305 
378 


305 
378 


204 
331 


Do. 
Do 






employed at historical buildings. 










Do. . 


Do. . 


Chauburji Mosque .... 




f 3,000 
i ( 3,000} 


} 


Reappropnated 


Do . 


Do. . 


Acquisition of land from Railway 
Department in connection with 
Budhu's tomb at Lahore. 


466 


460 


460 


Completed 


Do. . 


Do. . 


Providing marble Balustrade to re- 
place existing iron railings to 
rampart top of SbaJamar Gardon. 


2,491 


2,483 


2,000 


Do. 






TOTAL 




4,676 


4,051 








Agency charge* @ 10 par cent. . 






770 








TOTAL 






4,821 




Lahore 


Lahore Fort 


Special Repair* (non-recurring charge*) 
corned out by the Archaeological 
Department. 

Conservation of Lahore Fort boild- 




r 10,000 

< <+ 1,500) 
L(~f-3,UUO) 


>H.800 

J 








TOTAL 




14,500 


14,800 








QKAWD TOTAL SPKOIAL RBPAIBS 




19.176 


1,821 





207 

APPENDIX A contd. 



District. 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
estimate. 


Allotmen 
for the 
year 
1924-25, 


Amount epen 
during the 
year 1924.25 


RCKAAKS. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 








RB. 


RB. 


Rs. A. P. 








Annual Repairs (recurring charges] 
carried out by the Public Work* 
Department. 










Campbellpore. 


Haan Abda] . 


Lala Rukh's Tomb .... 


1 








Do. 


Do. 


Abdul Hakim's Tomb 










Do. 


Loaar 


LosarBaoh .... 


V 046 


540 


287 




Do. 


Saidan . 


Saidan Baoh 










Do. 


Attook . 


Begam-ki-Sami .... 


J 








Jhelum . 


Rohtas . 


Rohtas Fort 


308 


300 


298 




Gujrat . 
Do. . 


Gujrat . 
Kharian . 


AkbariBaoh 
Aurangzeb Baoli .... 


} . 


284 


210 




Muxaffargarh. 


Muzafiargarh . 


Tomb of Tahir Khan Nahar 
Mosquo of Tahir Khan Nahar. 


] 208 


200 


164 




Gurgaon 


(lurgaon . 


Annual repairs to Kos Minars . 


160 


160 


73 




Rohtak 


Rohtak . 


Ditto ditto 


126 


120 


64 








Annual repairs to 










Rohtak 


Sonepat . 


Kliawaja Khfear'e Tomb 


133 


130 


B7 




Hi/war . 


Huaar . 


Muhammadan and British Monu- 
ments. 


734 


720 


719 




Jullundur 
Ludhiana 


Jullundur 
Ludhiana . 


Ditto ditto 
Kos Minars , 


691 
13 


890 
10 


195 
11 




Ambala 


Ambala . 


Ditto 


8 


5 


500 




Karnal . 


Karnal . 


Muhammadan and British Monu- 
ments. 


424 


415 


458 




Do. . 


Kala Arab 


Oblisk commemorating the 3rd 
Battle of Panipat. 


10 


10 


10 




Sheikhnpura . 


Shaadara 


Historical buildings 


15,995 


15,580 


15,490 




Lahore . 


Lahore . 


Mian Mir's Tomb . 


991 


900 


899 




Do. . 


Do. . 


Making a syphon with drain at 
GuSbi gateway. 


101 


101 


60 




Do. . 


Do. . 


Providing marble balustrade at 
8halmar garden*. 


155 


155 


47 




Do. . 


Do. . 


Rebuilding east wall of nonary 


990 


990 


900 








ga 














Carried orr 




21,570 


19.947 





208 
APPENDIX A contd. 



District. 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of aano- 
tioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1024-25. 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924.25. 


RHMABKS. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


6 


7 








R- 


R*. 


RS. A, T. 








Brought forward 




21,570 


19,947 








PUNJAB condd. 














Annual Repairs (recwnng charges) 














carried out by tie Public Works 














Department i-one!d. 














Annual Repairs t> 










Lahore 


Uhor, . 


Historical buildings in Lahore 










Do. 


Do. 


Shalamar gardens 










Do. 
Do. 


Do 
Do. 


Chauburji 
Budhu's Tomb 










Do. 


Do. 


Budhu ka Awa . 


> 6,H7 


5,690 


T>,87 




Do. 
Do. 


Do. 
Do. . 


Dai Angha'a mosque* 
Ah Mardan Khan^e Tomb 










Do. 


Do. 


Dai Anga's Tomb 










Do. 
Do. . 


Do. 
Do. 


Gulabi gateway . 
Baruwala Maqb&ra 










Do. . 


Do. 


Historical buildings in and outside 


7,867 


6,300 


6,130 








Lahore Fort. 










Jujranwala 


lamnagar 


Graves in Baradan 


27 


20 


16 




Imritsar 


Mile 273. 278 & 


Kns Minars .... 


42 


40 


41 






279 of G. T. 














R. 












urdaspur 


Batalfl. . 


Shamsher Khan'a Tomb 










Do. 


Lalauaur 


Takht-i-Akbari .... 


211 


200 


145 




tangra 


Dharamsala . 


Lord Elgin's Tomb 


20 


20 


20 




Shuikbupuro . 


hcikhupura 


Firan Munara and Tank 


827 


800 


814 








TOTAL 




33,640 


31,800 








Agency charges (2} 19 per cent. . 






6,041 








TOTAL ANNUAL RBFAIUS 






3^,841 








Gardens. 










^ahore . 


halamar 


Shalamar Gardens 




8,764 


8,128 1 




Do. . 


Ab or* 






1,300 


1,285 8 




heikhuputu 


ShaKdara 


shahdara gardens .... 




12,400 


11,130 11 








TOTAL OABDKKS , 






20,550 4 0* 


* This sum w*w 














provided from 














funds. 



SUMMARY 

Total special repair* carried o6 by the Public Works Department 
Total special works carried out by the Arohmologioftl Dapwtmnri 
Total Annual repairs carried out by the Public Works Depwtment 
Total Gardens (Provincial Fimde) 



GRAND TOTAL iron PUNJAB 




209 
APPENDIX A contd. 



District. 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
entimatr. 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25. 


Amount apent 
daring the 
year 1814-25. 


REMAKES. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


6 


7 








Rs. 


Rs. 


Rs. A. p. 








NOBTH-WBST FRONTIER PROVISOS). 














Spectal Repatfi (non-recurring eftoryw) 
carried out by the Archteologteal 
Department. 














Conservation of 










'Peshawar 
Do. 


Mai-dan Tehail . 
Do. 
Near Tazila 


Jamalgarhi Monuments 
Takht-i-Bahi .... 




2.9SO* 
3,600 


375 
1,000 


*Ra. 1,930 
B*. 1,000 surren- 
dered. 




















TOTAI, SFBOTAI, RBPAIBS 




6,430 


1,376 








Annual Repairs (recurring charge*) 
carried ovt by the Public Works 
Department. 










Peshawar 


Mardan Tehail . 


Takht-i-Bahi Monuments . 


380 


380 


76 




Do. 


Peshawar 


Annual Repairs to Aroheeologioal 
Office, Peshawar. 


235 


249 


200 








Agency charges at 24 J percent . 






141 








TOTAL . 




629 


717 








Annual Repairs (recurring charges) 
carried out by Ike Arch&ological 
Department. 










Peehawar 


Mardan Tehsil . 


Annual repair* and maintenance of 
Monuments at Jamalgarhi. 




380 


180 








Annual repairs to 










Do. 


SwabiTeh.il . 


Asota monument . ... 




50 


760 




Do. 


Mardan Tehgfl . 


Shahbazgarhi monument 




100 


700 




Hazara . 


Near Taxila . 


Annual repairs and maintenance charge 
of Jandial Monuments. 




280 


180 








Carried ovor 




810 


374 lit 


1 














2F 



210 
APPENDIX A contd. 



District. 


Locality 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
estimate 


Allotment 
for the 
vear 
1924-25 


Amount spent 
during tbe 
year 1924-25. 


REMARKS. 


1 


2 


i 


4 


r 


6 


7 








Rs 


Rs 


As A p. 








Brought forward 




810 


374 12 








NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE 
concld. 














Annual Bepatrs (recttrn(j charrjfi) 
carried out bit the Arclifrolorjical Jj? 
prirtment oontcl 














Annual repairs to 










Harara 


Near Taxila 


Jauliari monument 




846 


778 13 




Bo. . 


Do. 


Pippala .... 




230 


189 (1 




Do. . 


Do. 


Nikra 
TOTAL 
GRAND TOTAL ANNUAL REPAIRS 




632 


526 10 






2,518 


1,869 3 






2,586 3 



Special repairs carried out by the Archjpologicn! Department 
Annual repairs carried out by tho Public WorkB Department 
Annual repairs carried out by tho Amhseologioa] Department 



GRAND TOTAL FOR NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE 



Rs. A. r 

1,375 

717 

1,869 3 

3.961 3 



Summary of Expenditure on Conservation in the Frontier Circle 



PROVINCE. 


Total amount spent on 
special repairs. 


Total amount spent on 
annual repairs. 


TO,A, 




Rs. A. P. 
19,321 


Rs. A. p. 
37,841 o 


He. A. f . 
67,162 


North-Wea< Frontier Province 


1,375 


2,586 3 


3,961 3 


TOTAL 


20,696 


40,427 3 


61,123 3 


GRANTD TOTAL 




.... 


eu* a o 



211 

APPENDIX A. 

(6) EXPENDITURE ON CONSERVATION. 
Western Circle. 



Dfrtrfet 
'P. W. D.) 


Locality. 


Kame of work and description. 


Amount 

of Hani - 
tioned 
estimate 


Allotment 
for the 
yaar 
lP24-2r>. 


year 1924-25. 


RKMABKS. 


1 


2 


S 


4 


5 





7 






BOMBAY PRESIDENCY INCLUDING Sum 


R& 


Ra 


Ra A. r. 








Ftperial Repaint (non-recvrnnff r.hargei) 
carried wit by the Pubhr Worl* 
Department. 










Kaira and 
P a n c h 
Mahals. 


Mohmedabad . 


Bhamana well (Total expenditure 
incurred up to date is Rs 4.644) 


7,TO7 
(rcviaod) 


52,000 
-{ 1,650 


3,49 


In progress, 


.Bijapur 


Bijapur 


Uol (lumbaz (nlling n cracks). (Total 
expenditure up to date is RH 3,390) 


H.87S 

(revised) 


2,000 

-I-400 


2,400 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. . 


Gagati Mahal. {Total expenditure up 
to date is Rs 9,397) 


ll.5S 

(2 eati 
maten) 


200 

as 


138 


Completed. 


Do. 


Do 


Badi Kaman (Total expenditure up 
to date is Rs. 1,95(1) 


2,27] 


1,000 

+ 85 


1 ,08(J 


In progress. 


Do. 


Do. . 


Asar Mahal. (Total expenditure up 
to date 10 H 2,525). 


2,<t75 
(revised) 


186 


18(5 


Completed. 


Do. 


Torvi . 


Nari Mahal (Total expenditure up 
to date is Rs,. 1,528) 


4,040 


1,000 
179 
+02 


883 


In progress. 


Do 


Badami . 


Temple on the hill (Total oxpendi 
ture up to date is Rs. 521) 


1,039 


63 b 

- 485 


95 Q 


DC. 


Do. 


Do. . 


Cavoa (parapet walls). (Total expen 
diture up to date is RH 81). 


1,227 
(revmed) 


498 


542 


Completed. 


Do 


Bijapur . 


Hydn or Upli Burudj 


290 


272 


272 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. . 


Tank at Asar Mahu! 


070 


40O 
+ 179 


578 


Do. 


Do. 


Aihoh and 
PattadkaL 


Surveying and preparing plar.B for the 
acquisition of land for the preserva- 
tion of temples. 


05 


WS 


95 


Do. 


Do. 

Presidency 


Aiholi . 
Gharapun 


Charanti Math 

Makir.g certain improvement* in the 
water cistern in Cave 35<>. 1 


1.138 
(2 estim- 
ates). 
3,437 


7J 
3f.O 

3,35S 


385 
3,430 


In progress. 
Completed. 


Ahmedabad . 


Dholka . 


Khan Masjid. (Total expenditure up 
to date IB Rs. 13,385). 


8,568 
5,873 


1,000 


999 


Do 


Do. 


Ahmedabad . 


Renewing the roof over the oaietakerV 
quarters in Aohyut Bibi's Mosque 


219 


219 


218 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Renewing the decayed posts and fixing 
the enamelled notice boards in 
Ahmedabad District. 


132 


132 


125 O 


Do, 


Sholapur 


Sliolapur fort . 


The rampart walls near the temple, 
(Total expenditure incurred up to 
dateiaRB. 1,883). 

Calmed over 


2,134 


835 
41 


784 


Dii 




15,840 


15,86$ 





212 

APPENDIX A contd. 



(P. W. D.) 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 
for the 
vear 
1924-25 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-26. 


RmUBKB. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 








RB. 


Rs 


R8. A. P. 








Brought forward 




16.840 


15,865 








BOMBAY PKESXDENCY INOLUDINO BIND 
contd 
8p a ctal Repairs (nam-recvmng charges) 
carried out by the Fvbltc Works 
Department aontd. 










Kanara 


Bhatkal . 


Narasimha Devasthan. (Total expen- 
diture incurred up to date IB 
Rs 1,891). 


2,064 


558 


466 


In progress 


Karachi Build - 
rngf 


Hyderabad Fort 


Harem of Mire (walls of platform). 
(Total expenditure incurred up to 
date in RB. 1,355) 


1,437 

(revised) 


518 
-(-303 


821 


Completed 


Oovt House 


Pratapgad 


Afzul Khan's tomb 


900 


900 


900 


Do 


Ahmednagar . 


Ahmednagar . 


Niyamat Khan'e Palace . 


69 


59 


57 


Do. 


Batara . 


Satara . 


Fixing up enamelled notice boards to 
protected monuments. 


52 


52 


48 


Do. 


Eastern Nara 


Naokot . 


Fort . ... 
TOTAL 

Agency charges allotted @ 23 per cent, 
and apportioned on pro-rata basis. 

TOTAL 

Special Repairs (non-recurring charges) 
carried mtt by ftc Archaeological 
Department 


260 


260 


260 


Do, 




18,490 


18,417 




4,263 


6,232 




22,748 


23,649 








Kaira and 
Panch Mahals 


Karnal . 


Galesvara Mahadeva temple. (Total 
expenditure incurred up to date is 
Rs 11,903). 


19,788 

(revised). 


1,000 


1,000 


In progress. 


Poon* . 


Karla . 


Caves. (Total expenditure incurred 
up to date is Rs. 7,298). 


8,940 

(revised). 


3,000 
4-2,000 


4,998 


Do. 


Do. . 


Nanaghat 


Inscribed Cave 


1,444 


+250 


250 


Do 


Do . 


Poona City 


Improvements to the Fort walls of 
Shanwar Wada . (Total expenditure 
incurred up to date is Rs. 18,264). 


29,748 


3,700 


3,700 


Do. 


Ahmednagftr . 


Ahmednagar 


Farm Bagh Palace .... 


425 


1,000 


447 


Completed. 


Do 
Presidency 


Do, 

Ohcrapari 


Work in connection with the excava- 
tions in the Fort. (Total expen- 
diture incurred up to date is 
RIB 2,560). 
Elephanta Caves. (Total expenditure 
incurred up to date is Rs. 22,740). 

Carried over 


4,000 
(revised). 

33 831 

(7 wti- 
mates). 


1,060 

1,600 
+970 


1,060 
2,469 


In progress. 
Do. 




18,928 


19,084 





213 
APPENDIX A contd. 



District 
(P. W. D.) 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
euttinate 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-2B 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-2S, 


R.U. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


b 


7 








Re- 


Re. 


Rs. A. P. 








Broupht forward 




13.928 


13 924 








BOMBAY PRESIDENCY INCLUDFNCI BIND 














Special Repairs (non-recurring charge*) 
earned out by the Archaeological 
Department contd. 










Thana . 


Baasein Fort . 


Portuguese monuments (Total ex- 
penditure incurred up to date is 
Rs. 14,065) 


24,021 


1,000 
418 


582 


In progress. 


Ratnagiri 


Jayagad . 


Main arohwaj to tho Fort 


890 


890 


890 


Completed 


Larkbana 


Mohenjo-daro . 


Constructing caretakers' quarters, store 
and inspection rooms 


3,684 


2,000 
+902 


2,992 


!.,* 


Do. 


Do . 


Enamelled iron notice boards for the 
monuments in the Western Circle 
(Total expenditure incurred up to 
da-toisRs 1,770) 

TOTAL 
GRAND TOTAL SPECIAL REPAIRS 

Annual Repairs (refumng charges) 
carried out by the Public, Work* 
Department 


1,820 


820 
50 


770 


Completed, 




19,162 


19,158 




41,900 


42,807 








Ahmedabad . 


Ahmedabad City 
and Suburbs. 


Annual repairs to Ahmed Shah's Maajic 


25 


25 


25 




Do. 


Do 


Annual repairs to Azam Khan's Palace 


35 


35 


34 




Do. 


Do 


Annual repairs to Baba Lulm's Masjid 


30 


30 


30 




Do. 


Do 


Annual repaint to Dada Ham's well 


60 


60 


50 




Do 


Do 


Annual repairs to Dada Harir'e Mas j id 
and tomb. 


30 


30 


29 




Do. 


Do 


Annual repairs to Dutch Tombs on 
Kankaria tank 


60 


60 


44 




Do. 


Do 


Annual repairs to inlet to Kankaria 
tank 


20 


20 


15 




Do. 


Do 


Annual repairs to Muhafir, Khan's 
Masjjd. 


15 


15 


14 




Do 


Do. 


Annual repairs to Queen'n Mas j id 


57 


67 


67 




Do. 


Do. 


\nnual repairs to Sidi Savyad's Mas 
jid. 


10 


10 


10 




Do. 


Do. 


Annual repairs to throe gates 


16 


16 


14 




Do. 


Do. 


Annual repairs to Bhadar Tower 
Carried over 


45 


45 


45 






392 


867 



214 

APPENDIX A contd. 



District 
(P. W. D.) 


Locality. 


Name of work and description 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25. 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-25. 


REMARK* 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 








Ra 


Rs. 


Es. A. P. 








Brought f orwai d 




392 


307 








$OMBAV PBESIDBNCY iNCLtroiNa BIND 
contd. 
Annual Repair* (rfcumng charge*) 
rarned ovi by the Public Works 
Department contd 










Ahmedabad . 


Ahmedabad city 
and Suburbs. 


Annual Repairs to Arhyut Bibi'ft Mas- 
jid and Tomb. 


25 


25 


25 




Do. 


Do. 


Annual repair* to Mian Khan Jahan's 
MaAiul and Tomb 


20 


20 


20 




Do. 


Do. 


Annual repairs to Tomb of Mir Abu 
Turab 


25 


25 


25 




1>J - ' 


Do 


Maintenance charges for garden m 
Ahmed Hhah'a Maspd (manure, 
pipe connection f*es, etc , and Alalt'n 


280 


280 


280 




Do 


Ahmedabad . 


Maintenance charges lor garden in 
Sidi Sayyad'a Masjid (manure, pipe 
connection fees, etc., and Mali's pay). 


175 


175 


1GO 




Do. 


Vatwa . 


Annual repairs to tombs . 


140 


140 


139 




Do. 


Dholka . 


Annual repairs to Bahlol Khan Oaw's 
Mapud. 


50 


50 


49 




Do. 


Do. 


Annual repairs ti> Khan Masjid . 


60 


60 


59 




Do. 


Do. 


Annual repairs to Khan tank 


00 


00 


61 




Do. 


Adalaj . 


Annual repairs to stepped well . 


55 


55 


55 




Do. 


Kochrab Paldi 


Annual repairs to small stone Masnd. 


25 


25 


24 




Do. 


Vasna . 


Annual repairs to tomb of Azam Khan 
and Muazzam K ban. 


20 


20 


19 




Do. 


Isanpur . 


Annual repairs to small stone Masjid to 
the south of Malik laan-ul-Mulk's 
tomb. 


30 


30 


30 




Do. 


Viramgam * 


Annual repairs to Mannar tank . 


45 


45 


44 




Do. 


Ranpur . 


Annual repairs to Azam Khan's PoJkce 


20 


20 


20 




1>0. 


Prantij . 


Annual repairs to Sikandar Roza 


15 


15 


14 




Do. 


AUmedabad 


Maintenance charges ioi the upkeep 
of Archaeological buildings. 


2,000 


2,000 
- 219 


1,757 




iKaira d 
PanohMalvttU 


Champaner 


Annual repairs to (22 monuments) and 
maintenance charges for the Archeeo- 
logical buildings (46 m number). 


1,372 


1,372 


1,306 




Do. 


Jlhavka . 


Annual repairs to Mahadeva temple 


26 


25 


25 




Do 


SojftU . 


Annual repairs to and maintenance 
charges for the tombs of Saif-ud*diu 
and Kizam-ud-din. 

Carried over 


172 


172 


172 






4,787 


4,717 



215 

APPENDIX A contd. 



District 
(P, W. P.) 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of sano- 
tiontid 
estimate. 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25. 


Amount apont 
during the 
year 1024-25. 


RHKA&XS. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


ti 


7 








Be. 


R. 


Rs. A. P. 








Brought forward 


.. 


4.787 


4,717 








BOMBAY PKBSIDENCY ixcr,i T r>iNQ HIND 
contd. 
Annual Repair* (recurring charges) 
earned out- by the Pubhc Works 
Department^- contd. 










Surat and 
Broach. 


Sural 


Annual repairs to and maintenance 
charges for the English Cemetery 
(front portion) 


424 


371 

24 


288 




Do. 


Do. 


Annual ropaira to and maintenance 
charge* for the Dutch and Armenian 
Cemetery 


255 


256 


254 




Do. 


near mouth oi 
uvcr Tapti. 


Annual repairs to Vaux'e tomb . 


35 


as 


33 




Do 


Rajgm (Suvah) 


Annual repairs to tombs . 


10 


10 


10 




Do. 


Broach . 


Annual repairs to Dutch tombs . 


35 


35 


3C 




Do. 


Do 


Annual repairs to Jarm maajid 


ieo 


ICO 


100 (1 




Presidency . 
Do. 


Gharapun 
(Elephanta). 

Do 


Annual repairs to and maintenance 
charges for Caves (6 in number) and 
piern, etc 
Annual repairs to Custodian's quarters 


2,775 
1/31 


2,037 
200 


2,775 
100 




Do. 


Do 


Annual repairs to Assistant Custodian's 
quarter?. 


lb 


25 


10 




Do. 


Do. 


Annual repairs to police chowki and 
watchman's quarters. 


18 


100 


10 () 




Thana . 


Thana . 


Annual repairs to graves of English 
factors 


10 


10 


10 




Do. 


Kalyan . 


Annual repaint to Matabar Khan's 
tomb and Knh roasud, 


24 


24 


24 




Do. 


Ambaraath 


Annual repairs to temple . . 


35 


35 


35 




Do. 


Mahnli . 


Annual repairs to fort 


80 


80 


80 




Do. 


Nanaghat 


Annual repairs 10 Brahuiamcal Caves 


15 


15 


15 




Do 


Vaeheli . 


Annual repairs to Caves . . 


16 


15 


15 




Do. 


Arnala . 


Annual repairs to fort 


60 


CO 


60 




Do. . 
Do . 


Barat Hills . 
Kanheri . 


Annual repairs to the Caves . . 
Annual repairs to Cave* . . 


95 
100 


95 

too 


05 o 

191) 




Do. . 


Audheri . . 


Annual repair* U> Jogwvari Cavea 


68 


68 


oa o o 




Do. . 


Kondivat 


Annual repairs to the cave* 


50 


no 


50 




Do. . 


BofivU . 


Annual repairs to MsncUpwvam Caves, 
Watch Towwr and the Portuguese 
monastery. 

Carried over 


W 


Off 


06 




.. 


9,888 


0,190 



216 

APPENDIX A.contd. 



District 
(P. W. D ) 


Locality. 


Name of work and description 


Amount 
of gano- 
tioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25. 


Amount spend 
during the 
year 1924-25. 


RrHMA&XS. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 





7 








Re. 


Bs 


Rs. A P. 








Brought forward 




9,328 


9,100 








BOMBAY PBESHJHHOY INCLUDING *SIN 
eontd. 
Annual Repairs (recurring charges) 
carried out by <* PvbKc Works 
Department oontd. 










Thana . 


Band . 


Annual repairs to th Fort . 


40 


40 


40 




Uo. 


Amlnvli . 


Annual repairs to the oaves 


60 


60 


60 




Do. . 


Revadanda 
(Agarkot). 


Annual repairs to and maintenance 
charges for the Portuguese remains. 


625 


625 


611 




Do. . 


Revadanda 
(Chaui) 


Annual repairs to and maintenance 
rharges for the Portuguese and 
Muhamadan remains. 


580 


580 


567 




Do. . 


Peth 


Annual repairs to the Kotali fort . 


75 


75 


75 




Do. . 


All bag . 


Annual repairs to the Fort 


175 


175 


169 




Do . 


Korlai . 


Annual repairs to Korlai Fort . 


00 


60 


48 




a*t Khandesti 


Patan . 


Annual repairs to Mahesvara Mahadev 
temple. 


60 


60 


60 




Do. 


Do. 


Annual repairs to Shnngar Chavdt 


80 


80 


80 




Do. 


Do. 


Annual repairs to Nagarjun Caves 


80 


80 


80 




Do 


Do. 


Annual lepaire to Caves (Sita'a Naham) 


80 


80 


80 




Do. 


Waghh . 


Annual repairs to Mudhai Devi's temple 


80 


80 


80 




Do. 
D. 


Dighi . 
Sangamesvara . 


Annual repairs to temple of Devi and 
Sambha. 
Annual repairs to old temple of 
Mahadev. 


40 
60 


40 
50 


40 
60 




Do. 


ChangdevA 


Annual repairs to temple of Changdeva 


160 


160 


160 




West Khan- 

de*h. 


Balsan* . 


Maintenance charges for the temple 


36 


36 


36 




Do. 


Thalner 


Annual repairs to and maintenance 
charge* for the three Muhamadan 
tombs. 


78 


78 


75 




Xafttk . 


Jhodga . 


Annual repairs to the temple of Mankes- 
vara Siva. 


120 


125 


125 




Do. 


Ankai . 


Annual repairs to and maintenance 
chargai for the Caves. 


273 


273 


273 




DJ. . 


Pandulena 


Annual repairs to and maintenance 
charges for the Caves. 


330 


350 


350 




Do . 


Sinnar 


Annual repairs to and maintenance 
chargfw for Oondeewara temple. 


300 


300 


300 




D,. 


Do. 


Annual repairs to Aiswara temple , 


60 


do 


WOO 








Carried over 




12,735 


12,909 





217 

APPENDIX A contd. 



Difltriot 
(P. W. D.) 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
l24-25 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-25. 


RSKA&KB. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 








Rs 


Rs. 


Rs. A. f 








Brought forward 




1,2,785 


12,OS) 








BOMBAY PRESIDENCY INCLUDIMI 
MNP contd 














Annu>il Jtepatr* (reeumnij charges) 
carried out by the Pubh< Work* 
JJepa rtment ' >n td 










Nasik . 


Anjannori 


Annual repairs to the temple . 


100 


100 


94 




Bo. . 


Ambegaon 


Annual repairs to temple of Siva 


05 


05 


00 




Ahmedoagar . 


Ahniednagar . 


Annual repairs to th- Demri Masjid . 


32 


32 


31 




Do. 


Tahakan 


Annual repairs to Tnpad Srimvasa 
temple of Bhavani 


10 


10 


900 




Do. 


Hanechandragad 


Annual repairs to tho caves and temple 


10 


10 


10 




Do. 


Ratanwadi 


Annual repairs to the temple of Atnri- 
tesvara. 


10 


10 


10 




Do. 


Bamni 


Annual repairs to Hemadpautj tank . 


22 


22 


21 




Do. 


Kokamthan 


Annual repairs to the old temple . 


96 


90 


90 




Do. 


Dhokoswara 


Annual repairs to the Caves 


24 


24 


24 




Do 


Mandavgaon 
Katrabad. 


Annual repairs to the Devi's ttmple 


24 


24 


24 




Do. 


Karjat . 


Annual repairs fco M&llikarjuna temple. 


32 


32 


31 




Do. 


Pedgaon 


Annual repairs to Lakshnn Nara- 
yaii temple 


15 


15 


16 




Do. 


Do. 


Annual repairs to Bablegvara temple 


24 


24 


24 




Do. 


Tisgoan . 


Annual repairs to Five atone gates . 


05 


05 


65 




*Poon& . 


Junnar 


Annual repairs to and maintenance 
charges for tho groups of Caves and 
Sivaneri fort. 


1,043 


1,043 


1,023 




Do. 


Do. 


Annual repairs to Habahi gum buz 


75 


75 


75 




Do. . 


Ghatghar 


Annual repairs to the Cavea . 


50 


50 


50 




Do. . 


Khed . 


Annual repairs to Dilavar Khan's 
Masjid and Tomb. 


75 


75 


74 




Do. . 

Do. . 


Koregaon 
Bhima. 
Phulgaon 


Annual repairs to the Monuments 
Annual repairs to Peahwa'a ghat 


50 
50 


60 
50 


50 
50 




Do. . 


Do. . 


Annual repairs to Mabadova's temple 
with ghat. 


20 


20 


20 




Do. . 


Tulapur . 


Annual rejmirs to Sangameavara 
temple with ghat. 


100 


100 


100 




Do. . 


Do, 


Annual repairs to Vishnu Valla- 
bhesvara temple with ghat. 

Carried over 


50 


60 


50 






1 1,827 


14,62] 



2 a 



J18 
APPENDIX A cmitd. 



District 
(P. W. D.) 


Locality. 


Nnmo of work and description 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
estimate 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25 


Amount spent 
during the 
jear 1924-25 


R&MABK8. 


1 


8 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 








Us 


, 


Its A P 








Brought forwnid 




14.S27 


14,021 








BOMBAY PRESIDENCY INCLUDING 














Annual Repair* (recurring charges) 
earned out by the Pubhc \Yark* 
Dtpartm cni r o nt d 
Annual repairs to the fort 


70 


70 


70 




Do. . 


hhdarttadi 


Annual repairs to the < aves 


100 


100 


00 




Do . 


Bodna . 


Annual repairs to the ( aves 


100 


100 


100 




Do. . 


\ wpur 


Annual rcpans to the Fort 


100 


100 


100 




Do. . 


Lohngad 


Annual repairs to the Fort 


150 


150 


150 




Do. . 


Rnjamaohi 


Annual repairs to the 1-ort 


125 


125 


128 




Do . 


Bhajft . 


Annual repairs to and maintenance 
charges for Caves. 


270 


270 


270 




Govt. House 


1'ooua . . 


Annual repairs to Kotwal's residence 


52 


52 


&2 




Do. 


Do. 


Annual repairs to European tombs 


72 


72 


72 




Do. 


I'litapgad 


Annua] repairs to Afzul Khan's tomb 


10 


10 


10 




Do. 


Bhamburda 


Annual repairs to Pa tales var Caves 


277 


277 


273 




Satara . 


Jakhmwadi 


Annual repairs to the Buddhist Caves 


100 


100 


96 




Do. . 


Karanja . 


Annual repairs to the brick column 
erected by Emperor Aurangzeb. 


10 


10 


10 




Bholapur 


Rholapur 


Annual repairs to and maintenance 
oh a p<w fo? the Fort 


500 


500 


HOG 




Mahuras 


*Tte K ampnr . 


Annual rejtfdrs to the Begam'a tomb 


96 


60 


90 




Do 


Vejapur 


Annual repairs to the double shrined 
temple. 


62 


62 


62 




Do 


l>,> 


Annual repairs to the old temple of 
Mahadena by the road side. 


62 


62 


62 




Belgaum 


Dogaon . 


Annual repairs to old Jain temple 


32 


32 


32 




Do. . 


Bolgnum fort 


Annual repairs to the Jam temple 
neai Barrack No 4. 


35 


35 


35 




Do . 
Do. 


Do 

Do . 


i nual re]urn to the old Jain temple 
ri the corner of Commissariat Store- 
ard. 
Ai nual repairs to old Jain temple 
u>ar Barrack No. 1. 


40 
15 


40 
10 


40 
15 




l*> 


Do. 


Annual repairs to Safa Mofljid . 


10 


10 


10 




Do . 


Do, . 


Maintenance charges for all monuments 


180 


180 


180 




Do . 


CHiitftUi 


Annual repairs to Kadamba inscrip- 
woa in the temple of Kalameavar. 


5 


5 


600 








Canned over 




17.800 


17,088 





219 
APPENDIX A coittd. 



District 
(P. W. D.) 


Locality. 


Name of work and description 


\mmint 

tioned 
eptiinatt* 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25. 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-25 


Rxuuuut 





2 


> 


4 


5 


6 


7 








Ks. 


Us 


Rs A P. 








Brought f 01 waul 




17 HtO 


17,088 








BOMBAY PUK-ilOE>C\ IVtJLUJUlM. 














Annual Rppanft (recurring iharye) 
carnal out by the Public Wvrkt. 
Department contd 










Bolgaum 


Nandagad 


Annual lepaus to the old Jain temple 
with nne "atvmgs 


Ill 


11) 


10 




Do. . 


Malvan . 


Annual repane to the Smdhudurgsi 
(fort) 


250 


250 


240 




Dharwar 


Amargol . 


Annual jepairg to Sankarluigu temple 


1 


11 


1100 




Do. 


Baukapur 


Annual repairs to Nagaiesvara 
temple 


J2 


32 


32 




Do. 


Unkal . 


Annual tepatra to th- four porchecl 
temple (chandramoulesvat) 


7 


7 


700 




Do. 


Haven 


Annual repansto Sidhesvara temple 


10 


15 


16 




Do. 


Balambjd 


Annual repairs to Kalmesvari 
teini>Je 


25 


25 


26 




Do. 


Do. . 


Annual repans to Ramesvara 
temple. 


15 


15 


15 




Do. 


Hangal . 


Annual repairs to OJd mined temple 
between the fort and the tank 
(Billosvara temple). 


45 


45 


45 




Do. 


Do. 


Annual ropaiis to Tarakeavars 
temple. 


40 


40 


40 




Do. 


Do. 


Annual repairs to Virabhadra 
temple. 


50 


50 


60 




Do. 


Naregal . 


Annual repairs to Sarvesvara 
temple. 


12 


12 


12 




Do. 


Chawdad&npur . 


Annual roiwiirs to Muktosvara 
temple. 


25 


25 


25 




Do. 


Galagnath 


Annual repairs to Galgosvara 
temple. 


43 


43 


43 




Do. 


Rattihalli 


Annual repairs to Kadambesvara 
temple. 


25 


25 


23 




Do. 


Lakhundi 


Annual repairs to Kunibbarpni 
temple 


24 


24 


24 




Do. 


Do. . 


Annual repairs to Namesvara 
temple. 


15 


15 


16 




Do. 


Do. 


Annual repairs t>o Jam Basti 


15 


15 


15 




Do 


Do . 


Annual ropaira to Kasi V isvosvara 


Sb 


25 


25 








Carried over 




17,984 


17,760 





2a2 



220 

APPENDIX A contd. 



District 
(P. W. D.) 


Locality. 


Name- of work and description 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
estimate 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1024-25. 


RKHARKS. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 








Es 


Bis 


Rs A *. 








Brought forward 




17.KS4 


17,760 








BOMBAY PRESIDENCY INCLUDING 
,-IN.U contd 














Annual Kepiir* (recurring ctiargea) 
carried out by the Public Work* 
fiepartnt e. nt uont d 










Diuviwar 


dating . 


Annual repairs to Sarasvati temple 


38 


20 

^ is 


38 




Do 


Do 


Annual repairs to Somosvara temple . 


12 


30 
18 


12 > 




Do 


Daml.al . 


Annual repairs to Sotnosvara temple . 


15 


15 


1C 




Do 


Do 


Annual repairs to Dodda Basavatina 
temple 


15 


15 


15 




Do 


Dbarwar 


Annual repairs to two gates of the fort. 


25 


25 


25 




Do 


Harallialh 


Annual repairs to Soinesvar temple . 


30 


30 


30 




Bijnpur 


Bijapur . 


Annual repairs to Archwological 
buildings in the District 


1,793 


1,793 


1,793 




Do. 


Do . 


Maintenance charges for the general 
upkeep of Archaeological buildings 


5,724 


5,724 


5,724 




Knara 


Clulufcultf, 
Sadasivogad. 


Annual repairs to European tombs 


20 


20 


20 




Do. . 


Sorida 


Annual lepairs to King's seat 


14 


14 


200 




Do . 


Dn 


Annual repans to the temple close to 
and to the south of King's Beat. 


10 


10 


200 




Do. . 


Somasagar 


Annual repairs to temple of Siva 


7 


7 






Do. . 


Gersappa 


Annual repairs to Vardhamana Swami 
temple. 


12 


12 


600 




Do. . 


Do 


Annual repairs to Virabhadra temple. 


12 


12 


600 




Bo . 


Do 


Annual repairs to Chaturmukh* Bastt. 


35 


35 


600 




Do. . 


Do. 


Annual repairs to Inscription stone . 


3 


3 






Do 


Blip 


Annual repairs *o small deserted temple 
dedicated to Stva 


8 


8 


800 




Do. . 


Kumti . 


Annual repairs to the fiure of a tiger 
opposite to the English School 


3 


3 


300 








Annual repairs to tomb* on the right 


6 


6 


700 








Hide o>f foanki Kumta Road, 










Do . 


Mirjan . 


Annual repairs to the Fort 


35 


35 


36 




Do . 


Do. 


Annual rep urn to the inHcnption in the 
compound of the District bungalow 

and the figure of a tiger. 


7 


7 


700 








Carried over 




25,808 


25,614 





221 
APPENDIX A cowUt. 



District. 
(P.W.D.) 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25. 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-25. 


UBMAUK? 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 





7 








Us. 


Rs. 


Us. A. P. 








Brought forward 




25,808 


25514 








tSlIv I) COIlltl 










Ka-nara 


Bh.tkal . 


Annual Kepa\r& (recurring charge*) 
earned wl by the Public Worki 
Dtparlmt. nt contd. 
Annual repairs to Jatappa Naikan 
Ohandranathesvara Basti 


10 


10 


10 




Do. . 


Do 


Annual repairs to three European 
tombs 


7 


7 


700 




Ratnagm 


Ra^gad . 


Annual repaus to Sri Sivaji's aamadhi 
and Mahadeva teraple 


350 


350 


349 




Do 


Kuda 


Annual repairs to tho Caves 


50 


60 


50 




Do. 


Pah(Mahad) . 


Annual repairs to the Caves 


40 


40 


40 




Do. 
Do 


Nagothna 
Jaygad . 


Annual repairs to the Muhamruadan 
bridge 
Annual repairs to the fort 


200 

160 


200 
160 


200 
149 




Do. 


Dabhol . 


Annual repairs to and maintenance- 
thftigea foi the masjid. 


ISO 


160 


150 




Do 


Vijayadurga . 


Annual repaus to and maintenance 
charges for the fort. 


480 


480 


480 




Narat Canals 


Moro, Doulatpur 


Annual lepairs to Tomb of Nur 
Mahnmed Kalhora 


125 


125 


123 




Do 


Thul Mir-Rukhau 


Annual repairs tu thr- Buddlnst Stupa. 


10 


10 


300 




Fuleli Canals 


Gaja 


Annual repairs to Buddhist etupa 


20 


20 


18 




Northern Dist. 
Jamrao 
Canals. 


Smjhoro, Dalor 


Annual repairs to and maintonanco 
charges for Brahmbra-Ha-Thul 
(Brahmanabad) 


18:-; 


183 


182 




Eastern Nara 


Mirpurkhaa 


Annual repairs to and maintenance 
charges for Buddhist Stupa. 


240 


240 


227 




Do. 


Naokot . 


Annual repairn to the Fort 


75 


75 


76 




Karachi Build - 
ings. 


Hyderabad . 


Annual repairs to and maintenance 
charges for Gulam Shah Kalhora's 
tomb. 


105 


105 


105 




Do. 


Do . 


Annual repairs to and maintenance 
charges for Gulam Nabi Kalhora's 
tomb 


01 


91 


91 




To. 


Do . 


Annual repairs to and maintenance 
ohurges for Sarfaraz Khan Kalhora's 
tomb. 


122 


122 


122 




Do. 


Do. . 


Annual repair* to and maintenance 
charge* tor Haram of Mire. 


24 


24 


24 0- 




Do. 


Do. . 


Annual repairs to tombs of British 
officers and Mm, soldiers. 


25 


25 


26 








Carried over 


< 


28,285 


27,949 j 





222 

APPENDIX A contd. 



District. 

(P. W D ) 


Locahty 


]Mane l work and description 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25. 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-25. 


RBMABXB. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 








fts 


Rs 


Rs A. P. 








Brought forward 




28,265 


27,949 o 




vaiathi Huild 


f.idu Handar . 


BOMBAY PRESIDENCY INCLUDING 
MND rowf/d! 
Annuv* Repair* (recurring charge*) 
carrnd (mi by the Public Work* 
Department- - c ontd 
Annual repairs to Memorial pillar 


20 


20 


26 




iikarpur Canals 


Rohn 


Animal repairs to Satyan-jo-than 


247 


247 


247 




thar (Canals . 


Rato-bhando . 


Annual icpaira to the Tomb 


59 


59 


59 




Vftern Nar& 


Khudabad 


\nnuul repair* to and maintenance 
chatgoH tor Jarai Masjid 


228 


21b 

+ 9 


227 




Do 


Do . 


Annual ropairH to Yiar Muhamad 
Khan'w toinb and the adjoining 
Masjid 


240 


229 

+v> 


234 




Do 


Mohenjo-daro . 


Mainu-nano* 1 charges fi Buddhist 
Btwpa nd oxcavut -d nit - 


384 


384 


384 




Zaraohi Canul* 


Talta and Makh 
Hills. 


Annual reiinas to and maintenance 
charges for Alunurncuts at Tatta 
and ilakli Hills 

TOTAL 

Apvjn y charges a^ottcul <fi} 23 per oont 
and apportiunHd on pro rata basis 

TOTAL 


G03 


210 
-i 51) 7 
41 


603 




1 


30,122 


29,789 o 


6,928 


8,461 




37,050 


38,250 






Annual Repair* (recumny charges) 
earned out by the Archceolognal De- 
partment. 










OOtltt . 


Korla . 


Annual repairs to and maintenance 
charges for the Oaves. 


1,000 


1,000 


999 




Do . 


Poona City 


Annual repairs at Shanwar Wada . 


1,570 


1,576 


1,076 




hmednagar . 


Ahmednagnr . 


Annual repairs at Faria Bagh palace 


192 


192 


191 




hana . 


Brtisem . 


Annual repairs to Portuguese Monu- 
ments. 

TOTAL 
GnANn TOTAL ANNUAL REPAIRS 


400 


400 


398 






3,168 


3.164 




40,21 8 


41,414 



SUMMARY. 



Special rei*ur carried out by the Public Work* Department 
Special re]>aira earned out by the Archseologjcal Department 
Annual repairs earned out by the Ptibha Works Department 
Annual rnpotra carried out by the Archaeological Department 



UTIAWD TOTAL TOK THE BOMBAY PitKsiK7?nv i SCLUDINQ SINO AKJ> THTE 



Ks. 

23,640 
19,108 
38,200 

3,164 



84,221 



223 

APPENDIX A contd. 
(6) EXPENDITURE OK CONSERVATION 
Central Cvcle. 



District 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of 
*aur tionod 
otiraftU* 


Allotment 
for tlio 
year 
1024-2S. 


Amount apcnt 
during the 
year i 924-2 r > 


KFMAKKS 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 








Ite 


1U 


Us. A. P. 








BIHAR AND OBISSA. 














/Special Jtepairs (non-recwmwfl charge*) 
atrrtKd oiti by the Public Works De- 














jMrtment, 










Pa laniau 


Palamau 


Forts at (cutting down tr&ee and 


3,557 


182 


178 


Completed. 






taking out roots, filling holes in 














walls with brifks and mortar in- 














cluding repoiuting, clearing shrubs 














and vegetation from tops oud aides 














of walk). 










Bhagalpur 


Colgong . . 


Hock temple at , providing Notice 
Board and foot path to the . 


8G 


70 


01 


Do. 


L^uri . 


Bhuvaneavar . 


Scaffolding m the eavea at Khandagiri 
and 1 'dayagiri , erection of . 


25 


2r> 


30 


Do 


Do. . 


Do. 


Tomples at ... 


4,040 


2,191 


1,590 


In progress. 


Do . 


Do. 


Ilaja Rani temple at Bhuva-noevar 
and tavea at Khandagiri and Udai- 


690 


637 


474 


Do. 






giri. 










Patna . 


Bihar 


Monuments at 14ftjgir and Bihar, pre- 


1,200 


967 


323 


Do. 






servation of . 










Do. . 


Ka ]gir . 


Notice Boards, provision of . 


207 


181 


145 


Do 


Do. . 


Do. 


Inscription on the rooky pathway at 
Old Rajgir preservation of . 


300 

(-1-45) 


38 


38 


Completed 






TOTAI, 




4,291 


2,839 








Agency charges @ 24 per cent. 






081 








TOTAt 






3.520 








Special Repair* (non-recwnnff charges) 
carried ovt by the Archaeological Depart- 














ment, 










Patna . 


Nalanda . 


Conservation of excavated monuments 




7,500 
( + 1,000) 


9,998 


In progress. 










(+1,000) 














(+400) 














(+100) 






Do. . 


Pataa . 


Provision of enamelled iron notice 
boards for protected monument a in 
Bihar and Orissft. 




650 


643 


Completed. 


Cuttftok 


KhandAgtri . 


Provision of uniform and badge for 
Chauktdar at Khand&giri Caves, 




16 


16 


Do. 






Orisaa. 
TOTAL 




10,666 


10.6S7 








GBAJTO TOTAL, SFEOIAL RSPAIKS . 




14,987 


14,177 





224 

APPENDIX A contd. 



District. 


Locality 


Name of work and description 


Amount 
of 
tanctioned 
estimate 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-26. 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-25. 


REMARKS. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 








Rs 


Ila. 


Re A F. 








BTHAB AND ORISSA cordd. 














Annual Repairs (recurring charges) car- 
ried out by the Public Works Depart- 










Palatnau 


Palanittu 


ment- L-oritd. 
Old and New Fort* at (clearing 


424 


424 


424 








vegetation and removing roots on 














cither sides of the walls of old and 














new forts and round the Masjid , 














also repairing the approach road to 
the new fort after removing stones 














and jungle *>. 










Champaran . 


Govmdganj 


Aaoka pillars at ~- .... 


20 


20 


13 






Lauriya. 












Do. 


h 


Do .... 


20 


20 


id o o 






Lauriya. 












Do. 


Rampurwa 


Do 


18 


20 


12 




Bhagalpur 


Colgong 


Roc-k Temple at 


10 


10 


600 




Mongbyr 


Monghj r 


Fort. Gates and bridges at . 


200 


200 


185 




Pun 


Koiwirak 


Temples at 


522 




422 




Do 


Bhuvanesvar . 


Caves at Khandagiri and Udaigiri 


183 


180 


165 




Do. 


Konarak 


Sculptures nhed at 


50 


15 


14 




Do. . 


Bhuvanesvar . 


Dhauh HiU , inscription at 


25 


25 


25 




Do. . 


Do. . 


Ra]a Rani temple at . 


25 


25 


25 




Cuttaok 


Cuttack 


(i ateway, Barabati Fort at . 


2fi 


25 


10 




Do. . 


Do . 


Moat wall, Barabati Fort at . 


GO 


50 


41 




Do. . 


Jajpur 


Protected monuments at 


55 


55 


34 




Patna . 


Kumrahar 


Agam Kuan at 


e 


9 


800 




Do. . 


Banktpur 


Gola (granary) at 


83 


80 


64 




Do. 


Maner 


Mukhdwm Shah's tomb at . 


304 


360 


363 




Do. . 


llajpir 


Mahadeo temple at 


23 


23 


15 




Do . 


Do 


Jam temple at ... 


16 


1C 


12 




Do. . 


Do 


Mamvar Math temple, including all 


27 


27 


20 








ancient structures. 










Do . 


Bihar 


Tonxb of Syed Ibrahim Beyu 


48 


48 


40 




Santa! Pargnna 


t Hadaf near 


Jumma Afasjid and bridge at . , 


104 


100 


76 






Rajmahal. 












Shahabad 


Arrah 


Arrah House at . 


108 


9B 


92 












<-f9 










Carried over 




1,839 


2,074 





225 
APPENDIX A cowtd. 



District. 


Locality 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of 
sanctioned 
estimate 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924.23. 


Amount spent 
during the 
>ear 1934-25. 


RJOMJUM. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 








Rs 


Rs. 


Rs. A. P. 








Brought forward 




1,30 


2,074 








BIHAR AND ORISSA conoid. 














Annual Repairs (recumng charge*) car- 
ned out by the Publtc Works Depart- 














ment cont A. 










Sbababad 


Sassaram 


Tomb of Sher Shah at 


55 


55 


53 




Do. 


Do. . 


Tomb of Hasan Shah at 


78 


78 
(4-40) 


105 




Do. 


Do. . 


Tomb of Alwal Khan at 


24 


24 

( + 45) 


79 




Do. 


Ohampur 


Tomb of B&khtiar Khan at . 


148 


121 

( + 24) 


145 




Do. 


Bamgarh 


Mundeshwari temple at 


60 


CO 


50 




Do. 


Buxar 


Muhammadan tomb at Katkauh 





6 


500 




Do. 


Rohtas . 


Fort at . . 


348 


348 


345 




>Gay . . 


Shamshernagar 


Shamsher Khan's tomb at 


no 


BO 


38 




Do. 


Gunen 


Buddha statue shed at 


15 


15 


15 




Do. m . 


Ghenjan . 


Do 


15 


15 


15 








TOTAL. 




2,010 


2,924 








Agency charges @ 24 per cent. 






702 








TOTAL . 






3,620 








Annual Repairs (recurring charges) 
earned ovt by the Archaeological 














Department, 










Patna . 


Nalanda . 


Upkeep of Museum and Bungalow 




600 


296 








TOTAL . 






296 








GRAND TOTAL, AHUTJAL RKFAIRS . 






3,922 6 





8(7MMABY 

Special Eepaiw carried out by the Public Work* Department . 

Special Repairs carried out by the Archaeological Department . 

Annual Bepaiw carried out by the Public Work* Department, . 
Annual Repair* carried ont by the Acchicologioal Department 



Us. 

3,020 

10,667 

3,62 

296 



TOTAL toa BIOAB AD GMESA 



226 
APPENDIX A contd. 



DUtrict, 


Locality. 


Name of work and description 


Amount 
of 
auctioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25. 


Amount spent 
daring the 
year 1924-26. 


REMARKS. 


1 


2 


H 


4 


5 


6 


7 








K*. 


Rb 


BB. A. P 








A'jpet-toZ Hr pairs (non-recurring charge*) 
carried out by tJte Public Works 
Department 










Cbaada 


Ckiaiulu 


Auhaleswar gate to tho Fort wall 


3,900 


1,570 


1,336 


Inprogreea. 


A kola . 


lialujmr . 


Ancient monuments .... 


8,700 


3,000 


3,000 


Do. 


Etaipur . 


Kirpur 


A shelter for protecting the sculptures 

construction of - 


4,349 




23 


Completed. 


Nimar . 


Burhanpur 


Tomb of Nadir 8hah 


9,775 


1,840 


1,840 


In progress. 


Da . 
Do 


Do. . 


Shah Nawaz Khan'u tomb , providing 
groynes below 


3,162 
13,993 


1,710 
2,664 


1,710 
2,165 


Do. 
Do 




















Tor At, . 




10,790 


10,074 








Agency charges at 23 per cent. . 






2,317 








TOTAL SPECIAL REPAIRS 






12,391 








Avnval Xepatrs (reenrrtng charge*) 
earned on* by the Public Fort* Depart- 
ntent. 










Nftgput 


Junapam 


Stone Circle attributed to the GaoU 
penod 


10 


10 


10 




Do. . 


Ubali and Peth 
Ubah. 


Ditto 


10 


10 


10 




Do. . 


Takalghat 


Ditto 


16 


15 


15 




Do. . 


Nildoh . 


Ditto 


15 


15 


15 




Do. . 


Wathoda 


Ditto 


1C 


1ft 


15 




Do. . 


Ohogta Khapa 


Mahadeo temple .... 


10 


10 




No repair* done. 


Do. . 


Ramtek , 


Remains of old ehrine upon the west- 
ern ndg of the Ramtek Hill. 


. 25 


25 


26 




Do. . 


Nagardhau 


Fort juat south of the village . . 


180 


180 


180 




Do. . 


DongaltaJ 


Fort at the bottom of the hiU . 


17B 


I7fl 


176 








Carried ov*r . 




46C 


445 





227 
APPENDIX A contd. 



District 


Locality. 


Name of work and description 


Amount oj 
sanctioned 
eetimatc. 


Allotment 
for the 

1924-25. 


Amount spent 
dunng the 
year 1924-25. 


RBMARKB. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 








R 


Ra. 


Ra. A. F 








Brought forward 




4.55 


445 








CENTRAL PROVINCES ANT> BBHAB contd 














Annual Repairs (recurring charges) car. 
ned out by tte Publw Works Dtpart- 
me< oontd. 










iihandara . 


Pfcdampur near 
Amgaun. 


Some curiouB old remains of massive 
atone buildings 


13 


10 






Do. 
Do 


Tilota Khaira . 
Nagra . 


A cromlech formed of one huge stone 
placed on two other upright ones 
and three other atones called giant's 
Tilota. 

Temple ...... 


19 

25 


12 

20 


\> 93 




Do. 


Partabgarb 


Fort . . 


37 


32 






Do. 
'itaiachat 


Pawni 
Lanji 


Temple of Chandaka J evi, south-east 
of the town. 


37 
100 


32 
150 


1 
J 

") 




Do 






33 


33 






Do. 


Garhi 


Fort 


5 


6 






Do. 


Kanjal near 
Kuangarb 
north Karola. 


Old court house of Ala Udal built 
of black stone. 


10 


10 


* 197 




Do. 


Sonkkar . 


Fortre&s containing 53 images, Sadha 
Bada. 


10 


10 






Do. 
Do 


Madanpur near 
Diupur 


Yogi Mandir of Buddhist architecture 


10 
2 


10 
2 


J 




'Chanda 


Piparwara 




430 


508 


608 




Do. 
Do. 


Do. . 
Do. . 


Temple of Mahadeo near Municipal 
office 
Gond Rajas tombs .... 



150 


9 

157 


900 
157 




Do. 


Do. 


A small well inside Jatpuru gate 


30 


25 


23 




Do. 


Do. 


Temple of Fkon near Ekoripura 


40 


34' 


33 




Do. 


Do. . 


Temple of Gaapati in Balajipura 


30 


27 


27 




Do. 


Do. . 


Temple of Someswar in Dadnaahalpura 


25 


23 


23 




Do. 


Do. . 


Temple of Maroti in Bhiwapur . 


25 


22 


22 




Do. 


Do. . 


A well ia form of Sankh in Dadroahal- 
pura. 


15 


15 


14 




Do. 


Ballupor 


A stone fort wall 


00 


45 


45 








Carried over 




1,*46 


1,590 
















2H2 



228 

APPENDIX A contd 



Dintnot. 


Locality. 


Name of work and description, 


Amount 

of 
sanctioned 
estimate 


Allotment 
for the 

1924-25. 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-26. 


REMARKS. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 








Bo. 


KB 


Rs. A. p. 








Brought forward 




1,646 


1.690 








CENTBAL PROVISOES ANJ> BEBAK cttntd. 










Oh and a 


Chanda . 


Annual Repairs (rfrumnfj charges) ear- 
ned out by the Public Work* Depart, 
nuwtr oontd 
British monument*) at Lalpeth . 


20 


20 


19 




Da 


Do. 


Monuments to British officers who fell 
in siege of Chanda No. at Lalpeth 


30 


25 


23 




Do . 


Do. . 


Monoliths consisting of 10 colossal 
stone images at Lulpeth 


50 


277 


277 




Do . 


Bhandak 


An old temple near Taka Talao 


20 


32 


32 




Do . 


Do 


Old temple of Parannath . 


15 


10 


700 




Do. . 


Do. 


Old temple of Chandika Devi . 


15 


22 


22 




Do. . 


Do. 


Baji Rao cave .... 


4 


10 


10 




Do. . 


Do. 


A stone bndge in tank 


8 


5 


600 




Do. . 
Do. . 


Do. 
Do 


A high knoll immediately to the east 
of Bbadranath temple. 
Bhawam oavi . ... 


5 
5 


6 
6 


500 
600 




Do. . 


Do. 


Remains of a rery old temple 


10 


20 


20 




Do. . 


Dewalwara 


An old fort and ruined temple 


10 


19 


19 




Do. . 


Khatora . 


Remains of an old fort 


20 


20 


20 




Do. . 


Palabarae 


An old Hcmadpanthi temple 


10 


10 


10 




Do. . 


Markanda 


Mahadeo temple 


16 


20 


20 




Do. . 
Do. . 


Tipagarh 
Zarapapra 


Fortress of Tipagarh in Moorumgaon 
Zammdan 
A rook cave ..... 


100 

60 


41 
21 


41 
21 




Akola . 


Balapur . 


Fort .... 


160 


160 


160 




Do. . 


Do 


Chhatn . .... 


60 


60 


50 




Do . 


Barai Takli 


Bhawam oavo 


60 


60 


60 




Do. . 


Akot Taluq . 


NarnaUa Fort (consisting of 9 items) . 


776 


775 


776 




Do. . 


Patur 


Caves ..... 


60 


50 


60 




1>0. . 


Akola . 


Old fort with Da -bar bastion . 


76 


75 


75 




Do. . 


Do. 


Dahihanda gate .... 


25 


25 


26 




Amraoti 


Ixisur . 


Anandeawar temple .... 


160 


160 


160 




Do . 
Do. 


A tuner . 
C'hikdltia 


Tomb of Lai Khun with the tank in 
front of it. 
Gawiluarh Fort 

Carried over 


160 

510 


150 
400 


134 

494 






4,090 


4,112 



229 
APPENDIX A contd. 



District 


Locality. 


Name of work and description 


Amount of 
sanctioned 
estimate 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-25 


REMARK* 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 





7 








Rs 


Its 


Ks A F 








Brought forward . 




4,090 


4.112 








OUT-HAL PROVINCES AND BERAR- ronld 














Annual Repairs (recurring charges) car- 
ried otter by the Public Work* Depart- 
ment contd 










Xeotmal 


Lohara . 


Temple .... 


25 


15 


15 




Ruldana 


Rohmkhed 


Mosque .... 


40 


40 


40 




Do. 


Kotbah . 


Old temple 


50 


50 


50 




Do 


Lonar 


10 Gairaukh temples 


370 


370 


370 




Do 


Do 


Dharamsala ..... 


50 


50 


50 




Do. 


Do 


Sq uare kund on the east of the town . 


50 


50 


50 




Do, 


Do. 


Old temple of Daityasudan 


76 


75 


75 




Do. 


Dhotra 


3 temples ..... 


100 


100 


100 




Do 


Satesjaon 


3 old temples of Vishnu 


50 


50 


50 , 




Do. 


Do. 


Images in the vicinity of the old temple 
of Vishnu. 


40 


40 


40 




Do. 


Peolgaon Raja 


Moti Samad 


25 


25 


25 




Do. 


Sake ga on 


Templo of Mahadeo .... 


40 


40 


40 




Do. 


Sindkhed Raja 


Stone masonry bnnd of big tank 


70 


70 


70 




Do. 


Do. 


17 welln near Cbandm Talao 


25 


25 


25 




Do. 


Do- 


Temple of Mabadeo .... 


40 


4<> 


40 




Do. 


Mcbkar 


Madhft monuments .... 


50 


50 


50 




Do 


Anjam Khurd . 


Masjid built after the old style . 


50 


50 


50 




Do. 


Fatehkhelda . 


Largo mosque ..... 


25 


25 


25 




Raipur . 
Do. 


Arang 
Sirpur . 


Old mined Jain temple 
Temple of Laxman .... 


15 
30 


15 
30 


18 
27 




Do. 


Do 


A new shelter for the sculptures 


65 


65 


64 




Do, 


Sirpur Aran? . 


Area round the Sirpur village and the 
mound to the east of Arang where 
there are certain monuments. 


15 


1C 


10 




Do. 


Baloda Bazar . 


Temple of Mahadeo and two structures 
at Narampur. 


10 


10 






Drug . . 


Deobaloda 


Sheo's temple ... 


8 
20 


SO 

so 


20 
20 




Do. 
Do. 


Oandai . 
Dhamd* . 


Temple of Shiva .... 


10 


10 


10 








Carried over . 




0,440 


6,446 (l 





230 
APPENDIX A contd. 



District.. 


Localitj 


Name ot work and description 


Amount 
of 
sanctioned 
estimate 


Allotment 
for the 

1994-25. 


Amount spent 1 
during the 
year 1924-26 


RKMAJUES. 


1 


2 


J 


4 


5 


6 


7 






Brought forward 


Rs. 


Ba. 

5,440 


Ra. A P. 

5,44J 








CKNTRAL PRO\ IUCES AND BKKAR contd. 










Drug . 


Deorbijiya 


Annual Repairs (recurring charges) car- 
ried out, by the Public Works Depart- 
ment- inntd 
Temple of Sita Devi and Sati pdlar . 


20 


20 


20 




Bilaspur 


Pali 


Mahadeo temple .... 


20 


20 


10 




DO 


Janjpr . 


The laige Vaishnava temple 


20 


20 


20 




O-x 


Khtirod . 


Bnck temple of Savan, south of the 
village 


8 


8 


800 




Do 


Do. . 


Small brick tern pie north of the village 


3 


3 


3 




Do 


Ratanpur 


The doorway built into the ruined wall 
beside the north gateway of the fort 
and the carved stone* and images 
lying about within the boundaries of 
the village 


20 


20 


185 




Do. 


Do. . 


The whole of the area round the town 


20 


20 






Do. 


Jangjir . 


Small temple ..... 





20 


20 




Do. 


Arbhar . 


Arbhar temple .... 


20 


20 


20 




Do. 


Sheormarayan 


Sheorinaraj an temple 


20 


20 


20 




Do 


Bemhu . 


Temple 


12 


12 


600 




Do. 


Patgawan 


Do 


10 


10 


500 




Do. 


Semaraol 


Pah inscription atone 


5 


5 


500 




Do. 


Sheonnarayan 


Inscription in old temple called Chan- 
dra Chuda Mahadeo temple. 


10 


10 


800 




Do. 


Kharod . 


Very old Surya temple 


15 


15 


800 




Do. 


Do 


Two inscriptions inside Laxmaneehwar 
templo. 


2 


2 


200 




Do. 


Chandrapur 


Temple of Mahadeo .... 


15 


15 


15 




Do. 
Do. 


Kanki Korba 
Pundkioh Chhuri 


J>0 


15 

IB 


15 
15 


15 
700 




Do. 


Close to Bag- 
dera. 


Chaitaurgarh ..... 


20 


20 


15 




Do. 
Do. 


Tutmin 
Dhtnpur 


The remains of a very ancient temple 
and mounds of sculptured and on- 
Boulptud ettneg. 

Rock 


10 

s 


10 

5 


800 
500 




Do. 


Bafidrra . 


Lafafort 


35 


25 


20 




Do. 


Kutmi . . 




25 


23 


600 






















Carried over . 




5.7W 


5,777 





231 
APPENDIX A contd. 



Diatnot 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of 
sanctioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924 26. 


Amount <*peut 
during the 
year 1924-?5. 


REMARKS. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


6 


7 








Rs 


P.8. 


Re. A. r. 








Brought forward 




8,705 


5.777 








CKNTRAL PEOVINCES AND BEBAK contd. 














Anntwl Repairs (recumng charges) ear- 
ned out by tht Public Works Depart- 














ment- tontd. 










Bilaapur 


Near Bargfton . 


Kotgath 


20 


20 


20 




Do. 


Mulhar . 


Malhar fort 


20 


20 


20 




Do, 


Bawanbadi 


Kosaigarh fort .... 


20 


20 


20 




Do, 


Konar . 


Konargarh fort .... 


20 


20 


300 




Do. 


Amanala 


Ajnurgarh fort .... 


5 


5 


500 




Do. 


Rat an pur 


Kantbi Deval temple 


10 


10 


800 




Do 


Do . 


MooBekhan'e Dargah 


5 





13 




Do. 


Do 


Madarbada 


C 


& 


500 




Do. 


Do. . 


Pandarinath temple in Qila 


10 


10 


600 




lloshancabad 


Jo a 


Mughal fort 


200 


200 


200 




Do. 


Panchmartu 


Caves 


15 


15 


1C 




Betal . 


Bhainsdehi 


Mahadeo temple .... 


20 


20 


20 




Do. 


Khelda . 


Foil with two fine gateways 


20 


20 


20 




Do. 


Shergarh 


Foit with two gateways . 


20 


20 


20 




Do 


Dhauiangaon . 


Temple of Devi .... 


5 


5 


o 




Nimar . 


Burhanpur 


Tomb of Shah Shuja 


43 


43 


33 




Do. 


Do. 


Tombs of Adil Shah and Nadir Shah . 


235 


236 


265 




Do. 


Do. 


Tomb of Shah Nawaz Khan 


118 


118 


110 




Do 


Do. 


Raja-ki-ohhatri .... 


110 


110 


98 




Do 


Do. 




53 


53 


110 




Do 


Do 


Palace in Fort .... 


128 


128 


171 




Do. 


Aaugarh . 


Mahadeo temple in Fort . 


108 


108 


78 




Do. 


Do. 


Mahadeo temple near Inspection Bun- 


96 


96 


60 








galow. 










Do. 


Do. 


Jumma Mssjid .... 


158 


158 


202 




Bo. 


Do, . 


Inner and outer walla of fort, with gatee 


213 


213 


180 










20 


20 


71 




J>>. 


Do. . 


Tomb of Shah Noman 


67 


67 


36 








Carried over 




7.5r9 


7,071 





232 
APPENDIX A contd. 



District. 


Locality 


Name of work and description. 


Amount oi 
sanctioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 
for tbe 
vear 
1924-25 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-25. 


REMARKS 


> 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 








Bo 


Re 


RB. A. P 








Brought forward 




7,539 


7,571 








CENTRAL PROVINCES AND BEBAH contd 














Annual Rppatra (recitrring charges) car- 
ried out by the Publv Works Depart- 
mentt. ontil 










Nimar 
Co. 


Asirgarb . 
Do. . 


Tomb of Sbab Gobar, vnth compound 
wall. 
Idgah , front wall with open platform 


5 
29 


35 
29 


41 
70 




Do 


Do. . 


Approach road to tbe fort 


445 


445 


- 227 




Do. 


Nimbola . 


Colonel Praaer's tomb 





60 


60 




Jubbulpui 


Bheragbat 


Cbowsat Jogini temple 


85 


85 


85 




Do. 


Garba . 


Pancbmatha temple 


181 


133 


133 




Do 


Do 


Madan Mahal 


179 


179 


179 




Do 


Bheraghat 


Goun Sbankar temple . . . 


73 


75 


75 




Do. 


Tegowa . 


Kankali DPVI temple 


28 


28 


28 




Do 


Padana . 


Rupnath ..... 


It) 


10 


16 




Do. 


Panagar . 


Large effigy of Vishnu Varaba 


5 


5 


500 




Do. 
Do 
Do 


Kantalai 
Nanbwara 
Bilhen . 


Kaohha and Machba (Tortowe and 
I'ish) 
8 Htone Jain images and a Hindu 
temple 
Vishnu Varaba temple 


10 
2 
15 


3 
2 
15 


300 
200 
15 




Do. 


Karanpur 


Varaba ner.r Kantalai 


44 


36 


36 




Do. 
Do 
Manilla . 


Do . 
Burgann . 
Mandla . 


3 Tumuli and a Lmga and Rtatuee of 
Ganenb and Hanuman. 
Temple of Somnath and ruins of several 
temples 
Gond fort called Satkhanda 


8 
12 
158 


8 
12 
158 


800 
12 
158 




Do. . 


Do 


Shabburj 


152 


162 


162 




Do. . 
Damoh . 


ChnugaoQ Hyot- 
wari 
Smgergarh 


Bajnim Mabal 
Singergarh fort .... 


255 

62 


255 
62 


255 

62 




Do. . 


Nobta . 


Temple 


25 


25 


25 




Do . 


Kundalpnt 


One flat roofed temple below tbe bill . 


6 


6 


600 




Do. . 


Rajnagar . 


Fort 


19 


10 


19 




Do. . 


H*tt4x . 


Rangmahal Palace .... 


10 


19 


19 




Do. . 


Kauorabari 


Temple ...... 


37 


37 


87 




Oo. 


Jatatihonkar 


Fort ... . 


37 


87 


37 




Do. 


Sekhar . 


Temple ... 
Carried over , 


13 


12 


12 6 


> 




6.477 


0,354 



233 

APPENDIX A.~-contd. 



District, 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 

of 
sanctioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924.25. 


Amount went 
during the 
year 1924*25. 


RBMARK3. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 








RH. 


Rs. 


Rs. A. P. 








Brought forward 




9,477 


<J,364 








OBNTBA& I'ROVINCES ANU BBBAR 
con -Id. 
Annual Repairs (recurring charge*) car- 
ried out by the Public Works Depart- 
ment toncld.. 










Damoh 


Raneh . 


Math . .... 


25 


25 


25 




Do. . 


Kodal . 


Old temples ab . 


].f 


13 


13 




Do. . 
Do. . 
$ugor . 
Do. . 


Narsingarh 
Kanoda . 
Kran 
Bamoda . 


Mogque on Narsinghgarh-Batiaujarh 
road. 
Remains of old sculptured temple attit- 
buted to Chandelas. 
Buixied temple with other statues 
closed JD a svire fencing 
Temple 


31 
62 
132 
6 


31 

02 
129 


31 
02 
129 U 
500 




Do. . 


Garparha 


Sish Mahal and Rani Mahal 


67 


85 


85 




Do. . 
D 


Khirolasaa 


Tomb of Panj Pirs .... 


69 

59 


57 

J50 


57 

50 




Do. . 
Do 


Raliatgarh 
Deon 


Do 


m 

35 


110 
30 


110 
30 




Chhmdwara . 


Deogarh . 


l>0 


79 


79 


79 




Narsmghpur . 


Chowragarh 


Temple m the fort .... 


58 


68 


68 








TOTAL 




10,221 


10,088 








Agency charges at 23 per cent 






2,320 








TOTAL ANKUAL REPAIRS 






12,408 





SUMMARY 



Special Repairs earned out by the Pubhc Works Department 
Annual Repairs earned out by thf Pubhn Work* Department 



GftAND TOTAL B-OR CBNTBAL PEOVIHOES . 
Summary of Expenditure incurred on Conservation in the Ct-ntral Circle. 



KB 

12,301 
12,408 

24,799 



Province. 


Total amount spent 
on special repairs 


^ Total amount *pent 
on annual repainu 


TOTAL. 




Rs. 
14,177 


Rs. 
3,922 


K*. 
18,099 


Central Provinces 


12.391 


12,408 


24799 


TOTAL 


26,568 


10,320 


42,898 


GRAND TOTAL 


.... 


1 


42,898 








2 i 



234 

APPENDIX A contd. 

(b) EXPENDITURE ON CONSERVATION 

Eastern Circle. 



District. 


Looalitv 


Xurne of work and description. 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-25 


REMARKS. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 








RB. 


Re. 


Rs. <u r. 








Special Repairs (iron rc^umnq charges) 
ran ied oui by thf Public Wwis 
Department 










Rajshahi 


Doopaiu . 


VmHti notion of boundary pillars round 
the lank 


14T) 


145 


143 


Completed. 


Do 


K iiHutnba 


Moyqa* 


1,844 


600 


097 


Do 


Malda . 


(<aur 


Daraftban Masjid 


2,512 


1,750 


1,813 


In progress 


Do 


Guur & Pandua 


Purchasing and fixing notice boards to 


250 


250 


179 


Do. 


Do. 


(Janr 


JM^ui wall .... 


1,000 


GOO 


624 


Completed, 


Burdwan 


Gaurangpur 


Tehai Oh use's temple 


952 


000 


520 


In progress. 


Do. 


Buddipoie 


Pioviclmg wire fencing round the com- 
pound of and special repairs to the 


422 


422 


420 


Completed. 


Murshidabad 


Kluuaul . 


Providing vure fencing round the 
moftque 


1.083 


600 


520 


Do. 


Dacca . 


Dacca 


Surveying the monuments* 


8 





300 


IX,. 


Do, . 




Purchasing and fixing notice boardu 
to monument* in the Dacca din 

tnct 


117 

+848 


]70 


123 


In progress. 


Do . 


Dacca . 


Hatgambu/ mosque (constructing 
Iwunrian pillars). 


33 


33 


25 


Completed. 


Do . 


Atonhkhana 


Mosque of Khan Muhammad Mirdha 


3,714 


2,000 


1.920 ( 


In progress. 


Do. . 


Kampal . 


Ma-sjid of Baba Adam 


14,335 


1,000 


700 


Do. 


Do . 


Kagb uratupu r 
(near Ram- 


Raja Han^hchan<lra'R tank (fixing of 
notice board). 


5 


5 


500 


Completed. 


Khutna . 


Maeiidkur 


Khan Ji-ban Ali'f. moRque 


800 


BOO 


773 


Do. 


Do. 




F'roviding notice boarfiw to tlie monu- 
ment m th Khulna Distntt. 

TOTAL 


142 


80 


62 


Do. 




9,058 


8,433 






Agency charges f? 21 i>er tent. . 
TOTAL 






1,771 








10^04 



235 
APPENDIX A covtd. 



Dbtrict. 


Locality 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 
ior the 
year 
1924-2&. 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1024-20. 


RWIABJLS, 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 





7 






HK> o Air TO ntd 


KB. 


Ra 


Es. A. P. 








fipetml KejmitK {non-returnny tharge*) 
turned oat by the Arthaiulogical 
Department 










Bankura 


Yiahnupur 


19 teiiipleN m and ueai \ i-hnupui 


12,513 


71)4 


704 I) 


'omploted. 


Do 


Bahulaia 


Hiddhes^ar tomple 


B, 023 


(49 


(149 


Do. 


Bxrbhum 
Do 


Kenduh 
Bhadiswai 


Teni])le of .lavdfx (Land acquisi- 
tion ) 
Morniih 


:t22 


322 
247 


322 
247 


Do. 
In pi ogress. 


Dacca . 


Sabhar 


Do. . . . 




W)7 


007 


Do. 


Do . 


Baghurampui 
(neat Rampal) 


IUja Haiihluhandia't- Tank 




5,327 


5,327 ') 


Do. 






TOTAL 




7,80(5 


7,85<i O 








GUAVli TOTAL SPKCIAL RKPA1RH . 






18,060 








Annual Rajmira (re* urnttg charyvi) 
rarrtfil out fry/ the PxHtC Worl* 
Dcpirttnent. 










-24-Parganas . 


SunderbanB 


Jatar Deul temple 


74 


74 


74 O 




Hooghly 


Tnbeni . 


Tomb and Mosque <f Zafar Khan (UAI 


73 


75 


72 




Do. 


Satgaon . 


Tomb and Mosque .... 


30 


3U 


30 




Do. 


Serampore 


Henry Martin's Pagoda . 


194 


194 


153 




iBurdwan 


Burdwan 


Tombs of Hher Afghan, Kutubuddm 
and Bahram Sakka 


82 


82 


83 




Do. 


Bamoonarab 


Rarhoswar Siva temple 


K2 


82 


(Ml 




Do 


Buddipore 


Two ancient temples 


5( 


50 


JU) 




Do. 


Gaurangpur 


Ichai Qhose's temple 


103 


103 


.18 




Do. 


Kalna . 


Two moacLueis . 


(X) 


00 


71 




fiirbhum 


Kenduh . 


Temple of Juydev . 


.V) 


50 


48 




Do. 
Do. 


Sanatore 


Temple of Damodai 


35 
248 


3.) 
24S 


34 
247 




Bankura 
Do 


Vishnupur 
Do. 


19 temples in and near Vifehnupur 


581 
4 


581 
4 


189 

400 






















Carried over 


" 


1,698 


1,479 
















2i 3 



236 
APPENDIX A contd. 



Dwtfiot. 


locality 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-28. 


REMARKS. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


C 


6 


' 7 








R. 


Bs. 


US. A. P. 








Brought forward 




1,698 


1,479 








BBKQAL contd. 














Annual Repair* (recurring charges) 
carried nut by tfic Ptif.fa JJ'orfcs 
Depart me i contd . 










Jlunkura 


Bahulara 


KirldhcH-war teraple .... 


as 


38 


38 




Do 


iSiiHiima tullh 


Rot k inscription of Raja Chandra 
Vaiman 


18 


18 


17 




Midnapore 


Gaganeewar 


Karambora Fort 


219 


181 


167 




Murshidabftd 


Kharaul . 


Mosque .,,... 


221 


182 


191 C 




Do. 


Kntra 


Tomb and mosque of Murshid Kub 
Khan 


200 


161 


174 




Do 


Fandtola 


Torab of Ahrmadan 


10 


15 


10 




Do. 


KhiiBhbagh 


Tombs of Siraj-ud-daula, All Wardi 
Khan and mausoleum and com- 
pound wall 


121 


121 


111 




Do. 


Rosbnibagh 


Tomb of Shujauddm including mauso- 
Ifvum. 


110 


119 


132 




Do. 


Ulbagh . 


Tomb of Nawab Sarfaraz Khan 


6 










Do. 


Kalikapur 


Old Dutch Cemetery 


18 


IB 


18 




Do. 


Azimbagh 


Tomb of Azimunnesa Bej?um 


23 


23 


22 




Do, 


Kunjaghata 


Tablet of Maharaj* Nanda Kumai . 


2 


2 


200 




tfadia 


Kaligunj 


New Plassey monument . 


67 


67 


41 




Do. . 


Plassey . 


Pillars demarcating th* battle-field . 


53 


53 


53 




Do. . 


OhftkduH 


Palpai a temple .... 


50 


51) 


48 




RJfihahi 
Do 


Bagha . 
Do. 


Mosque 


200 


200 


174 
24 


Expenditure from 


Do 


Kvuumba 


Do .... 


160 


160 


126 


April 1924 to Jim* 
1924 Agaraat the 
sanctioned esti- 
mate fur Rs. 226 
for 1923-24. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do 






24 


E* nditurc from 














Ap^ilieiTtoJune 
1924 against tho 
sanofctottod wti* 














mate for EU. 22 
for 1923-24. 






C*mii oTnr * 





3,102 


2,887 





237 

APPENDIX A contd. 



District, 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of aoo- 
tioned 
eatimate. 


Allotment 
tot the 
year 
1924-25. 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-25. 


RWAM 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


G 


7 








Re 


IU 


Rs. A* f. 








Brought forward 




3.102 


2,867 








BENGAL COBcW. 










Rajahahi 


Paharpur 


Annual Repairs (recurring charges) 
carried out by the Public Works 
Departme nt conoid. 

Mound 


84 


84 


63 




Do 


Do 


Do 






29 


Expenditure from 


Malda . 


Gaur & Pandua 


Archaeological buildings 


2,600 


2,600 


2,364 


April 1924 to June 
1924 against the 
sanctioned esti- 
mate for Ba. 106 
for 1923 24. 


Dacca . 


Lalbagh . 


Tomb of Bibi Pen .... 


65 


65 


44 




Do. . 


Satmaajid 


Satgambuz Mosque .... 


99 


03 


65 




Do, . 


Munahiganj . 


Remains of Idrakpur Fort 


49 


49 


42 




Da . 


Magrapara 


Tomb of Ghiyasuddin Azatn Shah 


20 


20 


18 




Da . 


Dacca 


Maintenance of a Chowkidar to look 
after the archaeological buildings in 
the Hamna Sub-Division. 


144 


108 


108 




Myznensingh . 
Do 


Ag&rsindur 
Do 


Shah Mahmud Mosque 


19 
27 


19 
27 


IS 
26 




Do. 






31 


31 


29 




Do 


Masjidpara 


Aurangzeb Mosque .... 


17 


17 


17 




Khulna 

Do. . 

Bakarganj . 


Bagerhat 

Masjidpur 
Moajidbari 


Satgumbai Mosque .Khan Jahan All's 
and Fir All's tombs. 

Mosque of Khan Jahan Ah 
Mosque 


396 

00 
30 


396 

41 

30 


432 

41 
23 


Including expend v- 
tore of EU 36 
incurred from 
April to June 1924 
not covered by 






TOTAL 




6,572 


6,166 








Agency charges @ 21 per cent. . 






1,296 








TOTAL AxnrVAL RXPAIBS . . 






7,461 





SjpeeUl Repair. 
Special Repair* 
Annual Repair* 



SUMMARY. 

out by the Public Work* Department. . 
out by the Archaeological Department . 
rat by the PubLo Work* Department , 



E* 

1(1204 
7.856 



OBAND TOTAJ, KOB I 



7,461 
25,021 



238 
APPENDIX A cvntd. 

















District. 


locality 


Name of work and description 


Amount 
of Bane- 
tionc'd 
e^timatxj 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-26. 


REMARKS. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


"' 


6 


7 








RH 


Rs 


Its A. t 








ASSAM. 














Special Repairs (non-recurring charges) 
earned out by the Public Works 














Department. 










feibMtgar 


Sibsagar 8ub- 
Dmwon 


Fixing notice boards 


270 




207 


Completed. 


i>0. 


Naxirw, . 


Surveying and levelling the palace 
ground of Abom Rajas at Garhgaon 


2fi 




25 


Do. 


Do. 


Do 


The palace of the Ahotn Raj at* at Garb.- 


1,636 


1,428 


693 


Do. 






gaon for 1923-24 










Do 


Sibeagar . 


Katmandu attached to the Sibdolc 


204 


204 


209 


Do. 






temple for 1923-24 










Do 


Gaurisagar 


Bishnudole temple tor 1924-25 . 


213 


213 


213 


Do. 


Do. 


Jaysagar 


Runghar rum* for 1923-24 . . 


887 


332 


1H9 


Do. 


Do. 


Do 


Karanphor rums for 1924-25 


1,191 


1,191 


1,214 


Do. 


Do. 


Golaghat Sub- 
Division. 


Protection of the image of Durgu 


20 


25 


20 C 


Do. 


Do 


Do. 


Monoliths at Kfteoman Pathar . 


728 


300 


300 


Do. 


Naga Hilla . 


Dimapur 


Fixing of a notice board in the ruins . 


27 


15 


15 3 


Do 


Cftchar . 


Mtabong . 


Erecting notice board at the rock out 
temple 




23 


23 


Do. 


Sylhet . 


Jamtiapur Niz- 
pat. 


Old Palace enclosure 


565 


000 


135 


In progress 


Cachar . 


Khaspur 


Erection of notire boards in front of 


2fl 








Sylhet . 


Badarpur 


Cahari rums nt Khaepur and Old Fort 
at Badarjrar 


275 


275 


271 


Completed. 


iKamrup 


Gauhati . 


Providing pathway to the temple at 
Kannachaf 


109 


199 


192 13 


Do. 






TOTAL 
Agency charges @ 23 per cent. . 




4,805 


3,761 
865 








TOTAL SPECIAL RKpAins . 






4,620 O 








Annual Repair* (recurring charge*) 
carried out by 0* Public Works 










S.bsagar 


Sibeagar . 


tepartment 
Three temples . 


300 


300 


312 




Do 


fjaunaagar 


Ditto 


100 


100 


161 




Do. 


Jayuagar 


Ditto 


300 


300 






Do. 


Do. 


Runghbr Ruins .... 


150 


150 


150 




Do. 


Do. 


Karnughar Ruins . . . . , 


250 


260 


240 




Do. 


Do. 


Oolaghar or Magazine 


100 


100 


99 




Do. 


Nazira . 


Ahom Raja's palace at Oarhgaon 


200 


200 


190 




Naga HUla . 


Dirnapur 


Rums l . . . . 


400 


317 






Darraug , 


Bigtmath 


Bfttdole temple 


100 


100 


85 








" Carried OTW 




1,867 


1.882 16 





239 

APPENDIX A contd. 



Diatrict. 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
estimate 


Allotment 
for the 
vear 
1924-25. 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1984-2C. 


REMARKS- 


1 


2 


3 


4 


C 


6 


7 








R. 


Rs 


Rs. A. P 








Brought forward 




1,807 


l,8r.2 15 




Darrang 


Texpur . 


ASSAM -fow/rf. 
Amntal Repair* (recurring cliarflte) 
earned out by the Public Work* 
department com 1 Id 
Bamum Hills . . 


70 


7. r > 


75 




Do. . 


Dt>. . 


Maintenance of platform at the Muni- 
cipal Park. 


45 


4fl 


45 




Ooalpara 


Jogighopa 


Two rook-out caves .... 


20 


20 


20 




Katrirup 


Kamakhya 


Rock inscription at the foot of Kama- 
khya hill. 


10 


10 


10 




Do. . 
Do. . 


Gauhati . 
Do. 


Carving inscription on the Urbasi 
Island 

Bock soultpture of Vtuhnu Janardan . 


10 
30 


30 
30 


10 
30 




Caohar . 


Khaspur 


Caohari ruins ..... 


275 


275 


271 




Do. . 


Maibong . 


Rock -out temple and two inscribed 
stoned. 


10 


10 


720 




Sylhet . 


Badarpur 


Old Fort 


20 


20 


20 




Do. . 

Khasi and 
Jaintia Hilia. 
Do. 


Jaintiapur Niz- 
pat. 
Syndai . 

Nartianc 


Old palace enclosure ... 
Tank . ... 
Monolith (U Mowthoh Dur) . 


iop 

> CO 


100 
50 


95 2 
fiO 




Do. 


Bhoi Country 


Ditto ditto 














TOTAL 
Agency charges (^ 23 per cent. 




2,012 


2.4=80 3 
572 








TOTAL ANNUAL REPAIRS 






3,038 3 





HUM MARY 

Special Repairs carried out by the Public Works Department 
Annual Repairs carried out by the Public Works Department 



Rs. A. * 
. 4,626 
. 3,058 3 



D TOTAL r>n ASSAM . 7,884 3 
Summary of E&pewfatwtf incwied on dmteivat'ion in the. Eastern Circle. 



Province. 


Total amount spent 
on special repairs. 


Total amount spent 
on annual repanrs. 


TOTAL. 


Awam '.'.I'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 
TOTAL 


Rl. A. P. 

18,060 
4,626 


Rs. A. P. 
7,461 
3,068 3 


Rs A. F. 
20,521 
7,684 3 


22,680 


10,519 3 


33.203 3 


GRAND TOTAL 






33,200 3 



240 

APPHNDIX 
(b) EXPENDITURE ON CONSERVATION, 
Southern Circle. 



Di/ttrict. 


locality 


Name of work and deacnption 


Amount 
estimate 


Allotment 
for the 

1924 a 25 


Amount spent 
dunn$ the 
year 1924-25 


REMARKS 


1 


2 





4 


r, 


6 


7 








us 


Us 


Us A v 








Njn>(int Repair* (-non -rccw ring rharg() 
carried out by the Public \\ork 
J)ejxirtn>etit 










Vi/apapatani 


liamatu thum 


Buddhist lemamK. Hpeoml icpaith to 
watchman's shed 


90 


62 


(12 




Kmtnii . 


MaBulipotam 
(Bandar) 


Arwnnl and fSodowiiB known a* Poit 
and Customs, Powder Magazine, 
Tombw and cemeteries, Belfiv and 
thf cnnipound round the same 


coo 


'180 


421 




Do 


OJudmada 


Mound containing Buddhist remains 
Kepaiix to Notice board at Lania- 
dibhn 


23 


H 17) 


16 




Do 

Guntur 
Nellore 


Guntapalle 

Motxipallc 
Udayapiri 


Butldihut Monument K ProMsion of 
a Teakwood notice board and fixing 
m concrete 
Vitahhadra ( 1 hola tern pit- 
Ancient Monumonts Special repairs 
(WorkHhp) 


30 
l,09fi 
2,'oOO 


( + 30) 

140 
250 


28 ( 

223 

338 


An incomplete work 
of last year 


Do 


Do, 


Am lent Monuments PIOUMOII of 
noti.t board 


130 


130 


141 




Aauntupur 


Gooty 


Hoik fort Special jepairn 


302 


369 


234 


In progress 


J)o 


Madakasira 


flill Fort Special repairs 


<12 


62 


40 


Completed, 


lo 


Kantbaduru 


(HdKiva temple Hjwial rejiairh 


02 


02 


62 


Do. 


Do 


Ratnagiri 


Hill Fort Special repairs 


80 


81 


00 


Do. 


Ilo. 


Penukonda 


Ancient Monuments Renewal of 
Notice lward 




140 


73 




iWUry 


Thimmalapuram 


Kiva and GopalaUmhna templen 


330 


330 


180 


In progress. 


Do 


Nilagunda 


Bhimesvara temple . 


148 


148 


120 


Completed. 


Do 


Hampi (Vijaya- 
nugar). 
Do 


Vitthala temple .... 
HepairK to Sign Boards < . 


250 
200 


116 


199 
I 


Do. 


Do. 


Do 


Vishnu temple North-east of Vitthala 
temple 


16f> 




18 




Do 


Do 


Guard room clone to Elephant Stables 


250 


250 


174 




Do 


Jk>. 


' Saraarathi temple near Water channel 


245 


245 


185 




Do. 


Do. 


Basement of Queen's Palace near 
Zenana enclosure. 


190 


190 


154 




Do. 


Do. 


Elephant Studies .... 


230 


230 


171 








Carried over 





3,586 


2,896 





241 
APPENDIX A contd 



District. 


Locality 


Name of work wd description. 


Amount 
of sane, 
tioned 
estimate 


Allotment 
for the 
vetvi 
1924 25 


Amount Mpent 
during the 
vear 1 924-2.5 


RKMARKS. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


(i 


7 








Rs. 


Kh 


RH A r 








Bioughtforwftid 




3,86 


2,896 








MADRAS PBimDKNCY COHtd. 














Spectal Repaira (non-recurring charge*) 














carried out by the Public Works De- 














partment contd 










Bellary . 


Hampi (Vijaya- 


Hazara Hamarhandia temple 


200 


14(( 


14.1 o 




Do. 


nagar) 
Do 


Road to Vitthala temple . 


200 




147 




Do. 


Do 


Large underground temple 


200 


144i 


KiO O O 




Do. 


Do. 


Chanel rasekhai a temple 


20O 


185 


1 (>."> 




Do. 


Do 


Octagonal Watei Pavilion 


100 




79 o 


In pnwvMf. 


Do. 


Do. 


Two storeyed Mandapa 


KiO 




120 


I',. 


Do. 


Do 


Aehyutaraya templo 


94 


Mi 


74 O 


Puiupletecl. 


Do 


Do 


Krishna templo 


200 




157 


Do 


Do. 


Do 


Basement of King's Audience Hall 


30 




41 


Du. 


Do. 


Do 


Pftttabhiranm temple 


200 


140 


}(\2 


In progitisi 


Do. 


Do 


Jain temple 


100 




82 


Completed 


Do. 


Do. 


Queen's Bath .... 


A3 


73 


43 O 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Attantaaayana temple 


s:> 


24(5 


4."i 


D- 


Do 


Do. 


Removal of rank vegetation in old 


200 




13 








Water Supply Scheme. 










Do. 


Do 


Laying out new road to Vitthala 






1,258 


Do. ThiB work was 






temple 








paid for by the 


Cuddapah 


Peddaitmdiem 


Dismantling tho ruined mandapa in 
front of Narasimha temple owing to 


1*30 




119 


t Vntral (vovarn- 
ment m 1922-23 






its dangeroufl condition 








and the expendi- 














ture has now been 


Do 


Chilamkuru 


Vipnesvara temple ... 


)H 


1H 


13 


refunded by tho 














ftovemmeut of 


Do. 


Sidhout . 


Fort and its buildings 


205 


209 


179 


Madras and la 














here shown M a 


Do. . 


Pushpagm 


Vaidyanathaswami temple . . 


Bfi 


( + 70) 


48 


i eduction of the 


Do. . 


Qandikota 


Fort and temple Provision of lock 
and key and petty repair*. 


40 


( + 40) 


39 ) 


total expenditure. 


Madras . 


Madras . 


West Bastion m the Old Ma draw Town 


4.1 


56 


42 


KB. 12areth sale 






wall 








procwdB of two 


South Kanara 


Mudabidri 


17 Jain Tom be. Providing 2 notice 
boards and transferring 2 more 
notice boards from Hosdrug and 
removal of rank vegetation. 


73 


93 


i 02 
(. 12 


notion boarda re- 
moved from the 
Huadrug Fort 
which has been 














deleted from the 














Lut of Protected 














Monument*. 


Do. 


Barkur . 


KathaJa Basti temple. Providing 
notice boards, repairs to covering 
slabs and pillars and parapet waits, 


540 


?4rt 


219 


Inp.o^resr. 






etc. 














Carned over 




5,416 


3,930 





242 

APPENDIX A contd. 









Amount 


Allotment 






Distuct. 


Locality 


Name of work and dent upturn 


of sane- 
tioaed 
t>htnnato 


for the 
year 
1924 25 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-25 


REMABKB. 


1 


2 


rt 


4 


5 


<> 


7 








1th 


KH 


Ks A v. 








Brought forward 




5,416 


3,939 








MAI>RAS PRESIDENCY- conM. 














Special Repair* (non-recurring charges) 
carried out by the Public Works 














Departmen 1 contd 










Salem . 


Sankatuimg 


Hill Foit (a) Removing prukly poar 


3<K> 


16.1 


57 


Iric oinplete work 






along the ramparts and uteps for 
providmg drystone walln at the 








of last year com- 
pleted during 






Hides of steps and pointing worn oul 








the year. 






joints with coloured uiortar Gul- 














lies formed were filled up and side 














drams were excavated to prevent 














further gullies forming along the 














pathways 














(b) Hough stono dry packing with new 


150 


( + 1.50) 


1,10 


Completed 






tones, pointing with eurki mortar 














arid removing vegetation and earth- 














work in gravelling soil 










Do. 


Namakkal 


Hill Foit Pointing with coloured 


Hfj 


123 


54 


Do. 






mortar, removing, reflxing and re- 














painting letters in notion boards,, re- 














moving and repacking drystone 














wall and clearing vegetation 










Do. 


Altui 


Hill Fort. Plastering, with lime 


""( 












rnoitar, removing old plaster and 
ra< king out joints, laying one course 














of fiat tilea in lime mortar, re- 














moving prickly pear, grass and otbei 
vegetation and keeping all water 
course* and providing a kntel 


> 1U5 


^ 246 


186 8 


Do* 






Removal of prickly pear and brushes 


j 30 


J 






Do. 


Royakottai 


Hill Fort Earthwork, rough stone 


160 


180 


140 6 6 


JJo. 






revetment and removing prickly 














pear, etc. 










Do. . 


Kruhnagm 


Hill Fort. Rough Btone dry packing, 
making up top of rampart walfo 
with concrete jelly, wedging crevices, 


300 


359 


290 


Do, 






removing hug* boulders ahpped in 














step*, making mufootpnnto cleaning 














cult and sJuah from tank and clearing 










Coimbatore . 


Kuntur . 


prickly peer and vegetation. 
Mahalingmvara temple. Plastering, 
and pointing with coloured mortar 


13 


(+16) 


4 13 


Do. 






and removing light jungle and 














Hhruba. 










Do. , 


&roar Periya- 
patayam. 


Sugnvesvara temple. Special repairs 


400 


(-MS) 


090 


No work was dpne 
during this yZar, 


Xilgmn . 


Kotagin . 


Group of Dolmens in Banaguduhola 
of Jakkenen. 


30 


50 


23 5 


Completed. 


North Arct.t . 


Mamandar 


Rook-out temple, imbedding a ttonen 


80 


62 


80 


Do. 






containing macnptionfi in mortar 














and oonstructing a masonry pillar 














poei aupporting 














Carried ovr . 




e,?g7 


i.BSl 9 6 





243 
APPENDIX A sontd. 



District 


locality 


Name of work and description 


Amount 

tinned 
estimate 


Allotment 
for the 
ve,r 
1924-25 


Amount npont 
during the 
vrai 1924-2JS 


RKKAEKS. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


' 


" 


7 








Rs. 


Hs 


Rs A r. 








Brought forward 




6,77 


4,931 9 








MAUBAS PKESIDKKCY- cnntd 














SpecHil JRepatrs (non-recurnnff ikargra) 
< arrted out by the Public Works De- 
parttruint conoid 










.North Aroot . 


Vellorc . 


Fort. Inner Rampart walls of 
Repacking the disturbed revet- 
ment 


790 


1,239 


133 


Completed. 


Do. . 


Do . 


Jalakanteevara temple in the Forl 
Renewing rotten timbers 


175 


( I 215) 


171 


Do. 


Do. . 


Villapakkam 
(Pauchapan- 
davu malai). 


Rock -cut sculptures and Caves Provi- 
sion of iron railings and notice 
boards. 


125 


m 


90 


Do. 


Do. . 


Pudupadi 


Vodanarayanaperumal temple 
Grouting c racks, etc 


10 


( f-123) 


200 


Do. 


Do. . 


Biyyamangalam 


Rook-cut temple and sculptures . 


100 


( i 123) 


09 


Do. 


Do. . 


Tirumalai 


Jam temple Plastering and closing 
oraeks. 


2:J 


(+21) 


17 


Do. 


South Aroot . 


Gingee . 


Fort and its buildings. Special re- 
paira 


3,321 


3,321 


2,0*5 4 


In progroM. 


Madura 


Alagarkoil 


Ancient manumento in Panchapandava, 
malai. 




124 


S3 8 


Do. 


Tanjore 


Tranquebar 


Danes borg Castle. Special repairs 


1,3.'W 


(4372) 


372 




Do, 


Negapatam 


Dutoh Cemetery Special repairs 


IfiO 


186 


148 


Completed. 


Tionevelly 


Tutioonn 


Dutch Cemetery. Special repairs to 
the tombs. 


320 


65 


55 


1*0. 


Adiohanall 


Adichanallur . 


Prehistoric remains. Repairs to 
Notice boards. 


34 


34 


33 


Do. 


Aajengo 


Anjengo 


Old Fort. Special repairs 


370 


370 


37ft 


Do. 


Trfohinopoly . 


Srinivasanallur. 


Koranganathan temple. Special re- 
pairs. 


200 


248 


115 


Do. 


Do. 


Ranjangudi 


Ranjangudi Fort Special repairs . 
TOTAL 


040 


310 


260 


Do. 




13,601 


aM2 r, (i 






Agency charges @ 23 per cent. . 
TOTAL 






2,192 








11,724 5 6 






Special Rtpeur* (non-recurring charge*) 
earned ovJt by f&e Archaeological De- 
partment. 










3oirobtoce . 


Danayakankot- 

tai. 


Ancient moanmenta Clearance of 
vegetation executed dep&rtraentally. 

TOTAL 
GBAKD TOTAL SPBCIAL SKFAIBS 


460 


400 


400 






4#0 


400 O 





14,061 


12,124 5 6 



244 

APPENDIX A- -contd. 



District. 


Ux-aliU 


Nairn- nf work and description 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
estimate 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1024-25 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-25 


REMARKS. 


1 


2 


;j 


4 


> 





7 








Rs 


Rs 


Rs A p 








MADBAN I'KEMDKMY contcl 














Annual Repairs (recurring charges) efe~ 
ruted by the Public Work* Dtpart- 
menl 










Uanjfim 


,1 aiign da . 


Asoka Bock Inscription** 


50 


02 


45 




Do 


Kottakolla 


Siva temple on Brudhakolle hill. 


SO 


98 


80 




Vitagapatnm . 


Sankaratu 


Buddhist remain*. Maintenance of 
a watchman 


144 


144 


144 




Do. 


ilamatirtbam . 


Ditto .... 


144 


144 


144 




KlbtllH . 


Bezwadft 


Vkkanna Mad anna Cave temple 


2 





200 




Do. 


Do . 


Tw. celled whrinc at the fool of Indra- 
kila hill in Public Work* Department 
Quarry compound 


2 


( + 2) 


200 




Do 


Mogahajapuram 


Rock-cut temples 


7 


7 


700 




Do 


laggayyaper, . 


Buddhist Stupa. Maintenance of a 
watchman 


IflO 


197 


136 




Do. 


Adamalh 


Ancient Mounds Petty repairs and 
removal of vegetation. 


19 


(+18) 


18 




Do. 


Quntapalle 


Buddhist stupas, chaityas and Rock-cut 
oaves. Maintenance of a watchman 
and clearance of vegetation. 


179 


179 


9fi 




Do. 


'(Bandar) 


Dutch Cemetery 


55 


123 


40 




Guniur 


Amaravati . 


Buddhist Stupa Maintenance of a 
watchman 


90 


123 


111 




Nellore . 


Udayagm 


Ancient monuments in Hill Fort 


365 


390 


295 




Anantapur 


(Sooty 


Rock Fort Annual repairs 


584 


431 


399 




Do 


Pcnukonda 


Ancient monuments Maintenance of 
a watchman. 




369 


253 




BeUary . 


Hampi (Vijaya- 
nagarj. 


Employment of watchmen to look after 
Hampi Ruins. 


1,475 


1,000 


938 




Chingtoput . 


Mahaba lipuram 


Seven Pagoda*. Pay of 2 permanent 
watchmen 


900 


372 


300 




Do. 


Do. 


Seven Pagodas. Pay of 2 watering 
coolies for 6 months 


150 


135 


120 




Do. 


Do 


Seven Pagodas Maintenance of roads 
and pathwnyn 


500 


500 


408 




1)0. 


C'biu^Ioput 


Ther Mahal. Annual r*{* ue . 


100 


196 


149 




Do 


Sadras . 


Dutch oemc try and fort . . . 


145 


179 


148 




Do 


Pulioat , 


Do. ... 
Carried over 


160 


310 


188 







4,984 


3,987 



245 
APPENDIX A contd. 



District 


Locality 


Name <f work and description 


Amount 
of anc 
tioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25 


Amount pent 
during the 
year 1924-25 


REMARKS. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


a 


6 


7 








Rs 


Rs 


RS. A 1' 








Brought forwaicl 




4,9*4 


3,987 








MADRAS PBKSiKNCiY--rofc/. 














Annual Repair* (recurrmg charge*) exe- 
cuted by the Public Works De- 
partment. contd 










Chittoor 


t'handragm 


Raja and Ram Mahals. Union tax . 




231 


381 




Do 


Do. 


Inspection Bungalow Annual repairs 


65 


183 


288 




Do. 


Gurramkoada . 


Mahal Maintenance of a watchman . 


144 


123 


143 




Cuddapa 


Gandikota 


Fort and temple. Maintenance of a 
watchman 


9 


44 


44 


W atohman employ 
ed only from 
17th September 
1924. 


Kurnool 


Kurnool 


Ancient monuments in Town 


If) 


(f!4) 


14 




Madras . 


Madras 


Tomb of David Yale and Joseph Hym- 
nere in the Law College compound. 


20 


31 


20 








Obelwk R. S 










Do. 


1>0 . 


No. 1697 .... 


9 


10 


700 




Do. 


Do. . 


No 1816 .... 





15 


800 




Do. 
Do. 


1>0. . 

Do. 


No. 1793 
No. 1704 


9 
7 


15 
15 


800 





Do. 


Do. . 


Old Town Wall Annual repairs and 
Municipal tax 


f 95 
I 98 


120 
( + 112) 


J 187 




Malabar 


Palghat . 


Fort Removal of vegetation from fort 
wall and water hyacinth from the 
moat. 


500 


123 


122 




Do. 


TeUwherry 


Fort. Removal of vegetation and roots 
from walls. 


123 


123 


93 




Do. 


Sultan's Battery 


Jam temple Removal of vegetation . 


25 


20 


25 




South Kanara 


Bekal . 


Fort Removal of vegetation 


24fi 


246 


197 




Do. 


Manure . 


Sultan's Battery Clearing plant* 
and vegetation, plastering rampart 
walls and painting notice board. 


40 


00 


40 Q 




NOglns. 


Kotagir: . 


Group of large dolmens at Banagudi 
shot* of Jakkenbri. 


70 


89 


51 




North Aroot . 


Vellore . 


Fort. Clearing vegetation in inner and 
outer ramparts and clearing Mirth 
jungle 


090 


720 


590 








Carried over 


,. 


7,259 


6,211 





246 
APPENDIX A ^ontd. 



District. 


Locality 


Nairn* of work and description 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
estimate 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25. 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-25 


RaiCAlUtS. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


fl 


6 


7 








KM 


Rs. 


Rs. A r. 








111 ought forward 




7,259 


6,211 








MADRAS PRBSIDKNOY condd. 














Annual Repair* (reiurnng charges) exe- 
cuted by the, Public Works De- 
partment conoid. 










North Arcot . 


Vellore . 


Jalakantesvara temple in the Fort. 
Maintenance of two watchmen. 


340 


492 


287 




Do 


Do. . 


Mosque in the fort. Clearing plaster- 
ing and whitewashing 


40 


49 


30 




Do. 


Abdullapuram . 


Abdul MahaL Clearing vegetation . 


25 


62 


21 




Do. 


Aroot 


Delhi Gate. Maintenance of a watch- 
man and annual repairs 


160 


iya 


159 




South Aroot . 


(Jmgee 


Fort and ita buildings Maintenance 
of watchmen and annual repairs. 


370 


372 


282 10 




Madura 


Dindigul . 


Bock fort buildings. Maintenance ol 
a watchman and Municipal tax. 


465 


528 


514 14 




Do. 


Vikramangalam 


Koilpati Temple. Maintenance of a 
watchman. 




U36) 


3fa 




Tanjore 


Tanjore . 


Maintenance of Sivaganga Little fort . 


146 


145 


132 




Tiuaevelly . 


Tutwsonn 


Dutch cemetery Annual repairs 


62 


44 


44 




Do. 


AdiohaoaUur . 


Prehistoric remains Maintenance o: 
a watchman. 


178 


178 


99 




Tnohiaopoly . 


Ranjangudi . 


Ranjangudi Fort. Maintenance of a 
watchman. 

TOTAL 


144 


186 


144 






9,546 


7,960 8 






Agency Charges @ 23 per cent. 
TOTAL ANNUAL RXPAIBS 






1,830 








9,700 8 



SUMMARY. 

Special vepain owrried out by the Public Worlu Department 
Special repairs earned ont l.j tlte ArcbnoloRioal Department 
Annual repairs carried out by the Public Works Department 



G&AND TOTAL rox THE MADRAS PRBSIDKSTCT 



11,724 5 6 

400 

9,760 8 



21,014 1H 6 



247 

APPENDIX A contd. 



District. 


Locahtyt 


Name of work and description 


Amount 
of none- 
tioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 
for the 
yar 
1924 25 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-20 


RTOAKKS. 


i 


2 


3 


4 


5 


<i 


7 








Rs 


Re 


Rs A P 








PROVINCE OF Cooius. 














Annual Repairs (recurring charges) 
carried out by &* P*M Works De- 
partment. 










Ooorg . 


Mercara . 


Fort and Raja's Beat. Repairs to 
roads, culverts and drains inside 
the fort and approaches, repairs 
to masonry elephants, fence, well 
and patch repairs to the Raja's seat, 
and clearing surroundings. 


240 


240 


243 




Do. . 


Mallur . 


3 Jain temples. Plastering with lime 
mortar 2 coats the top of the temple 
to repair leaks m the terrace and 
clearing jungle 

TOTAL . 


20 


20 


19 






260 


282 






Agency charges @ 23 per cent. 
GBAVD TOTAL FOR COORG 






60 








322 



Summary of Expenditure on Conservation in the Southern Circle. 



Province. 


Total amount spent 
on special 
repair*. 


Total amount spent 
on annual 
repair* 


TOTAL. 




Ra. A P. 

13,680 6 


Rs. A. P. 
9,790 K 


Rs A. r. 
21,9 J 4 13 6 


y 




322 


322 


*g 








TOTAL 


1K.686 5 6 


10,112 8 


82,236 13 f> 


GRAND TOTAL 






39,23e 13 .6 



248 

APPENDIX A contd. 

(6) EXPENDITURE ON CONSERVATION. 

Burma Circle 



DlBtlK't. 


Locality. 


Kamc of work and description. 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-2f> 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-26. 


BEUAKK8. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 






BURMA 


KB. 


Bs. 


Ra. A. i' 








Special Repair* (non-recurring charges) 
corned out by the Public Works 
Department. 










-Myingyan 4 


Pagan 
Minnanthii 


Tilommlo Pagoda 
Sulamani Pagoda .... 


45,707 
14,748 


2,870 
877 


2,867 
877 




JMandalay 


Mandalay 


Construction of Gardens on the Palaco 
Platform. 


89,850 


13,860 


12,061 




Do. 


Do. 


PyatOiats on the Walk of Fort Dufform 


4,000 


4,000 


3,931 




*eg . . 


Pegu . 


Constructing a temporary shed over 
the inscription ntonee at Pegu. 


1,125 


1,141 


1,141 




JUyingyan . 


PwMtaW . 


Dhammayazika Pagoda 


37,388 


tt,b30 


9,734 




Maiidalay 


Amarapura 


Jkdawi>ava'8 Tomb . 




510 


497 




Sagaing 


Sagaing . 


Constructing an American wire fencing 
round the Inscription shed. 

TOTAL 




584 


240 






33.462 


31,344 






Agency charges (S) 23 per cent. . 
TOTAL 

Special Repairs (non-rccumng charge*) 
cwrritd out by fhe Archtrologuxil 
Department. 




7.69H 


7,209 






41,168 


38,563 








Aky*b 


Mycihaung 


Shitthnung Templft .... 


15,078 


2,500 


2,600 




Prome 


Hma-wca 


Excavation chargi>8 .... 

TOTAL 
OBANJD TOTAL, SPKOIAL REPAIRS 


760 


750 


750 






3,260 


3,280 




44,408 


41,803 



249 
APPENDIX A contd,. 



District 


Locality. 


Name of work and description. 


Amount 
of sanc- 
tioned 
estimate. 


Allotment 
for the 

1924-25. 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1024-26. 


RD ^ 


1 


2 


3 


4 


f 












BUBMA contd. 


Rs. 


Ks 


Rs. A. r. 








Annual Repairs (recurring charge*) 
earned out by the Publte Works 
Department. 










Haathawaddy 


Syriam . 


Wages of Caretaker and repairs to the 
old Portuguese Church. 


240 


240 


230 




Alandalay 


Mandalay 


Palace buildings .... 


4,000 


4,000 


3,863 




Do. 


Do. 


Pyatthats on Fort Walls . 


4,000 


4,000 


3,921 




Do. 


Do. 


Tawyagyaung Pagoda 


100 


100 


100 






Mandalay 


Tomb of King Mindfin 












Do. 


Tomb of Queen Smbyumaym 












Do. 


Tomb of Modawgyi, Mother-in-law of 
Muid^n. 












Do. 


Tomb of Nanmadawgyi 










Mandalay 


Do. 
Amarapura 


Tomb of Medawgyi (Laungho Queen), 
Queen of Mmdfin 

Tomb of Bedawpaya 


300 


140 


139 






Do. 


Tomb of King Bagyidaw . 












Do. 


Tomb of Shwebo Mia 












Do. 


Tomb of King Mind fin's Mother 












Do. 


Taungthaman Kyauktawgyi Pagoda . 


400 


50 


50 






Do. 


Pangnn and Shwediik 


100 


100 


98 






Kalagyaung 


Cleiring jungle around Nandawye 
Pagoda. 












Do. 


Clearing jungle around Letthft Pagoda 










Kyaukse -. 


Do. 


Clearing jungle around Chanthaya 

Pagoda. 


180 


180 


160 






Ebya 


Clearing jungle around Shwezigon 












Metkaya 


Clearing jungle around Shweyaungdaw 












Tagaung 


Clearing jungle around Zma-aunggya- 
ahwebontha Pagoda. 










Katba 


Do. 

Mamgdaing . 


Clearing jungle around Shwezigon 
Pagoda. 

Clearing jungle around Mo-mdaung 
Pagoda. 


240 


240 


150 






Myadaung 


Clearing jungle around Paungdaw-U 
Carried over 












9,030 


8,711 



250 

APPENDIX A contd. 



District. 


Locality 




Amount 
>f sanc- 


Allotment 
for the 


Amount spent 










tioned 
estimate. 


year 
1924-25. 


during the 
year 1924-25. 


REMARKS. 




1 












1 


2 


:> 


4 


5 


6 


7 






Brought forward 


Rs. 


Ks. 

9,0.50 


Rs. A. P. 

S.7H 








IlURMA tOtitil. 














Animal Repair* (recurring cJutrgee) 
earned mit by the Public Worfar 
Department contd 










suwebo .< 


Do. 


Alaungpaya'e Tomb 

Shed over the Inscription stone in 
Court Hoxme compound. 


150 

60 


25 
11 


COO 

:i o o 




' 


Sagamg . 


Tupayon Pagoda. .... 


136 


178 


169 






Do. . 


Inscription shed .... 


70 


27 


16 




Sagaing .- 


A\a 


Okkyaung and Watch Tow er 
Tazaung and Bell .... 


360 
150 


360 
166 


363 
89 






Do. . 


Sinbyume Pagoda .... 


240 


240 


245 




. 


Do. . 


Pondawpaya .... 


50 


44 


32 




Pegu . . 


Pegu . . 


Pali Stone shed and an old buoy 


40 


40 


40 




f 


Hmawza 


Bawbawgyi Pagoda .... 


I 








Prome . 1 


Do. 


Lerayetlma Pagoda .... 


300 


300 


273 




( 


Do. 


BSbS Pagoda 


J 








Myingyan 


Pagan . 


Wages of Durwans looking after 
Pagodas. 


2,172 


1,772 


1,766 






Nyaung-U 


Kyaukku-Ohnmm Cave Temple 






148 






Do. 


Hmyathat-Ohnmin Cave Temple 






217 






Do, 


Thftnnhwet-Obnmin Cave Temple 






255 0- 






Do. 


Sapada Pagoda .... 






87 






Do. 


Kytmzittha'p Ohnmin 






90 






Pagan . 


Bupaya Pagod* .... 






35 




Myingyan - 


Do. 


Bidagat-Taik or Library . 


> 3,600 


3,600* 


250 






Do. 


Shwegugyi Pagoda .... 






29 






Do. 


Thatbyinnyu Pagoda 






113 






Do 


Nathlaunggyaang Temple 






10 






Do. 
Do. 


Ngakywe-Nadaung .... 
Patothamva 






20 
102 






Do. 


Mi Malaung-gyaung Temple 






86 








Carried over 




15,693 


38,1*4 





251 

APPENDIX A contd. 



District. 


Locality 


Name of woik and description 


Amount 
of Bnc- 

estnnatc 


Allotment 
for the 
year 
1924-25. 


Amount spent 
during the 
year 1924-25 


RXMAUCS. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


i 


7 








lia 


Rs 


HH. A r. 








Brought forward 




1 .J,bVU 


1.1,144 U 








HLRMA towM. 














Annual JtH'ptina (recurring ilmrges} 
tamed nut by the Public Works 
Depai Intent conoid 












Pagan 


(Jawdawpalm Pagoda 






266 






Do. 


Mmgalazcdi Pagoda . . . 






270 






JMympagan 


Naupaya stone Temple 






09 






Do. 


Nagayon Pagoda 






200 




.Myingyan- - 
contd. 


Do. 
TMyipyitsaya . 


Soinnvet Ama and Semnyet Nyuna 
Pagoda. 

Eastern, and Western Petleik Pagoda^ 


- 


" 


C77 
335 






Do. 


I^awkaiianda Pagoda 






700 






Pwaaaw . 


Dhammayazilta Pagoda 






44 






Minnanthu 


Pavathonzu, Than bu la and Nanda- 
mannya Temjile. 






7 








Cst of matenals remaining 
TOTAL 


^ 




87 






15,fi93 


1/5,056 






Agency cliarges @ 23 per cent. . . 

TOT At. 

Annu'il Re] air* (lecurrniff cJutrget) rani- 
K ,i out by Ih ' ArchtKulogical Department 




3,609 


3,463 






10,302 


18,519 








-Mtmdalay 


Mandalay 


Wages of Durwana of Palace buildings 
TOTAL 

GRAND TOTAL, ANNPAL REPAIRS 


3,000 


3,000 


2,868 






3,000 


2,868 




22,302 


21,387 



Burma Circle, 

Total special repaint carried out by thn Archaeological Department 
Total annual repairs carried out by the Archaeological Department 
Total apaoial repairs carried out by the Public Works Department 
Total Annual repairs earned out by the Public Works Department 



QUAI> TOIAL ffOtt liVBICA 



3,250 

,868 
38.553 
18,519 

" 63,190 
2L 2 



252 

APPENDIX A contd. 

(b) EXPENDITURE ON CONSERVATION. 
and Central India. 



Xamo of work and: description. 


Amount Bjwnt 
during the year 
1924-25. 


REMARKS. 


AJMJCBJS 

tips Kil Repairs (nun'recurrm^ charges) tarried out by the 
Public Work* Department. 

Constructing a Kitchen and Latrine for the Faquc Chowkidar 
residing at the Adhai-dm-ka Jhonpra, Ajmer. 

Affixing two Nofce Boards at Adhai-dm-ka Jhonpra, Ajmer . 

A ntvual Hepatrt (recurring < hat (/*) rarrried out Ity the 
Puhhc W<srk* Department, 

Annual Repairs to Archaeological Building* during 1924-25 

Maintenance of the Marble Baradariea at the Anasagar 
Bund. 

Special Repairs and strengthening South -West Corner of 
Baradari No. 2 at the Anasagar Bund, Ajmer. 

Rebuilding a portion of the compound wall at the Adhai- 
dia-ka Jhonpra, Ajrner. 


Rs. A. P. 
1,701 10 
30 12 

521 3 
2,489 1 6 
26 4 

136 5 






4,905 3 6 
1,637 




Age y g i 






TOTAI, 


6,542 3 6 





253 

APPENDIX A contd. 

Distribution from the total Archaeological Reserve of JRs. 

a. 
Allotted for pay of watchman attached to Temple at Gandikota, Cuddappali District, 

Madras . .... ... .96 

Repair to notice board at Lanjidibba . . . . Ra. 22 ^ 

Special repair to Veerabhadra Chotea temple, Motupalh - . . ,, 46 J 

Boundary pillars around the Deopara Tank at Ra]ahahi 176 

Special repair to Masjid of Baba Adam at Rampal, Dacca District . . . 1,000 

Annual repair to Roman Catholic Church at Bardhana, District Meenit (half coat) . 150 

Improvements to water cistern at Cave No. I, Elephanta, Bombay . . - 4,230 

Construction of Petrol and Oil godown at Taxila 307 

Maintenance of Hazrat Mian Mir and Baradari of Maharaja Sher Singh in Lahore . 1,071 

Repairs to Bandar Fort, Masulipatam 17 

Dismantling the ruined mandapa in front of the Narasimha Temple at Poddamudiem, 

Cuddappah District .160 

Purchase of antiquities ........ 2,000 

Repair to Itimaddaulah, Chmika Roza, Khan-i-Alam Garden and Roman Catholic 

Cemetery .... - 5,000 

Repairs to Dutch Cemetery inside the Fort at Sadras (Madras) .... 29 

Laying out of the Shalamar Garden, Lahore ....... 300 

Uniform and badge for the ohaukidar at Udaigiri Caves, Bihar and Oriasa . . 16 

Repair of Palace enclosure called Nizpat, Jamtiapur, Assam .... 738 

Improvements to Asaf Khan's Tomb, Shahdara 360 

Excavation at Harappa 3,000 

Conservation of antiquities, Dwarahat, (Completion of the work) . 1,068 

Excavations at Mohenjo-daro . ..... . 3,000 

Revised estimate Bhubaneswar Temple ....'.. . 191 

Rebuilding a portion of the compound wall at the Adhai-dm-ka-Jhonpra . . 189 

Special repair to mosque at Kusumba, Rajshahi 130 

Agency charges for repair to Aeaf Khan's Tomb at Bhahdara . , . . 66 
Travelling allowance for officers Superintendent, ATohe&ological Survey, Hindu and 

Buddhist Monuments, Northern Circle 1,000 

Repair to Raja Rani Temple Bhubaneswar and Khangin Caves, Bihar and Onasa . 856 

Karle Oaves 2,000 

Construction of godown and caretakers' quarters, Mohenjo-daro .... 2,000 

Annual repairs to monuments in Agra District 4,000 

Const itucion of groynes below Shah Nawaz's tomb, Burhanpur, Central Provinces 1,000 

Annual reports and Merooira 5 >0 

Travelling allowance for officers in the office ol the Superintendent, Archaeological 

Survey, Eastern Circle *W 

Camera for tbe office of the Superintendent, Archaeological Survey, Western Circle . 400 

Biahnudole Temple, Ganmagar 260 

Travelling allowance of the Superintendent, Archaeological Survey, Frontier Cirole r 

estabiiahment Rs. 350 and officers Rs. 250 600 

Carried over . 40,858 



254 

APPKNPJX A concld. 

Rs. 

Brought forward . 40,858 

Excavation at Ifaiappa . 2,000 

Excavation at Mohenjo-daro 1,000 

Repans to Jagnei Fort, Agra District 638 

Excavation at Mohonjo-daro 4,000 

Preservation of Nanagliat Inscnptions ..... . 200 

RepaitB to the tank of Harischandia in the Daoca District 891 

Piowding pueca. platform to photographic building at Archaeological office, Patna 32 

Repairs to City wall A kola, Central Provinces 200 

Directoi Goueial'H Libiary 800 

Sho\\ -canen in the oflhoe of the Supeimtendent, Archaeological Section, Indian 

Museum . 2,000 

Notme-boards in the office of the Superintendent, Archaeological Survey, Muham- 

niadan and British Monumento 725 

Tank of Harischandra at Rampal, Dacca 500 

I'ublication of Dnector GenemrB Reports and Memoiis 5,075 

Purchase of safe m the office of the Superintendent, Archaeological Survey, Western 

Cncle, 700 

Purchase of antiquities 600 

60,119 



255 



APPENDIX B. 

List of exhibits acquired for the Indian Museum, Archaeological Section, during 

the year 1924-25. 

PURCHASED. 
Sculptures of the old Mat Jim a SeJiool of Ait. 

1. N.8. 4277. Figure with the head of a bearded buffalo with another figure seated on the 

shoulder (3fx 2"). 
2-3. N. S. 4279-80. Heads (3i"xlf, 2|"x2f). 

4. 2V. S. 4964 Fragment of a railing pillar with a female figure (17|"x8 w ). 

5. N. S. 4965 .Pedestal of an image with inscription (13|"xl3|*). 

6. N. S. 4966. Fragment with an elephant on a lotus (15" x 6"). 

Later Meehcrral Rculptwesfrom MatJtwa, 

7. N. S. 4264.~Lmg& (red sandatono) with a face (4" X 1|") 

8. N. S. 4262. Brast image of Lakshnn-Narayana with an msciiption on the back dated flamvat 1633 

Wx2f). 

9. N 8. 4263. Image of Vishnu (grey sandstone , 4J"x2i"). 

10. N. S. 4265.In\&ge of Vishnu (blaok basalt ; 4f*x2|*). 

11. N, S. 4266. Sculpture showing young Krishna holding up the mountain Govardhana (grey sand- 

stone ; 2|"X3"). 

12. N. S. 4267. Ganesha (blackish sandstone; 2f"x2J/'). 

13. TV. S. 4278. Head (grey sandstone , 4"x2"). 

14. N.S. 4963. Image of Saraevati (jrrey sandstone , Iif"x4"). 

Terracotta jigunwtb from Mathwa 

15. JV. -S. 4268 Image of Mahisasuramardmi (7fx3f ). 

16. N. S. 426U Image of Kuvera (9"x4f ). 

17. IV. S. 4270. Image of a pair of human beings (4| / 'x2r). 

18. N. S. 4271. Image of a female (4f X2J*). 

19-20. JV. S. 4272-75. Busts of female figures (4"x3", 2J"x2|'). 
21-22. TV. S, 4273-74- Heads (Sfxdj*, 2"x3^). 

23. N.8. 4276. Bustof anape (3i"x2f). 

Later Medwval Sculplvrtsfrom Bengal. 

24. TV. S. 4282. Qwy sandstone image from Chittagong (15"xir). 

25. TV. S. 4283. Black stone image of Viahnu from Abdullapur, Dacca (2'xT 11"). 

26. TV. 8. 4288 Gwuda of black basalt from Panohaaar near Kampal, Dacca {!' 11' X 1"). 

27. N. S. 4289. Image of Vishnu from Rampai, Dacca (2'XlOJ*). 

28. N. S. 4967. Sandstone image of Siva Natataja. Siva has 12 arms and dances on a bull, From 

Durgapur, District Chittagong (4' 5" XI' 6"). 

29. A T . 8. 4971 Head of a stone figure from Benares (6 J" x 8"). 



256 

APPENDIX B contd. 
PRESENTATIONS. 

Mr. W. 8. /, Wilson, Calcutta. 
"30-31 N. S 4 '>24-4 r >'J6. Ancient Egyptian earthen lamps (4" and 5") 

The Nagod Daibar. 

82-89. N >S' 49M5-4M12 . 58 specimens of carved atones including sculptures from the Gupta temple at 
Bhumara 

Mrs Dcvffia. 

90. N K 4284 Inscribed Terracotta thumb. 

91-93 A'. S. 4285-4287 - Carved rectangular sandstone slabs Excavated at Gunda (Oudh) Railway 
Station, 

Babu Actiyuta Kumar Mitia. 

94. N. 8. 4290. Lower portions of an image of Hara-Gaun (!' 2"x 10"). From Kaukdakuri, District 

Hooghly. 

95. N. S. 4291. Upper half of an image of Mara (8"x5"). From Bhuvanesvar, District Pun, 
Orissa 

Superintendent t Archaokgunl burvty, Eastern Circle. 

96. N. S. 4281. Terracotta idol, an elephant with a rider From Baranagar temple. District Murshida- 

bad, Bengal (3" x 2|"x 2$"). 

97. N. S. 4259. Inscribed clay seal from Isvanpur, District Khulna, Bengal (2"x2r). 

98-99. N. 8. 4256-4257. Two bricks with vfises from the Quoran inscribed from the Mosque at 
Samaj, District Pabna (14|"x8", 10-9" X 08") 

On loan f torn the Director Gcncial o' Atchogologt/ in India. 

Antiquities excavated by Mr. R. D. Banerji at Mohenjo-daro, Smd in 1922-23 

Terracotta objects ... 558 

Stone, objects .... 580 

Stucco and clay objects ... ... 22 

Inscribed objects including seals with piotographic legends . . 4 

Metal objects . 70 

Antiquities excavated by Mr M S. Vats at Moheujo-daro, Bind in 1923-24 : 

Terracotta objects 241 

Calcium carbonate objects 25 

Stone objects 138 

Hholl objects 97 

Copper objects 44 

Miscellaneous objects 21 

Seals with piotographio legends 8 

N. S. 4488-4489. Two casts of Harappa seals. 

N. S. 4292-4329 Fragments of painted Cretan pottery. 

N. 8 4330-4368 and 4484 .--Fragments of glazed Seistan pottery and a glass bangle. 

y. tf. Mto'.~ Fragment of Manryan Umbrella. 

JV. S 42tiO.~ Gandhara sculpture with a seated figure, of Buddha and three worshippers under an arcl 



257 
APPENDIX B contrf. 

N S. 4443-4463. Clay objects (toys) from the neighbourhood of Bhita, District Allahabad- 

N . 4486 Iverjr bangle. *) 

N. S. 4486. Copper bangle. ^frora Bhita. 

N, 8. 4487 Goldsmith's melting cup J 

N. S 4493-94. Copies of two irescoe paintings from Polonnaruva 

N. S. 4502-4512 Clay seals 

N. S 4465-66. Gaharwa Copper plate grant of King Karnnadeva, lord of Tnkahnga and the seal. 

N. S 4300.- Crude human figure of unbaked oltty ooated with red paint from Sangla hill in the Punjab 

(8"x6f). 

N S. 4398-4399 Fragments of sculptured baked bricks from Pagan, Burma 
N S 4400-01 --Fragments of baked bricks with floral device and tiacew of glaze 
JV. S 4402-05 Clay toys. 
JV. S 4397 < Terracotta toy ram. 
JV S. 4464.- Miscellaneous beads. 

JV. S- 4467-69. Wooden letter carriers from Central Asia. 
JV S. 4470-78 Miscellaneous beads from Central Asia. 

JV. S. 4479-80. Plaster casts of mythical animals ; winged lions with fish's tails. 
JV. 8. 4481-82. Plaster cast of a miniature pillar with a fully caparisoned horse engiaved m the middle, 
N S. 4495-01 Casts of seals m the British Museum. 
JV. 8 4513-14.fte&\ impressions on wax (later-medurval). 
JV. S. 45/5-22. Seal impressions from the British Museum. 

JV, S. 4261.- -Bronze image of Nataraja Siva with a circular halo of flames (ht 3' 6"xbd. 3'}. 
JV. S. 4370.- Brass images of Siva and Durga seated on 9 high throne with one leg of eaoh dangling down 

to the pedestal and serving an legs of the throne , small figure of a snake, Ganesa and a bull (6" X 

2|") on the pedoital 

JV. S. 4371, 4374, 4375, 1379, 4380, 4382, 438t - -Miscellaneous brass images. 
JV. S. 4372 Brass pedestal of images (?) with a half-knoelmg figure with folded hands in front of it 

(^'Xlf')- 
IV. 8 4373 Two cows of brass each with a calf standing on a pedestal of four legs (3f X 2 f *). 

JV. -S 4376 Brass image of Lakshrai (3|"xlf")- 

N. S 4377. Copper image of Ganosa with four arms. 

JV 8. 4378 Brass figure of a male holding an elephant goad in each hand (3|*X2*). 

JV. 8 4381.- -Five headed cobra of brass (2" x 1"). 

N. S. 4383 Brass image of Bala-Knshna ; high top-knot of hai* on head (2|"x 1 *) 

JV. 8. 4385-4396 ~ Fragments of bras* reliefs with ngures of Buddha and other deities. From Lhassa. 

JV. S 4490-91 Brass seals (modern) 

JV. 8. 4492.Rras plate with inscription. 

JV. S 523. Gold plated nag with a signet seal. 

2t.S. 4255. Person orved ivory Hword handle with a passage from the Quran engraved on it (5$ X2J ). 

JV. S. 4258. A Mughal dagger The scabbard has a stone handle (15i* length). 

N. S. 4407-4442.- Torki manuscripts, 

AT. 8. 4483. Brass cup with Quianic verses and Arabic charms inscribed on it. 

On permanent lorn from the Government of India. 

y.8. *P7MOT.-Carved fcnofcslrom the-MftBJulof Baba Adam** Qaw Qftiba, Rarnpal, Dutnot Dacca. 

2 M 



258 
APPENDIX B contd. 

LIST O* COlNb ACQUIRED FOB THT, INDIAN MUSEUM, ARCHAEOLOGICAL SECTION, DURING THE YEAR 1924-25. 

1. NoH-Muhammadan. 



Hull f * mime 


Dynaslj 


Gold 


Silver 


Copper 


Plaster 
Cast. 


TOTAI* 


By whom pre- 
sented or lent. 


J 


2 


3 


4 


6 


ti 


7 


8 


Afifttbov.li"- 


Indo-Ciw^k 








1 


1 


On loan from D G. 
A, 


Apollo.loK,' 


1)0 




I 


1 


1 


3 


Do 


btrnt.i \ 


IK* 






1 




1 


Do, 


lclct.hu- 


Da 








1 


1 


Do. 


Mum--, 


Indo-Pftithian . 






1 


3 


4 


Do 


Axes 1 


Do . 








7 


7 


Do 


Ayilwt-K 


Do. . 








1 


1 


Do 


A/es 11 . 


J>0 . 




1 






1 


Do. 


Gondd i there* 


Do. . 




1 




7 


s 


Do 


Soter Me^ah 


Do . 






2 




2 


Do. 





Do . 








G 


6 


Do 


Kadphue* 


Kuahan . 








3 


3 


Do 


Kadphuen 11 


Do. ... 






6 







Do 


Kanuhka . 


Do ... 






19 


1 


20 


Do 


Huvishka .... 


Do. 






14 




14 


Do. 


Vasudevo .... 


Do 






83 




S3 


Do 





Do 






15 




16 


Do. 





Do (Ktdara) 






1 




1 


Do 


8varaL B liita 










6 


6 


Do 





Kuahano-Sasgftnian . 






I 




1 


Do, 




Pun (Orissan) Kiisban 






910 




910 


Preuented by the 
Asiatic Society 
of Bengal who re- 
oeived it from the 
Collector of Bala- 
BOW. if 


Kriahaaraja 


Roahtrakuta 




8 






8 


Proaented by" the 
Director of Indus- 
tries, Central 
Provinces. 


Rudra Simha 1 . 


\\ Kabiitiapft . 




1 




" 


1 1 


On loan from D. G. 

A, 


.... 


Do . 




I 






1 


Do 


.... 


Balabhi . 




7 






7 


Do. 


Jiahnu (?) . 


Carried over 






i 




1 


Do. 




SO 


1,065 


7 


Ul* 



259 
APPENDIX B contd. 



Ruler's name. 


Dy nasty. 


Gold 


Silver 


Coppor 


Plaster 

Cast 


TOTAL. 


By whom pre 
sented or tout 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


(5 


7 


8 




Brought forward 




20 


1,055 


37 


1.112 




... 


Ancient India 
Punch- marked. 






140 


1 


141 


On loan from D G, 
A, 


.... 


North -Inch a ii locals 
Ayodhya 






14 




14 


Do 


.... 


North-Indian locals 
Avanti. 






12 




12 


Do, 


.Brihaajmtimitra . 


North-Indian locale 
Kosani. 






35 




35 


Do 


.... 


Notth-indian locals 
Koeam 






12 




12 


Do 


.... 


N<Mth-Indian locals. 
Taxila 






1 




1 


Do 


.... 


Pandialatmttra 






1 




1 


Do, 


.... 


North Indian Miscel- 
laneous. 






101 


3 


104 


Do 


.... 


Andhra . 






1 




1 


Do. 


.... 


Mediaeval Imlo-Sa*- 
sanian. 






1 




1 


Do. 


.... 


!><> Gadhaiya . 




14 






14 


Do. 


.... 


Mediaeval Northern 
India (Kotu) 






2 




2 


Do. 


.... 


Kangra 






2 




2 


Do. 


Surendra Vikrama 


Nepal 






1 




1 


Do. 


~ ~ * * * * 


South Indian 


4 








4 


Presented by the 
Superintendent , 
GoTt. Miueum, 
Jtf&dra* 


.... 


Ancient Ceylon . 






3 




3 


On loan from D G. 
A. 


.... 


Ancient Chinese 






224 




224 


Do. 


.... 


Ancient Indo-Chinese 






16 




16 


Do. 


.... 


Modern European 




5 


9 




14 


Purobaaed. 


.... 


CJ. B. America . 




1 


.. 




1 


Do. 


.... 


Modern Awatic . 




10 


13 




23 


Do. 


.... 


French East India Co. 




1 






1 


Presented bv the 
Supdt,, Govt, 
Museum, Madras. 


.... 


E. I. Co . 




3 





.. 


8 


Purchased. 


.... 


Indian Empire . 






7 




t 


I>>. 




Native State . 
TOTJU. 




2 


2 


., 


4 


Do. 


4 


06 


1,57 


41 


1,768 



260 

APPENDIX B contd. 
II. Muhammadan. 



Ruler's name. 


]>ynaty. 


Billon 


Gold. 


Silver. 


Copper. 


Plaeter 
Cast. 


TOTAL. 


By whom 
presented 
orient, 


J 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


Muhammad Tughlmj 
Mahmud Tughlaq . 


Delhi 
Do 




2 
1 




2 




2 
3 


On loan from 
D. G. A. 
Do. 


QhiyaHuddm Tughlaq 


Do. 




1 








1 


Do. 


Pimz Hhah Tughlaq 


Do 








9 




9 


Do. 


Muhammad 11 


Do. 








4 




4 


Do. 


Mubarak Hhah 


Do 


1 










1 


Do. 


Ibrahim Lndi . 


Do. 








1 




1 


Do. 


Dudet'iphered . 


Do 








10 




16 


Do. 


Kahmullah 


Bahmani 








J 




1 


Do 


Muhammad Shah . 


Do. 






] 


I 




2 


Do. 


Mahmud Shah 


Do. 








1 




1 


Do. 


Ghiyas Shah 


Malw.ih 






2 


4 




G 


Do. 


Mh mud Hhah 


Do 








1 




1 


Do. 


Hoahang Shah 


I'o . 


1 






18 




14 


Do. 


Undeuphered 


Do . 








1 




1 


Do. 


Mueaffar Shah III . 


Gujrat 






1 






] 


Do. 


Mahmud Shh III . 


Do. 






1 






1 


Do. 


Bahadur Shah 


Do. . 








2 




2 


Do. 


Muhammad Shah I . 


Do 








8 




3 


Do 


Undecnphered 


Ho. 








7 




7 


Do. 


Murtaza 


Nizam Shahi 








I 




1 


Do. 


Mahmud Shah 


Jaunpur 








1 




] 


Do. 


bang ram 8inh 


Mewar 








1 




1 


Do. 


T 


Jawa 








2 




o 


Do. 


T 


Egyp* 






1 






1 


Do. 


Akbarl .... 


Mughal 






1 


10 




11 


Do. 


Jahftngir 


Do. 


.. 






1 




J 


Do. 


Shfthjahan 


Do. 






83 


25 




108 


Do. 


Auraugzb 


Do. 




3 


71 


23 




97 


Do. 


Morad Baksh . 


Do. 






3 


1 




4 


Do. 


Shab Shuja . 


Do 






1 






1 


Do. 


Shah Alm I . 


Do. 




1 


!fi 






16 


Do. 


Jfttmndar Shah 


Do 






10 






10 


Do. 




( Darned over 


2 


8 


190 


131 




831 





APPENDIX B contd. 



Ruler's name. 


Dynasty. 


Billon. 


Gold. 


Silver. 


Copper. 


Plaster 

OftBt. 


TOTAL. 


Bv whom 
prewmtod 

or lent. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


f, 


ft 


7 


s 


" 




Brought forward. 


2 


8 


190 


131 




331 




Farrukhaiyar . 


Mughal . 




2 





2 




29 


On loan from 
I) (3. A. 


Rafiuddarajat . 


Do. 




1 


9 






10 


Do. 




Do. 




1 


9 






10 


Do, 


Ibrahim . 


Do 






1 






1 


Do. 


Muhammad Shah . 


Do. 




J 


23 


4 




2K 


1)0 


Ahmad Shah . 


Do 




2 


12 






1* 


Do. 


Alamgir 11 


Do. 






32 


8 




40 


Do 


Shahjahan III 


Do 






1 






1 


Do 


Shah Alam II . 


Do 




4 


48 


20 




72 


Do 


BedarBakht . 


Do 




1 




1 




2 


Do. 


Muhammad ALbar 11 


Do. 






7 


2 




1* 


Do. 


Undeciphered . 


Do. 








7 




7 


Do 


Akbar I 


Do. 








1 




1 


Piesentod by 
Rao Krishna 


















pal Singh of 


















Avagarh. 


*r 


Do. 






1 






1 


Presented by 


















Director of 


















Indus t r i e g, 


















Central Pro- 


















vinces 


Shah ahan 


Do. 






j 






1 


Do 


Aurangzeb 


Do. 






12 






12 


Do 


Shah Alam I . 


Do. 






2 






2 


Do 


Muhammad Shah 


Do. 






9 






< 


Presented by 
Uw Govern- 


















ment of the 


















United Pro 


















vincea. 


Alamgir II ... 


Do. 






1 






I 


Do. 


Shahjahan III 


Do. 






1 






1 


Do. 


Shah Alam II . 


Do. 






7 






7 


Do. 


Akbar I 


Do. 






1 






1 


Do. 




Do. 






2 






2 


Presented L>y 


















Mr. N. A 


Do. . 


Do. 






1 






I 


Do 




Carried over 


2 


20 


* 


170 




m 





262 

ArrENDix B contd. 









v 
























By whom 


Ruler's name. 


J)jaetv 


Billon 


Gold. 


Silver. 


Copper, 


Plaster 
Cast. 


TOTAL. 


presented 
or lent. 


1 


-' 


:j 


4 


5 





7 


8 







Brought toward. 


2 


20 


3U5 


176 




593 




Shah Ala in Jl . 


Mughal 






2 






2 


Mi N. A 
Hilton. 


Muhammad TuKliloq 


Delhi 






1 






1 


Do. 


Asafjah .... 


H\ dot abed 






2 






2 


Do. 


\\ ajed Ah 


Luc-know 






1 






1 


Do 


Turkish 


Egypt 






3 






3 


Do. 


Muhammud Shah . 


Mughal 






2 






2 


Purchased. 


Shah Alum 11 . 


Do. 






2 






2 


Do 


Shuh Alani 


Do . 






1 






1 


Presented by 
the Govt. 


















M u s e u ro. 


















Madras 


KaUmulluh 


Bahinam 








1 




1 


Do 


Alampir . 


Mughal 




1 


1 






2 


Do. 


bhab Alain JI . 


Do . 




3 








3 


Do 


Muhammad Shall 


Do. . 




2 








2 


Do 


Ahmad Khali . 


Do. . 




1 








1 


Do 


hhabjahan 


Do . 






2 






2 


Presented by 
tho Bombay 


















B r a n c h, 


















Roval Asiatic 


















SoJitty. 


Muhammad Shah . 


Do. . 






6 









Do. 




TOTAL 


2 


27 


418 


177 




024 





GKAD Tout. 



Billon 
Gold 

Silver . 
Copper 
PlMtor cast 



31 

474 

1,834 

41 



2,382 



263 

APPENDIX B conttL 
List of exhibits acquired for the Delhi Museum during the year 1924-25. 

PRESENTED. 

Chief Commissioner, Delhi. 
88 Specimens of Goveinment of India postage stamps issued between 1865-1876. 

The Superintendent} Muhammadan and ttittufi Monument*, Northern Circli 
Photograph of Humayun's tomb at Delhi. 

PURCHASED. 

Farman of Akbar granting 1,451 bigfias and 8 h&was of land, one hundred rupees cash and one rupee daily 
for the maintenance of a tomb at Sohfia (a village m the Gurgaon district) Subah Barker Delhi. It is dated the 
5th year of the reign of that emperor (1560 A,D.) 

On loan from the Director General of Arcliaeohgy in India. 

1 . Farman of Shahjahan issued in favour of Sayyid Muhaid-d-Dm of Delhi granting him 150 l,ghas of arable 
land from the Pargana of Jhajjar, Sarkar Delhi as a means of livelihood. It is dated the 8th year of the reign 
of Shahjahan. 

2 Farman of Aurangzeb issued in favour of a lady named Nur Bano, the wife of Shaikh Mahmud granting 
her 40 faghwt of land from the Pargana of Jhajjar, Subah Daru-1-Khilafat of Shabjahanabad as a means of 
livelihood. It is dated the 29th of Muharrain, the 36th year of Aurangzeb's reign. 

3 Sanad issued by the prince Jawan Bakht Bahadur, the heir-apparent of Shah Alam II, in favour of 
Sayyid Arshad All and others to the efiect that an income of 45,781 darns was conferred upon them from the 
jagir of the Pargana of Amroha, Sarkar Sambhal, Subah Daru-1-Khilafat Shahjahanabad. It IB dated the 
7th year (1765-1766 A.D.) of the reign of Shah Alam II. 

4. Portrait representing Akbar and Jahangir shooting tigers. 

5. Thirty broken pieces of marble JdU work. 

6. Bound Volume of " the Punjabee ", a weekly newspaper published from Lahore m 1857. 

7. Twenty-three Persian tiles (from Mr. H. Nelson Wright's collection). 

8. Eight Persian vases (from Mr. H. Nelson Wright's collection) 

9. Tapestry carpet. 

10. Portrait of Begum Samru. 



264 

APPENDIX B contd. 
LIST or COINS ACQUIRED FOR THE DELHI MESEUM DURING THE YEAR 1924-25 



Hiilor'H name. 


Dynasty 


Gold 


Silver 


Copper. 


TOTAL. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 





PKKSHNTKD 












The (ionrnment of the United ProviiWtH 












Alauddiu Muhammad Shah II 


Khalji 




1 


3 


4 


(ihiyafltiddm TiiKhla<| 


Tiighlaq 




1 




1 


Huam Baicjia . ... 


King of Khorusan . 




1 




1 


Babar . - . 


Mughal 




1 




1 


llumnvnn 


Do . 




1 




1 


Akbar . ... 


Do . 




2 




2 


Jahan^ir .... ... 


Do 




2 




2 


Shahjnhan ...... 


Do 




r 




5 


A I 


Do. 




is 




15 


Shah Alam Bahadur Shah I 


Do . 




:i 




3 


Jabaadar Shah 


Do. . 




2 




2 


Farrukhftiyar . 


Do 




5 




r, 


Muhammad Shah . ... 


Do 




10 




Hi 


Ahmad Shah . 


Do . 




2 




2 


AUmairll 


Do 
Do 




1 

27 




I 

27 


The Punjab Government. 














Mughal 









2 




Do 




o 




2 




Do 




1 




1 




Do . 




J 




1 














Finmbay Branch Royal Astattr Society. 












S'ltthjftimn 


Mughal ... 




2 




2 


AuruHg/b 


Do .... 




1 




1 








1 




1 
















Carried over 




95 


3 


98 



265 
APPENDIX B contd. 



Rufer'i name. 


Dynasty. 


Gold 


Silver. 


Copper. 


TOTAL. 


] 


2 


3 


4 


r> 


(* 




Brought forward 




ft> 


8 


08 


The Director of Industries, Central Provinces. 


Muelial .... 




7 




7 




Do ... 




1 




] 


Muhammad Shah bm Latif 8hah .... 
Ahmad Shah II ... . 
HoshaafShah 

Kalyan Das of BaretUy. 
Qutbuddm Mubarak fehah 

Mr. H. kelson Wrtgkt. 
Sultans of Delhi . . " . 


King of Gujr&t 
Bahmanis .... 
King of Malwa 

Khalj. 
(Unclaerifiwl coins) 




1 


10 
4 

J,.M4 


1 
JO 
4 

1 
1.344 


O LQAXT F80M THX DlBBOTOB GKHKBAI. OT 

AAOHJKJI.OOY 
Muhammad bin Sam ...... 


Slave . . 
Do ... 


4 


6 

5 




10 
5 




Do 




1 






Rau 


Do 
Do 




1 




1 
1 




Do. ... 




-, 




2 


Noairuddin Mahmud 
Gbiyasuddin Balban . . . . 
Muizzuddin Ktuqubad ... 


Do 
Do. 
Do. . 
Do 


1 


<4 
;i 
G 

1 




1C 

4 
U 








3 




3 




Ohaznawid . 




] 




1 




Durrani . . 








1 




Khalj i 


2 


5 




7 




Do 


3 


21 




24 




Do .... 


3 


4 




7 
















Canted over 


10 


174 


1,301 


1,000 



APPENDIX B contd. 



Ruler'* name. 


Dynwty. 


Gold 


Silver 


Copper 


TOTAfc. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




Brought forward 


16 


174 


1,361 


1,600 


ON LOAN FROM THE DlBBOTQB QXKVBAZ. OF 

AmoH^oiiOor condct. 


Kh*lji . 








1 




Do. . . 


1 






J 


Ghiyftftuddm Tughlaq . .... 


TuRhlaq 


8 


10 




18 


Muhammad bin Tughlaq 


Do .... 


21 


13 


1 


35 


Fath Khan, Firoz Shah 


Do 


8 




1 


9 


GhiyaBuddin Tughlaq 11 ... 


Do ... 


t 






1 
1 


Muhammad bin v irnx . .... 


Do ... 


1 


1 




2 


QhiyaHtiddiu Mtvhnaud . .... 


Do. ... 


3 


1 




4 


NuwatShab. . .... 


Do ... 


1 






1 


Zafar Khan, Firo? Shah 


Do 


1 






1 


Mubarak Shah - . . 


Savvul 




1 




1 


Muhammad bin Kand 


Do . 


1 






1 


Sber Shnh 


Sui 




75 




75 


Islam bhali 


Do .... 


1 


48 




49 


Mubanunad Add Sliah ... 


Do .... 


1 


10 




11 


Hikandar . ... 


Do 




1 




1 


Akbar .... . 


Mughal .... 
Do. . 


2 


9 
3 


4 


15 
3 


Shah ahan 


Do 




!) 




t> 


Auranpzub . . 


Do 


H 


lit 




27 


Shah Alain Bahadur 8hah . . 


Do .... 


8 


2 




10 


Jahandar Shah ... ... 


Do .... 




2 




2 


Farrukhwyat ... ... 


Do .... 




1 




1 


Muhammad Shah ... ... 


Do 


12 


17 




29 


Ahmad Mhah 


Do 


1 


7 




8 


Alawgir 11 


Do 


4 


3 




7 


Sbahjahan 111 


Do .... 




1 




1 


Shah Alain 11 


Ik) 
Io 


3 


20 
2 




23 

2 
















GRAND TOTAL 


102 


429 


1,368 


MW 



267 

APPENDIX B contd: 
IList of exhibits acquired for the Taj Museum, Agra during the year 1924-25. 

PRESENTED. 
Mr. H. R. Ntxttt. 
One Marahta GUI). 

PURCHASED. 

1. A sanad issued by Amjad Khan, the Sadru-s-Sadur of Shah Alam Bahadur Shnh appointing one Hatiz 
Muhammad Hasan to teaoh the Quran to new Muslim converts at the tomb of the Empctoi Shahjahan (i.f. t 
the Taj). 

2. 22 Photographic vie\\s of the floods of 1924 

3. A sanad issued under the seal impression of Abdul Haq, an official of the Emperor Auiang/eb, in lavouT 
ofaladyBibi Zohra and others granting 100 bighas of land from the Pargana of Jhajjat Subah Daru-1- 
Khilafat Shahjahanabad as a means of livelihood. The sanad is dated the 46th yeat of the reign of Aurangzob. 

List of antiquities found at Taxila and added to the Museum during 

the year 1924-25. 

Sir leap- - 

Tenacotta and potteries, consisting of gharas, handi, lota, cups, lamps, wheels, toy, 

human figures and animals, spindle whirls, brioks, etc 404 

Stone objects, consisting of caskets, cups, cunystones, pestles, plaques, spindle whirl, 

etc 64 

Copper and Bronze objects, consisting of pans, ladles, cups, goblets, rings, ant imony 

lods, incense burnt rs, hair-pins, etc . ....... 87 

Iron consisting of wheels, pans, nails, keys, picLaxs, hammers, arrow-heads, jarnper, 

chisels, bells, stables, etc 75 

Gold, consisting of ear-rings, necklace, pendants, beads, bangles, seals, etc. . . 12 

Silver consisting of hngei ring, and bangles . 3 

Lead, antimony painter .... ...... 1 

Stucco objects (Jleadrf, etc ) 4 

Glass and miscellaneous objects, consisting of fragments of bangles, crucibles, mi<:a> 

etc 43 

Shell and bone objects consisting oi fragments of bangles, stands, hail divides, JHJIB, 

playing dice, oouric, mother of pearl, etc ....... 7ti 

Beads, pendants and gems of various shapes consisting of agate, cornelian, shell, lapis- 

lazuli, glass, ivory, chalcedony, amethyst, garnets, etc 242 

ijBAtr Mound 

Terracotta and potteries water bottles, gharas, dram pipes, pedestals, miniature 
ghara, jar, etc , handi, flask, tumblers, cups, lamps, lids, spindle whirls, toy, 

human figure and animals, etc. . oi; 

Stone objects curry stone, pestles, spindle whirl, potters' dabber, touch-stone, grind- 

x ing stone, wheels, etc .39 

Ooppur and broniie objects, consisting of bangles, antimony rods, nails, rods, etc. 58 

Silver-ring 1 

Lead-hook and scroll .... . . 2 

2o 



268 

APPENDIX 

s, tods, elephant's goad, arrow-heads, olarnps, axes, knives, square stool, etr. 38' 

Glass and miscellaneous objoots, fragments of bangles, raioa, etc ..... 23 

Beads, pendants ana gems, etc , of various utonefl ....... 145 

Bono and Hhell objects, consisting of arrow-heads, hair dividers, reels, placing dice, 

fragments of bangles eto .......... 91 



Terracotvta and potteries lids, cups, lamps, lotas, Bpmdle whirl, eto. ... 36 

Stone, ball and Gandhara head ......... . 2 

Btiads and gems of glass, agate, cornelian, eto. ....... 14 

Shell and bone objects, mother of pearl and coune ....... 4 

Metal Bronze, ear-ring ........... 1 

Iron, ring and sickle . ........ 2 

Fragments of glass objects . ..... , . . 3 

List of coins purcJtased for the Tamla Museum. 

Silver com of Auilises ............ 1 

Silver coin of Agathokles ........... 1 

Silver coin of A^is I ........... . 1 

Silver punch -marked coins . ........ 12 

TOTAL . 16 



269 



APPENDIX 
LIST OF COINS UNEARTHED AT TAXILA. 



Gold 



Coppci 



Shtr Mound. 

Punch-marked coin* .... 
Local Taxila ..... 
Illegible 

Sirkap. 

Local Taxila 

Ai>ollodotaB ...... 

Menander ...... 

Stralo 

Diotnedee .... 

Hermaios ....... 

Mauoe . 

Azis I 

AzisII 

Aria with Aapav&rma .... 

Gondopharee 

Abdagasee 

Hermaios with Kadphiaen . 

Kadphiae* 

Kaniahka 

VaBtideva 

Rajuvala ... . 
Illegible 

fieri stupa 

Looal Taxila 

SotarMeg*. 



4 
18 
2 



1 
1 

5 

5 

31 

58 

1 

16 

90 
102 



IS 

2 



16 
1 

30 

102 

3 

1 

2 

41- 



Illegible 



Bvjran. 



270 



APPENDIX G. 

Additions to Departmental Libraries. 



Namo of office. 


1'xiok* purchaMt^d 


Books presented 


TOTAL. 


REMARKS. 


Director (Jonoral .... 


IK. 


1J5* 


251 


* Include* 90 received in 
exchange 85 journals 
weir aho received. 


Not them Oirc-le 










Miiiiamiuiulan nnd Bntinh Monu- 

IHMltH 


27 


22 


49 




Hitidu ii nd Buddhist MonuomnUi 


47 


20 


<)7 




J-'i'Mili'M Circle 


7 


ir 


22 




\V>.n>in (irclc 


:io 


S4 


70 




(Vnttu'dicfci 


25 


21 


40 




Ka-toru l)iKlc> 


06 


85 


151 




Southern rude 


3 


:u 


37 




TlurnmCiitU' 
GOT. fi itiuent EpigrajihiBt 


28 
118 


I27t 

88 


Uf, 
200 


t lacludo-* (>1 prest-nteil 
by the CJ'Jvrmmont of 
Sioni 


AfcniHtiit ArohfD(>lo(iioa] Sujxsnnten- 
dent for Epigrajdiy, 8<mthern 
( m Ic- 


74 


58J 


132 


% Included 25 icceived in 
exchange 


Ai *- hieologu'dl Cht-rnist 


15 


13 


2S 




ArLtuBtilcgirut S*t'tion, Indian 


160 


7 


197 





MOIIVM X S-26~30>8.27 600. 




I'AIJAK; 1>HAMMAVAKJKA 1'MiGBA, 











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!) TAMI.A THK 



MOHCNJO-DARO 




MonENTOl>AHO CONTOIK IM.VN OF \NrJISTSlIl-S 




MOHKNJO- D.VMO ; WBM^PRBSKKVKO I,NTK VAHR 

KXr.VVATFONH. 



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